地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (3): 486-496.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.03.017

• • 上一篇    

1990-2015年喜马拉雅山冰川变化的遥感监测及动因分析

冀琴1,2, 董军3, 刘睿1, 肖作林1, 杨太保2()   

  1. 1. 重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院/GIS应用研究重庆市重点实验室,重庆401331
    2. 兰州大学资源环境学院冰川与生态地理研究所,甘肃 兰州 730000
    3. 重庆商务职业学院,重庆401331
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-09 修回日期:2019-04-23 出版日期:2020-03-10 发布日期:2020-05-13
  • 通讯作者: 杨太保 E-mail:yangtb@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:冀琴(1987-),女,山西大同人,讲师,主要从事3S技术应用研究。E-mail: yunngy@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41801063);重庆市教委科学技术研究项目(KJQN201800541);重庆市教委科学技术研究项目(KJQN201900548);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(16YJCZH061);重庆商务职业学院科研项目资助(2019XJKTYB07)

Glacier Changes in Response to Climate Change in the Himalayas in 1990-2015

Ji Qin1,2, Dong Jun3, Liu Rui1, Xiao Zuolin1, Yang Taibao2()   

  1. 1. College of Geography and Tourism, Key Laboratory of GIS Application, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China
    2. Institute of Glaciology and Ecogeography, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
    3. Chongqing Business Vocational College, Chongqing 401331, China
  • Received:2019-01-09 Revised:2019-04-23 Online:2020-03-10 Published:2020-05-13
  • Contact: Yang Taibao E-mail:yangtb@lzu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801063);The Science and Technology Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission(KJQN201800541);The Science and Technology Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission(KJQN201900548);Humanity and Social Research Project of Education Ministry to Young Scholars(16YJCZH061);Scientific Research Project of Chongqing Business Vocational College(2019XJKTYB07)

摘要:

采用Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI影像数据,结合比值阈值法与目视解译提取冰川边界,分析了喜马拉雅山冰川在1990-2015年的进退变化。结果表明:近25 a来喜马拉雅山冰川整体呈退缩趋势,冰川面积由23 229.27 km2减少至20 676.17 km2,共减少2 553.10 km2,退缩率为10.99%,研究时段喜马拉雅山冰川加速退缩,尤其是近5 a来,加速退缩的趋势尤为显著。研究区冰川主要分布在海拔4 800~6 200 m范围内,且随着海拔升高冰川分布面积呈先增加后减小趋势,综合分析喜马拉雅山山体海拔特征可知,5 200~5 600 m很可能是研究区的“第二大降水带”。依据山岳冰川分布特征,我们将研究区冰川分为山谷冰川、冰斗冰川、冰斗-山谷冰川、悬冰川和平顶冰川,其中悬冰川的数量最多,山谷冰川的分布面积和平均规模最大。结合研究区周边气象格点数据,同时以12a为滞后期发现,近25a来喜马拉雅山冰川持续退缩很可能是气温升高和降水减少共同作用的结果,且未来十几年内冰川仍可能处于持续退缩的状态。

关键词: 喜马拉雅山, 遥感技术, 冰川进退, 动因分析

Abstract:

Variations in glaciers in response to climate change in the whole Himalayas, which is located in the central southwestern part of the Tibetan Plateau, were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+), Operational Land Imager (OLI), and meteorological data collected over the past 25 years. The results suggest that there were approximately 12 211 glaciers covering an area of 23 229.27 km2 in 1990. The total ice cover retreated by approximately 10.99%, with an annual percentage of area change (APAC) of nearly 0.44%/a during the period of 1990-2015. Based on the analysis of meteorological data, glacier shrinkage in the Himalayas can probably be attributed to the increase in air temperature and reduce in precipitation and the glaciers will continue to rapidly shrink in the next several years. The maximum area shrinkage occurred in 2.0-5.0 km2 in the Himalayas, with the overall number of glaciers was reduced in the period of 1990-2015, whereas glacier in the size class <0.2 km2 increased in area and the total number of glaciers increased significantly over 25 years; The largest glaciers in the area show a maximum elevation of about 5 200-5 600 m in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015. All glaciers, regardless of their orientation, have shrunk, but south facing retreated faster than those facing others directions, which indicated that glaciers on this aspect were more sensitive to climate changes in the Himalayas.

Key words: the Himalayas, remote sensing, glacier variations, motivation analysis

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6