地理科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (11): 1691-1701.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.002

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传统村落空间布局的图式语言研究——以张谷英村为例

李伯华1,2,3, 郑始年1,2, 刘沛林1,2,3, 窦银娣1,3   

  1. 1.传统村镇文化数字化保护与创意利用技术国家地方联合工程实验室,湖南 衡阳 421002
    2.辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院,辽宁 大连116029
    3.衡阳师范学院城市与旅游学院,湖南 衡阳 421002
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-31 修回日期:2018-10-25 出版日期:2019-11-10 发布日期:2020-01-09
  • 作者简介:李伯华(1979-),男,湖北黄冈人,教授,博士,硕导,主要从事乡村人居环境研究。E-mail: libeny_2058@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41571161);国家自然科学基金(41501191);湖南省自然科学基金(2018JJ3009);湖南省社会科学基金重点项目(17DB054);湖南省社会科学基金项目(18YBA052);湖南省社会科学基金项目(18JD07);湖南省教育厅重点项目(18A334);国家地方联合工程实验室开放基金资助(CTCZ18K06)

Pattern Language of the Spatial Arrangement of Traditional Villages: A Case Study of Zhangguying Village

Li Bohua1,2,3, Zheng Shinian1,2, Liu Peilin1,2,3, Dou Yindi1,3   

  1. 1.National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory on Digital Preservation and Innovative Technologies for the Culture of Traditional Villages and Towns, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China
    2.College of Urban and Environment Science, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning, China
    3.College of City and Tourism, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China
  • Received:2018-05-31 Revised:2018-10-25 Online:2019-11-10 Published:2020-01-09
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41571161);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41501191);Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province(2018JJ3009);Key Program of Social Science Foundation of Hunan Province(17DB054);Social Science Foundation of Hunan Province(18YBA052);Social Science Foundation of Hunan Province(18JD07);Key Program of Education Department of Hunan Province(18A334);Open Foundation of National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory(CTCZ18K06)

摘要:

以中国传统村落张谷英村为研究对象,从景观基因理论视角对张谷英村进行空间要素识别和空间解构,构建张谷英村空间布局的图式语言体系,通过对空间布局的秩序、语法和意义的研究,探索了空间布局的嵌套结构、过程机理及逻辑脉络。研究表明: 张谷英村空间布局可划分为居住空间、连接空间、附属空间和复合空间,归纳提取 “字”“词”和“词组”共86种图式语汇,构建了空间布局的图式原型数据库。 建立张谷英村空间布局图式语言体系,该体系具备完整的图式语言逻辑,其发展模式和空间秩序始终遵循着宗法礼制思想和传统伦理道德。 张谷英村空间布局图式语言具有完整而稳定的设计句法和语法,图式语汇丰富,句法组合类型多样,语法结构则相对单一,形成了局部复杂多变,整体相对单一的村落空间布局。 村落空间结构及元素细节在发展中不断进行修正和改变,空间布局表现出极高的整理性、顺应性和一致性。 村落空间构建元素和设计理念地方特色鲜明,图式语言的语汇及空间法则具有强烈的地域性特征。

关键词: 传统村落, 基因, 图式语言, 语法, 张谷英村

Abstract:

The spatial form and combination characteristics of traditional villages contain strong regional cultural genes which make the typical and modal spatial layout, and form unique spatial pattern language. Based on the basic theory of pattern language and landscape genes, taking Zhangguying Village as the research object, this article carries on the spatial element recognition and the landscape gene extraction to the traditional village, and then constructs the pattern language system of the spatial layout of Zhangguying village. This article studies the splicing, transformation and nesting of horizontal and vertical dimensions, and explores the nested structure, process mechanisms and logical context of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village which provides a new theoretical method and research idea for the protection and sustainable development of traditional villages in China. The results show that: 1) Through analyzing the spatial deconstruction and landscape genes of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village, the spatial layout can be divided into living space, connecting space, subsidiary space and compound space. By generating and extracting 86 kinds of spatial design vocabulary, a graphic prototype database for spatial layout of Zhangguying Village has been established. Each type of spatial design vocabulary has its own characteristics and connected with each other. 2) By spatial nesting the schema vocabulary of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village, teasing out the spatial lexicon, spatial syntax and spatial grammar followed in the nesting process, this paper established the pattern language system of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village. This system has integrated graphic language logic, and its development pattern and space order always followed the patriarchal etiquette system and traditional ethics. 3) The spatial layout pattern language of Zhangguying Village has complete and stable design syntax and grammar. The space design language is rich in vocabulary, and the combination types of syntax are multiplex, but the grammatical structure is relatively single. The overall space is mostly formed by continuous "copying" and "pasting" the same or similar basic space elements which follow a fixed pattern. Special spatial relationship forms the village spatial layout with partly complex & changeable and the whole relatively single. And a lot of rhetorical devices have been used in the layout of village space. 4) The spatial layout of Zhangguying Village is influenced by the geographical environment greatly. The village space construction elements and design ideas have strong regional color. The vocabulary and space law of pattern language also have distinctive local characteristics.

Key words: traditional villages, gene, pattern language, grammar, Zhangguying Village

中图分类号: 

  • K901