地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (11): 1840-1847.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.009

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贫困地区乡村振兴与精准扶贫有效衔接研究

王永生1,2(), 文琦3, 刘彦随1,2,*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院精准扶贫评估研究中心,北京 100101
    3.宁夏大学资源环境学院,宁夏 银川 750021
  • 收稿日期:2019-02-21 修回日期:2019-07-18 出版日期:2020-11-10 发布日期:2020-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 刘彦随 E-mail:wangys@igsnrr.ac.cn;liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王永生(1985−),男,山东潍坊人,副研究员,主要从事土地工程与现代农业研究。E-mail: wangys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41931293,41801174)资助

Achieving Effective Connection Between Rural Revitalization and Targeted Poverty Alleviation in Poverty-stricken Regions

Wang Yongsheng1,2(), Wen Qi3, Liu Yansui1,2,*()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Center for Assessment and Research on Targeted Poverty Alleviation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    3. School of Resources and Environment, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, Ningxia, China
  • Received:2019-02-21 Revised:2019-07-18 Online:2020-11-10 Published:2020-11-10
  • Contact: Liu Yansui E-mail:wangys@igsnrr.ac.cn;liuys@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China (41931293, 41801174)

摘要:

精准扶贫与乡村振兴是新时代统筹城乡发展的重要途径和根本抓手,基于贫困地区发展历程、扶贫实践及成效梳理,提出了乡村振兴与精准扶贫有效衔接的理论框架,对于指导贫困地区乡村转型与可持续发展具有重要意义。结果表明,对贫困户、贫困县、贫困片区的精准扶贫,能够显著改善乡村地区的生产、生产和生态条件,逐步解决城乡发展不平衡的问题。通过乡村产业、生态、文化、人才、组织振兴,能够激发乡村发展活力、能力、动力和竞争力,解决乡村发展不充分的问题。精准扶贫旨在补齐乡村发展的短板,是乡村振兴的重要基础。乡村振兴可以巩固提升脱贫成果,是精准脱贫的有力保障。因此,在精准扶贫和乡村振兴的交汇期,应同步推进和实施两大战略,按照人?地?业?财的耦合协调状态,设定贫困地区精准脱贫量表,实现贫困地区乡村稳定与持续脱贫,设定县域乡村振兴率、村域居业协同度等指标,为乡村振兴成效评估提供定量考评依据。

关键词: 城乡发展, 乡村衰落, 精准扶贫, 乡村振兴, 有效衔接

Abstract:

Rural is a system with specific structure and function constructed by various interrelations and interactional elements. Rural system exchanges important elements, such as people, capital, technology and information with urban system. Rural and urban are an organic whole. Both urban and rural must be developed sustainably to support each other. In China, rural system decline and rural diseases has become increasingly prominent under rapid urbanization. Rural development is important to urban and regional economic development. Rural areas are still the short boards in China’s urban-rural equalization. Poverty alleviation is a global issue. China has a large number of people living in extreme poverty. China’s rural poverty problem has attracted wide attention from academics at home and abroad due to its various types and complex causes as well as arduous task of anti-poverty. China has been committed to build an all-round well-off society and eliminate the absolute poverty from poor households, impoverished county and poverty-stricken areas by 2020. Government needs to make sure that all the poor people, particularly those with low incomes or disease, benefit from the national targeted poverty alleviation policy. Over the past three decades, China has taken five unconventional measures (Wuge Yipi) to push forward the targeted poverty alleviation strategy, and has achieved the millennium development goal of halving poverty ahead of schedule, making outstanding contributions to global poverty alleviation. China’s rural poor population has dropped from 250 million in 1978 to 70.17 million in 2014 and the corresponding poverty headcount ratio has decreased from 30.7% to 7.2%. Under conditions of rapid urbanization, rural revitalization is needed to improve rural decline and rural poverty. Currently, Central government has initiated rural revitalization strategy to make up the weakness of urban and rural harmonious development. China’s rural revitalization projects, including investments in infrastructure, energy, irrigation and new technologies have proven an effective poverty reduction strategy. A three-year alternating period before 2020 is not only the critical of poverty alleviation but also the basis of rural revitalization. Rural revitalization is the important way to coordinate urban and rural development in the new era. Targeted poverty alleviation can provide the foundation and energy to rural revitalization. Effectively integrate rural poverty alleviation with rural revitalization plays crucial role in the development of poverty-stricken regions. Rural areas have abundantly land resources while characterized by poor agricultural infrastructure, fragmented cultivated land, declined land quality and lower land productivity. Targeted poverty can solve the imbalance of urban-rural development through improving rural production, living and ecological environment. China’s rural revitalization strategy emphasizes the industry, ecology, talent, organization revitalization. Rural revitalization can solve rural underdevelopment through activated vitality, capacity, impetus and competitiveness. Targeted poverty alleviation provides the basis for rural revitalization via eliminating rural development drawbacks. Rural revitalization enhances the performance of targeted poverty alleviation. Synchronized poverty alleviation and rural revitalization will appear until 2020. Rural poverty alleviation will be sustainable eliminated using regional poverty alleviation ruler based on the index of people-land-industry-wealth coordination. And rural revitalization ratio and housing-industry symbiosis degree should be used to evaluate the effectiveness of rural revitalization.

Key words: urban-rural development, rural decline, targeted poverty alleviation, rural revitalization, effective connection

中图分类号: 

  • K901.2