地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (11): 1899-1908.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.015

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滨海城市竖向避难场所选址可靠性评价与若干问题探讨

张威涛1(), 任利剑2,*(), 运迎霞2   

  1. 1.北京交通大学建筑与艺术学院,北京 100044
    2.天津大学建筑学院,天津 300072
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-07 修回日期:2019-11-08 出版日期:2020-11-10 发布日期:2020-12-04
  • 通讯作者: 任利剑 E-mail:zhangwt2015@outlook.com;renlijian@126.com
  • 作者简介:张威涛(1987−),女,天津人,博士,讲师,主要从事城市防灾与土地利用、空间设计研究。E-mail: zhangwt2015@ outlook.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(13&zd162)资助

Siting Reliability Evaluation and Discussion of Vertical Shelter in Coastal Cities: A Case of Port-urban Area in the Binhai New District, Tianjin

Zhang Weitao1(), Ren Lijian2,*(), Yun Yingxia2   

  1. 1. School of Architecture and Art, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
    2. School of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
  • Received:2019-05-07 Revised:2019-11-08 Online:2020-11-10 Published:2020-12-04
  • Contact: Ren Lijian E-mail:zhangwt2015@outlook.com;renlijian@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China (13&zd162)

摘要:

关注滨海城市竖向避难场所的选址可靠性问题,首先深化确立“竖向避难场所”概念;然后构建竖向避难场所选址可靠性评价模型,综合自然地理要素和建成环境要素,从与灾害直接作用相关的选址暴露性、与应急交通相关的选址敏感性、与应急服务相关的选址适应性3个维度展开,搭建3级评价指标体系;再以天津滨海新区为例、聚焦滨海城市潮洪灾害和人口安全矛盾的集核——临港城区展开实证研究,借助ArcGIS分类与可视化发现:高低可靠性选址之间具有明显的空间分异,可以分解为灾害暴露性的“近岸高?远岸低”分异、交通敏感性的“外围高?中心低”分异、服务适应性的“中心与沿河高?外围低”兼“近港高?远港低”分异。同时发现:商业设施用地选址价值较高,在高可靠性选址中占比第一;中小学和社会福利设施用地选址价值最高,在高可靠性选址中占比第二;文化科研和娱乐康体设施用地在高可靠性选址中占比最小。针对临港城区实证研究结果,提出滨海城市竖向避难场所选址及可靠性提升对策。

关键词: 滨海城市, 临港城区, 潮洪灾害, 竖向避难场所, 选址可靠性, 天津滨海新区

Abstract:

‘vertical shelters’ is deeply explored on the summary of vertical shelters’ construction demands. Secondly, a vertical shelter siting reliability evaluation model is derived from the IPCC vulnerability conceptual model. Based on this model, physical geography factors and built environment factors are integrated to build a 3-level evaluation index system. There are 3 dimensions involved in this index system: sitting exposure related to the direct effects of disasters, sitting sensitivity related to emergency transportation, and sitting adaptability related to emergency services. There are 3 primary indexes, 9 secondary indexes, and 17 tertiary indexes forming this system. Thirdly, taking Tianjin Binhai New District as an example, and focusing on the most population located and worst disaster effected area—port-urban area, an empirical research is explored. Using classification and visualization in ArcGIS, it is found that there is an obvious spatial differentiation between higher and lower sitting reliability. It can be decomposed into 3 aspects: Sitting exposure shows ‘offshore is higher and far from the shore is lower’. Traffic sensitivity shows ‘marginal is higher and central is lower’. Service adaptation shows both ‘central and riverine is higher and marginal is lower’ and ‘close to port is higher and far from port is lower’. Meanwhile, it is found that the land for primary and secondary schools and land for social welfare facilities are the backbone of vertical shelter’s sittings with high reliability. The land for commercial facilities is a strong supporter of high-reliability sittings. The lands for cultural and research facilities and for recreation and sport facilities are important supplements of high-reliability sittings. The internal high reliability ratio of all types of land use is less than 20%, so it is very important to promote multiple participation in vertical shelters’ sitting. Among all the sittings, the lower reliability is the most, so it is imperative to improve the reliability of sitting. Finally, this paper proposes the vertical shelters’ sitting and sitting reliability’s improvement strategies in coastal cities.

Key words: coastal cities, port-urban area, tide-flood disaster, vertical shelters, sitting reliability, Tianjin Binhai New District

中图分类号: 

  • TU982