地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (11): 1784-1794.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.003

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基于图式语言的少数民族传统村落空间布局特征研究

李伯华1,2,3(), 徐崇丽3, 郑始年1,2, 王莎3, 窦银娣1,2,3   

  1. 1.传统村镇文化数字化保护与创意利用技术国家地方联合工程实验室,湖南 衡阳 421002
    2.湖南省人居环境学研究基地,湖南 衡阳 421002
    3.衡阳师范学院城市与旅游学院,湖南 衡阳 421002
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-26 修回日期:2019-10-21 出版日期:2020-11-10 发布日期:2020-11-10
  • 作者简介:李伯华(1979−),男,湖北黄冈人,教授,博士,研究方向为传统村落人居环境研究。E-mail: libeny_2058@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41571161,41501191)、湖南省教育厅重点项目(18A334)、湖南省教育厅优秀青年项目(20B085)、湖南省社会科学基金项目(18YBA052,18JD07)、湖南省自然科学基金项目(2018JJ3009)、湖南省社会科学成果评审委员会项目(XSP20YBC406)、大学生创新创业训练计划(cxcy1936)资助

Spatial Layout Characteristics of Ethnic Minority Villages Based on Pattern Language: A Case Study of Southern Dong Area in Xiangxi as An Example

Li Bohua1,2,3(), Xu Chongli3, Zheng Shinian1,2,  Wang  Sha3, Dou Yindi1,2,3   

  1. 1. National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory on Digital Preservation and Innovative Technologies for the Culture of Traditional Villages and Towns, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China
    2. Research Establishment for Hunan Settlement, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China
    3. College of City and Tourism, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002, Hunan, China
  • Received:2019-06-26 Revised:2019-10-21 Online:2020-11-10 Published:2020-11-10
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571161, 41501191), Key Program of Education Department of Hunan Province (18A334), Scientific Research Project of Education Department of Hunan Province for Outstanding Young People (20B085), Social Science Foundation of Hunan Province (18YBA052, 18JD07), Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2018JJ3009), Review Committee Project of Hunan Social Science (XSP20YBC406), Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program (cxcy1936)

摘要:

选取芋头村、皇都村、高上村及坪坦村4个典型侗族传统村落,以探究不同区域间图式语言的空间嵌套为目的,对侗族传统村落空间布局特征进行分析和总结。研究显示:① 不同侗族传统村落图式语汇类型多样,但互相之间存在共通性。通过对坪坦村进行图式语言空间嵌套,验证了侗族传统村落空间布局图式语言体系的有效性和普适性。② 侗族传统村落始终坚持“顺其自然,因地制宜”的基本理念有序发展,多呈现“水域空间–居住空间–连接空间–公共空间”的空间序列。③ 侗族传统村落整体上表现为以公共建筑为核心,周围建筑呈向心内聚式分布的特点。④ 侗族传统村落发展扩张中始终遵循本土性和秩序性的语法原则,空间要素的设计和布局多以传统风水观为指导。⑤ 传统村落空间布局图式语言体系对于同类型村落的空间修复与更新具有积极作用,其语汇、句法及语法的空间普适性有利于实现传统村落景观风貌的有效保护和可持续发展。

关键词: 传统村落, 少数民族, 图式语言, 空间布局, 南侗

Abstract:

Pattern language refers to the structural and logical nature of language and regards landscape space as an orderly space entirety formed by different elements under a certain logical relationship. There are great differences in the patterns, vocabulary, syntax and grammar of different regional spatial layout. It is of great significance to excavate and analyze the commonness of the elements, combination forms and nesting mechanism among the similar traditional villages in order to realize the efficient protection of traditional villages. Through the analysis of examples, this paper finds that: 1) The spatial layout characteristics of three typical Dong traditional villages, Yutou village, Huangdu village and Gaoshang village, are analyzed. It is found that the vocabulary types of different Dong traditional villages are diverse, but there are similarities among them. On this basis, a pattern language system of Dong traditional villages is constructed. Taking Pingtan village as an example, the spatial nesting of pattern language is carried out, which verifies the validity and universality of the spatial layout pattern language system of Dong traditional villages. 2) Through the analysis of the vocabulary, syntax and grammar of the spatial layout of three typical Dong traditional villages, it is found that the traditional Dong villages have developed orderly in accordance with the basic idea of “letting nature take its course and adjusting measures to local conditions”, presenting the spatial sequence of “water space-residential space-connecting space-public space”. 3) The spatial layout pattern language system of Dong traditional villages has rich and stable vocabulary, syntax and grammar. The overall space is characterized by the centripetal and cohesive distribution of public buildings. 4) The grammatical principles of locality and order are always followed in the development and expansion of villages. In order to achieve the realm of harmony between man and nature, the elements are often designed and laid out with the help of the concepts of Yin and Yang, evil luck and accumulation of Tibetan wind and gas. 5) The spatial renovation and renewal of traditional villages can be based on the construction of pattern language system of spatial layout of the same type of traditional villages, and the generality of vocabulary, syntax and grammar can be applied to the protection and construction of the target villages in order to achieve the effective protection and sustainable development of traditional villages.

Key words: traditional villages, Ethnic Minority, pattern language, spatial layout, Southern Dong Area

中图分类号: 

  • K901