地理科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (1): 109-120.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.012

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中国中小河流气候和下垫面与产汇流过程关系研究

王怀军1,2,3(), 张建云2,3,*(), 王国庆2,3, 曹蕾1, 潘莹萍4, 冯如1   

  1. 1.淮阴师范学院城市与环境学院,江苏 淮安 223300
    2.南京水利科学研究院水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室,江苏 南京 210029
    3.南京水利科学研究院水利部应对气候变化研究中心,江苏 南京 210029
    4.北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-12 修回日期:2020-09-25 出版日期:2021-01-10 发布日期:2021-03-04
  • 通讯作者: 张建云 E-mail:wanghj@hytc.edu.cn;jyzhang@nhri.cn
  • 作者简介:王怀军,(1986-),男,湖南永州人,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为极端气候水文事件。E-mail: wanghj@hytc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1508101);国家自然科学基金项目(41830863);国家自然科学基金项目(41701034)

Relationships Between Climate, Underlying Surface and Runoff Yield and Flow Concentration Processes in China’s Middle and Small Rivers

Wang Huaijun1,2,3(), Zhang Jianyun2,3,*(), Wang Guoqing2,3, Cao Lei1, Pan Yingping4, Feng Ru1   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu, China
    3. Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu, China
    4. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2020-06-12 Revised:2020-09-25 Online:2021-01-10 Published:2021-03-04
  • Contact: Zhang Jianyun E-mail:wanghj@hytc.edu.cn;jyzhang@nhri.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China(2018YFC1508101);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41830863);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41701034)

摘要:

构建340个中小河流域80个气候和下垫面因子,探讨了水文模型模拟效率对环境因子的敏感性,分析了产汇流因子与环境因子的相互关系。结果如下:① 同类型气候和下垫面因子存在显著相关,不同类型环境因子相关系数相对较低;中国中小河流域大致可分为南方地区,北方地区和西北地区;② 将环境因子分类进行主成分分析的方差解释率显著增加,气候、植被和土地利用、土壤、地形的流域分类效果较好,地貌和地质、人类活动和流域形态的分类效果不理想;③ GR4J模型在中国河流的适用性良好,模型效率显著相关的因子主要集中在气候、植被和土壤,其中影响最大的气候和下垫面因子为干燥度、黏土含量和叶面积指数;④ 水文模型参数中,产流水库容量影响因素包括气候、地貌、土壤、地形、人类活动和流域形态;地下水交换系数影响因子为地貌和地质、地形、人类活动;汇流水库容量影响因子主要有植被、土壤、地貌和流域形态;单位线汇流时间的影响因素集中在气候、土壤和流域形态。

关键词: 产汇流, 气候, 下垫面, 中小河流

Abstract:

Our study constructed 80 indices of climate and underlying surface in 340 middle and small river basins of China, as well as explored the sensitivity of hydrological model simulation efficiency to environmental factors, and also discussed the interactions between the process of runoff yield and concentration and environmental factors. We found that: 1) Significant correlations were observed between the same type of climate and the underlying surface factors, while the correlation coefficient of different types of environmental factors was relatively low. In the K-means analysis, the Hopkins Statistic was first used to analyze the agglomeration of all watersheds, and the result showed that the Hopkins statistic was 0.83, indicating that the data is highly aggregated. The middle and small rivers in China could be roughly divided into south region, north region and northwest region; 2) Variance of the principal component analysis for the classified environmental factors increased, the classification effect of climate, vegetation and land use, soil, and terrain for river basins is better, whilst the classification effect of geomorphology, geology, human activities, and watershed morphology was not ideal; 3) GR4J model exhibited good applicability in Chinese rivers, aridity index, clay content and leaf area index showed the greatest impacts on the efficiency of the hydrological model; other environmental factors such as precipitation, elevation and basin area also affected the simulation efficiency of the model; 4) Precipitation, other woodland and leaf area index had the highest correlation with production store capacity (PSC); evapotranspiration, air temperature and sand standard deviation showed the greatest impact on intercatchment exchange coefficient; the proportion of low-cover grassland, the proportion of primitive soil and the proportion of hilly area exhibited the greatest correlation with routing store capacity (RSC), and the environmental factors with the highest correlation with unit hydrograph time constant (UTH) were the wetness index, percentage of tableland and the proportion of arid and deserts soil. Our results indicated that it was feasible to estimate the parameters of the hydrological model from the perspective of climate and underlying surface. Furthermore, the results in this study could provide a basis and reference for the transplantation of hydrological parameters from gauging basin to ungauged basin.

Key words: runoff yield and flow concentration, climate, underlying surface, the middle and small rivers

中图分类号: 

  • F129.9