地理科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (2): 252-258.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.02.009

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技术机会、行业异质性与大城市创新集聚——以北京市制造业为例

孙瑜康1(), 李国平2(), 席强敏3   

  1. 1. 首都经济贸易大学城市经济与公共管理学院, 北京 100070
    2. 北京大学政府管理学院, 北京 100087
    3.南开大学中国特色社会主义经济建设协同创新中心, 天津 300071
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-20 修回日期:2018-02-08 出版日期:2019-02-10 发布日期:2019-02-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孙瑜康(1988-),男,山东莱阳人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为区域经济与区域规划。Email:sunyukang521@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41671120,71733001,41371005)、国家社会科学基金青年项目(15CJY055)资助

Technical Opportunity, Industry Heterogeneity and Innovation Agglomeration in Metropolis: Taking the Manufacturing Industry of Beijing as an Example

Yukang Sun1(), Guoping Li2(), Qiangmin Xi3   

  1. 1.School of Urban Economics and Public Administration, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing 100070, China
    2. School of Government, Peking University, Beijing 100087, China
    3. Collaborative Innovation Center for China Economy, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
  • Received:2017-12-20 Revised:2018-02-08 Online:2019-02-10 Published:2019-02-10
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41671120, 71733001, 41371005), Youth Program of National Social Science Fundation of China (15CJY055).

摘要:

引入技术机会理论,解释大城市内部不同行业创新活动的空间分布差异,以北京市为例进行实证检验。研究发现:不同技术层次产业的创新活动在城市内部表现出不同的区位选择。除汽车制造业外的大多数高技术产业的创新活动高度集聚在中心城区;中技术产业的创新活动开始由中心城区向近郊区扩散,低技术产业的创新活动主要分布在远郊区。 行业间创新活动空间分布的差异主要由技术机会来源差异造成。大部分高技术产业的技术源于基础研究、产业间知识溢出、高技术劳动力,往往靠近大学或中心城区;对中技术产业来说,基础研究的影响并不像对高技术产业那样显著;对低技术产业来说,技术机会主要源于本产业的技术反馈,创新部门更倾向于分布在郊区的制造业集群中。

关键词: 创新集聚, 城市内部, 技术机会, 行业异质性

Abstract:

The innovation activities are mainly concentrated in large cities, but the existing studies can not explain the differences of distribution of innovation activities in particular intrametropolitan spaces well. In order to solve this problem, using the technology opportunity theory, this study put forward an agglomeration formation mechanism of the intrametropolitan innovation activities from the perspective of industry heterogeneity. Taking Beijing as an example, we examined the mechanism of the relationship between technological opportunities and innovation distribution empirically. According to the study, the general rule of innovation agglomeration of different industries in large cities is found: 1) The innovation activities of most high-tech industries other than automobile manufacturing are highly concentrated in the central urban area; But to the mid-tech industries, their innovation activities begin to spread from the central urban area to the suburbs, and the large industrial park in the suburbs become the main gathering places. The innovation activities distribution of low-tech industry are mainly distributed in the outer suburbs and presents the characteristics of “total dispersion and local concentration”. 2) The differences in spatial distribution of innovation activities among industries are mainly caused by the differences in the source of technological opportunities. Most high-tech industries’ technological opportunities come from basic research, knowledge spillover among industries and high skilled labour pool, so it is often close to universities or downtown, except automobile manufacturing industry, whose technological opportunities are mainly get from the technical feedback of itself; To the mid-technology industry, the influence of basic research is not so significant as to the high technology industry, but knowledge spillover among industries, high skilled labour and the technical feedback from itself have an obvious effect on their innovation, so they begin to spread from the universities and central urban area. At the same time, technical opportunities of the low-tech industries are mainly derived from the technical feedback of the industry, so its innovation department is more inclined to locate in the suburban manufacturing clusters.

Key words: innovation agglomeration, intramtrpolitan, technological opportunities, industrial heterogeneity

中图分类号: 

  • K901.8/F062.3