地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (7): 1062-1071.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.003

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渔民视角下中国南海的领域构建

刘云刚1(), 刘玄宇2(), 张争胜1   

  1. 1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广东 广州 510631
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广东 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-15 出版日期:2020-07-10 发布日期:2020-12-07
  • 作者简介:刘云刚(1973−),男,内蒙古呼和浩特人,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市地理学、政治地理学、生活空间论。E-mail: ygliu@scnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571130, 41271165)资助

The Territorial Structure in South China Sea from Fishermen's Perspective

Liu Yungang1(), Liu Xuanyu2(), Zhang Zhengsheng1   

  1. 1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, Guangdong, China
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2018-12-15 Online:2020-07-10 Published:2020-12-07
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571130, 41271165).

摘要:

南海的战略态势对中国经济和安全利益具有重大影响。基于对中国海南省渔民的实地调研,探讨了不同权力主体在南海的领域化过程及其中渔民的能动作用。结果表明:中国的南海主权边界明晰,具有历史延承性,但近代空间行为主体的多元化,多重领域相互叠置,使得南海的领域矩阵呈现出多尺度复合性和权力逻辑复杂化的特点,进而诱发不同层次领域间的潜在冲突和不稳定性。着眼于其中渔民自下而上的主体作用,探讨渔民基于生存动机和日常生活实践,对南海家园式的领域化,这种行为使渔民成为国家领域空间秩序的维护者,也因其特有的族群惯习,对国家的领域治理结构形成挑战。

关键词: 中国南海, 领域建构, 渔民, 领域政治

Abstract:

Among China’s unresolved frontier questions, the South China Sea (SCS) has become the most complex and troubled, and arguably the most significant and disconcerting. The economic and security stakes are high and the stake-holding states are numerous and diverse. Mainstream medias and a substantial body literature have paid active attention to islands sovereignty and maritime demarcation from the perspective of legal theory and historical geography. In the same vein, there is another noticeable phenomenon that, along with the continuously maritime incidents involving regional fishermen, the diplomatic and security tensions between China and its neighbours are trapped into a vicious cycle. This paper provides a perspective in which fishers’ activities constitute a willful agent that works in part to govern the course of the boundary dispute based on field research in Hainan Province. Drawing on Sack' notion of Human Territoriality, we focused on various forms of territorialities and territorial strategies practiced by the power of different subjects. The study shows that China's sovereignty over the SCS has been established in well-defined boundary (nine-dash), and is solidly grounded in history. However, the border and territorial politics in SCS is characterized by complexity and diversified participants since modern times, and the state, fishers and foreign powers have constituted a multi-scalar and multi-agent territorial structure, which has resulted in‘potential conflicts’among various types of territorialization that overlay one another. Furthermore, it is also equally important to note that fishermen are self-motivated actors whose ultimate goal is to make a living. Mobilizing the realist motivation of livelihood and the territorial tactics of cross-border mobilities, this paper suggest that fishers are seeking to reinforce the state objectives of boundary legitimization and defense of claimed waters. The analysis, however, also demonstrates an ambivalent nature of territoriality, with fishers muddling the state interventions through their own conduct and rationale. The government thus faces a delicate task of managing the fishing operation vis-a?-vis the boundary dispute.

Key words: South China Sea, territorial structure, fishers, geopolitics

中图分类号: 

  • K901.6