地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (10): 1698-1709.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.014

• • 上一篇    下一篇

河南省县域学校体系规模、可达性演化特征及其分异

刘凯(), 刘荣增(), 陈亭亭, 聂格格   

  1. 河南财经政法大学资源与环境学院/城乡协调发展河南省协同创新中心,河南 郑州 450046
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-25 出版日期:2020-10-10 发布日期:2020-12-05
  • 通讯作者: 刘荣增 E-mail:liukai106@126.com;rongzengliu@163.com
  • 作者简介:刘凯(1972−),男,河南泌阳人,博士,教授,主要从事地理学哲学、地理信息科学、城市与区域发展研究。E-mail: liukai106@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41771445)、中原基础研究领军人才项目(ZYQR201810122)、国家社会科学基金项目(17BJL065)、河南省科技创新人才支持计划(人文社科类)项目(2018cx004)、河南财经政法大学华贸金融研究院研究课题(HYK-2019007)资助

Scale and Accessibility of School System and Its Spatial Differentiation of Elementary Schools in Henan Province

Liu Kai(), Liu Rongzeng(), Chen Tingting, Nie Gege   

  1. School of Resources and Environment/Center of Urban-Rural Coordinated Development, Henan University of Economics and Law, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan, China
  • Received:2019-02-25 Online:2020-10-10 Published:2020-12-05
  • Contact: Liu Rongzeng E-mail:liukai106@126.com;rongzengliu@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41771445), Central Plains Basic Research Leading Talent Project (ZYQR201810122), National Science Social Foundation of China (17BJL065), Henan Science and Technology Innovation Talent Support Plan (Humanities and Social Science)(2018cx004), Research Project of Huamao Financial Research Institute of Henan University of Economics and Law (HYK-2019007)

摘要:

县域义务教育学校体系规模的合理布局、适龄儿童入学可达性对义务教育公平和均衡发展具有重要意义。采用基尼系数、齐夫指数等方法对泌阳县2004—2016年县域小学学校体系规模空间演化特征、就学可达性变化及其空间分异进行了实证研究。结果表明:研究区县域小学规模两极分化严重,学生和教师的城乡不平衡指数大大增加,首位学校以及位序靠前的学校垄断性增强,学校规模从均衡发展演化为非均衡状态;2016年入学距离在2 km范围内的自然村相比2004年略有降低,距最近完全小学在2 km范围内的自然村出现大幅降低,完全小学大幅减少,服务范围增大,覆盖度出现显著降低;2016年各乡镇学生、教师基尼系数显著增加,全县范围空间分异规律基本一致;相比2004年,2016年地形高度、距乡镇政府所在地距离对自然村入学距离影响显著增强,特别是对最近完全小学入学距离的影响更大。

关键词: 县域义务教育, 教育非均衡性, 入学可达性, 最近完全小学, 河南省

Abstract:

The article adopts Gini coefficient, Ziff index, accessibility analysis and urban-rural imbalance index to empirically study the model of the scale spatial pattern of the urban and rural school system scale of the compulsory education in the central agricultural area of county in Henan from 2004 to 2016. The results show that: 1) The difference in the size of primary schools in the district and county area increased, the polarization was serious, the number of middle suitable size decreased significantly, and the urban-rural imbalance index between students and teachers increased greatly. The Ziff index analysis of order of primary school students in the county shows that the first school and the top schools increased in size and monopoly. 2) Compared with 2004, there was a slight decrease from the natural villages within 2 km specified by the Ministry of Education in 2016; the natural villages were significantly reduced from the nearest complete primary school in 2016. The number of natural villages with a school distance of more than 2 km increased by 2.87, and there was a significant reduction (50.6%) in complete primary schools. And there was a sparse spatial distribution and an increase in the range of services. 3) The coverage of all primary schools in the study area in 2016 was less than that in 2004, but the coverage of complete primary schools decreased significantly, with 1 km coverage reduced by 60%, compared to 2004; and the coverage of 2 km service area decreased by 48%. The 2 km coverage required by the Ministry of Education accounts for only about 40% of the county's area, which did not meet the requirements of the Ministry of Education. 4) The Gini coefficient of students and teachers in the townships in the study area in 2004 was relatively small, but the size of the school and the teachers were in a state of balanced development as a whole, and the Gini coefficient of students and teachers increased significantly in 2016, and the spatial differences were basically consistent. The main part of the townships with large changes in the Gini coefficient is around the county and towns with high level of urbanization. 5) The natural villages in the study area showed the change of elevation with the increase of enrollment distance; the further the distance of admission is, the higher the average altitude is. Compared with 2004, with the increase in altitude from the nearest primary schools and the nearest complete primary schools, an average distance increased significantly. 6) In 2016, compared with 2004, the distance from villages and towns has a greater impact on the access to school, especially on that to the nearest complete primary schools.

Key words: county compulsory education, educational disequilibrium, school accessibility, nearest complete primary school, Henan Province

中图分类号: 

  • K901.3