地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (10): 1601-1609.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.003

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警用视频监控的犯罪转移和效益扩散

柳林1,2(), 李璐3, 周翰林2, 姜超3, 蓝旼轩2   

  1. 1. 广州大学地理科学学院/广州大学公共安全地理信息分析中心,广东 广州 510006
    2. 辛辛那提大学地理系,美国俄亥俄州 辛辛那提市 45221-0131
    3. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院综合地理信息研究中心,广东 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-15 出版日期:2020-10-10 发布日期:2020-12-05
  • 作者简介:柳林(1965-),男,湖南湘潭人,教授,博导,主要从事人文地理、地理信息科学、公共安全等方面研究。E-mail: lin.liu@uc.edu
  • 基金资助:
    广东省自然科学基金研究团队项目(2014A030312010)、国家自然科学基金项目(41531178)、广州市科学研究计划重点项目(201804020016)、国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFB0505500,2018YFB0505503)资助

The Effects of Police CCTV Camera on Crime Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits: A Case Study from Gusu District in Suzhou, China

Liu Lin1,2(), Li Lu3, Zhou Hanlin2, Jiang Chao3, Lan Minxuan2   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Center of GeoInformatics for Public Security, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China
    2. Department of Geography and GIS, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0131, USA
    3. Center of Integrated Geographic Information Analysis, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2019-07-15 Online:2020-10-10 Published:2020-12-05
  • Supported by:
    Research Team Program of the Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong (2014A030312010), Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41531178), Key Project of Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou City, China (201804020016), National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFB0505500, 2018YFB0505503).

摘要:

基于加权转移系数法和双重差分法提出象限统计法,分析了警用治安视频监控对苏州市姑苏区2014—2016年警情数据的犯罪转移和效益扩散现象。研究结果表明,警用治安视频监控设备的安装对于总体犯罪、不同类型案件、不同时段案件均有效益扩散现象,且效益扩散现象比犯罪转移现象更加明显。在案件类型上,盗窃类案件及违反公共秩序类案件的犯罪转移现象较为明显,斗殴类案件次之,而诈骗类案件最不明显。盗窃电动车电瓶类案件的犯罪转移情况相对于盗窃电动车案件更为明显。在时间维度上,节假日和白天的犯罪转移现象更为明显,而工作日和夜晚的效益扩散现象更为明显。

关键词: 视频监控, 双重差分(DID), 加权转移系数(WDQ), 犯罪转移, 效益扩散, 犯罪地理

Abstract:

Ever since the Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) has been widely installed in mainland China, the police CCTV plays an indispensable role in the police strategy. According to the theory of situational crime prevention and the theory of crime prevention through environmental design, the police CCTV cameras should deter the potential offenders by increasing the risk of being exposed or arrested, and thus reduce crime. The crime reduction schemes can lead to crime displacement or diffusion of benefits. The installation of CCTV will not only affect crime in the surveillance areas of CCTV, but also the surrounding environments. Scholars have found that whether CCTV causes crime displacement or diffusion of benefits varies among different crime types. Existing research has applied the weighted displacement quotient (WDQ) to study the effect of crime displacement and diffusion of benefits in many countries. However, WDQ will not work properly when the denominator is equal to zero. Additionally, little research investigates the effect of crime displacement and the diffusion of benefits related to police CCTV in China. This paper attempts to fill the aforementioned research gaps and propose an appropriate approach to assess the impact of CCTV on the surrounding environment in a Chinese city. Based on difference-in-differences (DID) and WDQ, this study introduces a new quadrant estimation method, which displays the result plots after calculating DID between the target area and the control area and DID between the buffer area and the control area. This method not only avoids the problem in WDQ calculation but also exhibits the phenomenon of crime displacement and diffusion of benefits more intuitively. Taking the Gusu district in Suzhou city as the study area, this paper applies this new method to investigate crime displacement and diffusion of benefits related to CCTV from three aspects: all crime, different types of crime, and crimes in the different temporal periods. This study investigates the impact of the police CCTV cameras on crime events from 2014 to 2016 in Gusu. The results show that when any crime reduction at a site could be observed after the open-street CCTV implementation, diffusion of benefits rather than crime displacement was the norm. In terms of variations among crime types, the crime displacement phenomenon of theft is more obvious than all other three types of crime: fraud, fighting, and violation of public order; and electric vehicle battery theft's displacement is more obvious than that of electric vehicle theft. In terms of the temporal variations, the phenomenon of crime displacement is more obvious in holidays and daytime, while diffusion of benefits is more obvious in weekdays and evenings.

Key words: police CCTV, difference-in-differences (DID), weighted displacement quotient (WDQ), crime displacement, diffusion of benefits, Crime Geography

中图分类号: 

  • K90/D917