地理科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (6): 1069-1078.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.016

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陕北丹霞地貌特征及国内外对比研究

潘志新1(), 任舫2,*(), 陈留勤3, 吴昊4, 占义勇3   

  1. 1.海南大学旅游学院,海南 海口 570228
    2.中国地质科学院,北京 100037
    3.东华理工大学地球科学学院,江西 南昌 330013
    4.陕西省矿产地质调查中心,陕西 西安 710068
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-25 修回日期:2021-01-31 出版日期:2021-06-10 发布日期:2021-08-13
  • 通讯作者: 任舫 E-mail:panzhix@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;fren2014@hotmail.com
  • 作者简介:潘志新(1986-),男,江西婺源人,博士,讲师,研究方向为红层与丹霞地貌。E-mail: panzhix@mail2.sysu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41761002);国家自然科学基金项目(41962009);延安丹霞地貌资源评价研究及保护利用项目(201901)

Characteristics of Danxia Landform in the Northern Shaanxi and A Comparison with Other Danxia Areas in and Outside China

Pan Zhixin1(), Ren Fang2,*(), Chen Liuqin3, Wu Hao4, Zhan Yiyong3   

  1. 1. School of Tourism, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, Hainan, China
    2. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China
    3. School of GeoSciences, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, Jiangxi, China
    4. Shaanxi Mineral Resources and Geological Survey, Xi’an 710068, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2020-11-25 Revised:2021-01-31 Online:2021-06-10 Published:2021-08-13
  • Contact: Ren Fang E-mail:panzhix@mail2.sysu.edu.cn;fren2014@hotmail.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41761002);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41962009);The Project of Evaluation Research and the Protection and Utilization of Danxia Landform in Yan’an(201901)

摘要:

通过野外考察,并结合地质资料和样品分析,对陕北丹霞地貌形成的地质构造背景、红层岩性、形态特征、演化过程等进行系统阐述,并与中国东南部湿润区及国外的典型丹霞地貌进行对比,总结其共性和差异。结果表明:陕北丹霞地貌形成的构造环境为大型内陆坳陷盆地——鄂尔多斯盆地,主要成景地层为洛河组紫红色中-细粒长石石英砂岩,形成于早白垩世的干旱沙漠环境,发育大型交错层理,其碎屑颗粒分选性和磨圆度较好,但结构松散,胶结程度较弱,颗粒表面有碟形撞击坑等典型风成砂岩特征。陕北丹霞地貌最显著的特征是顶部有第四纪黄土盖层,形成覆盖型丹霞,地貌发育总体上处于青年期,整体为高原-峡谷景观,发育密集的沟谷群和连续的丹霞崖壁,但孤立的单体地貌较少。陕北丹霞地貌演化过程可划分为早白垩世红层沉积-晚白垩世红层盆地构造抬升和古丹霞发育-古近纪以来间歇式抬升-第四纪黄土覆盖等4个阶段。国内外对比方面,陕北丹霞与中国东南部湿润区的丹霞地貌在构造环境,物质基础,地貌特征等方面差异较显著,但与美国西部的丹霞地貌存在许多相似性。

关键词: 红层, 丹霞地貌, 陕北

Abstract:

The northern Shaanxi is a key region for the distribution of red beds and Danxia landform in China, it has significant differences with Danxia landform in southeast China and abroad. However, few research was concerned with this issue. Based on field investigation and analysis of geologic literature and rock samples, this study focuses on the development of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi from the aspects of geologic background, lithologic characteristics, geomorphic features, and evolution process. Then, a comparison with Danxia landform in the humid southeast China and foreign countries was conducted to summarize their commonalities and differences. It reveals that Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is developed in a large inland depression basin, the Ordos Basin. The dominant red beds for the development of Danxia landform is Luohe Formation, which is mainly composed of medium to fine-grained sandstone and was deposited in an arid desert during Early Cretaceous, and featured by large cross-bedding. Experimental analysis shows that the Luohe sandstones are well-sorted and well-rounded but poorly cemented, typical features of aeolian sandstone such as disc-shaped impact craters are found on surfaces of quartz particles. The most remarkable geomorphic feature of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is that there is a Quaternary loess cap on the top, forming a type of covered Danxia. In terms of landform evolution, Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is generally in young stage, featured by a combination of plateau and canyons, with closely spaced gullies and continuous Danxia cliffs developed, but there are few isolated individual landforms. The developmental process of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi could be divided into four stages: 1) Red beds deposition during Early Cretaceous; 2) Tectonic uplift and the development of paleo-Danxia landform during Late Cretaceous; 3) Intermittent uplift since Paleogene and covered by loess in Quaternary. As for comparison with Danxia landform in other regions at home and abroad, Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi has many differences with those in the humid Southeast China, but it has more similarities with Danxia landform in the western United States. The current theories based on Danxia landform in the humid southeast China cannot well reflect these regional differences, more further comparative research on Danxia landform in and outside China should be conducted, so as to improve our understanding on Danxia landform.

Key words: red beds, Danxia landform, the northern Shaanxi

中图分类号: 

  • P931