地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 112-118.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.014

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“人口回流”视角下的中部地区乡村振兴——对湖北“毛嘴模式”的实证

刘达, 林赛南, 李志刚(), 刘凌波   

  1. 武汉大学城市设计学院/湖北省人居环境工程技术研究中心, 湖北 武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-23 修回日期:2019-10-11 出版日期:2020-01-10 发布日期:2020-03-17
  • 通讯作者: 李志刚 E-mail:zhigangli@whu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘达(1993-),女,广东珠海人,博士研究生,主要从事城市空间与城市地理研究。E-mail: da_liu@whu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771167);国家自然科学基金项目(41801156)

Return Migration and Rural Revitalization in Central China:A Case of Maozui, Hubei Province

Liu Da, Lin Sainan, Li Zhigang(), Liu Lingbo   

  1. School of Urban Design/Hubei Habitat Environment Research Center of Engineering and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China
  • Received:2019-07-23 Revised:2019-10-11 Online:2020-01-10 Published:2020-03-17
  • Contact: Li Zhigang E-mail:zhigangli@whu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771167);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801156)

摘要:

采用质性研究方法,以中部地区湖北的“毛嘴模式”为例,围绕武汉汉正街与仙桃毛嘴镇的城乡联系问题,研究人口回流及返乡创业所带动的地方发展,解析其对乡村振兴的重要作用。研究发现:①劳动力回流受家庭需求、家乡发展环境等多重因素影响;资本回流的主要影响因素是雇佣“本地化”劳动力,也涉及城市更新及其“外部性”效应的间接影响;②技能型劳动力回流以及企业家在城-乡间的高频流动,有利于发挥流动人口的“桥梁”作用;③回流人口主要从事与之前就业相关的行业,倾向于在镇区或市区购买商品房,促进了乡村经济转型,同时利于社会资本的培育,重塑了乡村社会空间。

关键词: 人口回流, 乡村振兴, 中部地区, 毛嘴模式

Abstract:

Urban to rural return migration is a new phenomenon which provides a new perspective to understand the transformation of rural-urban relations in China. In the last decades, the substantial increasing number of urban to rural return migrants has attracted wide concerns among policymakers, society and academia. However, little attention has been given to understand the process of return migration and their influences on local developments, especially from the perspective of origin place. Hanzhengjie, located in the central city of Wuhan, was a famous street with a long history of business and trading. After the Reform Era began in the late 1970s, it attracted a great deal of clothing industry workers and entrepreneurs from Maozui. Since 2011, with the government’s efforts to redevelop Hanzhengjie from ‘low-end’ to ‘high-end’, many small factories have been forced to move out. Maozui, a small town of Xiantao City, Hubei Province, seized the opportunity to receive the industry relocated from Hanzhengjie to achieve its local development. Followed by industrial relocation, many migrants returned to Maozui. In this context, based on a series of fieldwork conducted in Maozui and Hanzhengjie during 2018 and 2019, this article examines the different return process of rural labor force and capitals, and interrogates the important roles of return migration and returning entrepreneurial activities in relation to rural revitalization. The findings include: 1) The return migration is marked by a process of the ‘localization’ of rural labor force and capital. The return of labor force is motivated by multiple factors such as family reunion, local opportunities and both living environment. ‘Localized’ labor force becomes the main driving force of return capital. 2) The return skilled migrants and entrepreneurs who keep moving back and forth between city and rural areas aim to capture the new market opportunities. They act as a ‘bridge’ to transfer knowledge, capital and culture from urban to rural areas. 3) Most of the returnees work in industries related to their previous employment and prefer to buy commodity housing in the central town instead of their original village. It promotes the transformation of rural economy and reconstructs the rural social space. These results indicate that the dynamic role of return migrants in central China as agents of information transfer and entrepreneurship. Geographic research on urban-rural relations and rural revitalization should focus more on the complexity and dynamics of return migration and explore the interactive mechanism of return migration and the transformations or reconstruction of villages and towns.

Key words: return migration, rural revitalization, central China, Maozui Model

中图分类号: 

  • K901.2