地理科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (7): 1139-1148.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.004

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国国家级研学旅行基地空间分布及其影响因素

吴儒练(), 李洪义, 田逢军()   

  1. 江西财经大学旅游与城市管理学院,江西 南昌 330013
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-18 修回日期:2020-10-04 出版日期:2021-07-31 发布日期:2021-09-06
  • 通讯作者: 田逢军 E-mail:alian83@163.com;tianfengj98@163.com
  • 作者简介:吴儒练(1983-),男,江西上饶人,副教授,博士研究生,主要研究方向为旅游地理与城市旅游。E-mail: alian83@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42071068);江西省杰出青年科学基金项目(20171BCB23049);江西省自然科学基金项目(20202BABL205025);江西省教育厅科技项目重点课题(GJJ181052);江西省研究生创新专项资金(YC2020-B124)

The Spatial Distribution and Its Influencing Factors of China’s National Study Travel Base

Wu Rulian(), Li Hongyi, Tian Fengjun()   

  1. School of Tourism and Urban Management, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang 330013, Jiangxi, China
  • Received:2020-08-18 Revised:2020-10-04 Online:2021-07-31 Published:2021-09-06
  • Contact: Tian Fengjun E-mail:alian83@163.com;tianfengj98@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Natural Science Foundation of China(42071068);Outstanding Youth Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province(20171BCB23049);Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province(20202BABL205025);Key Project of Science and Technology Project of Jiangxi Education Department(GJJ181052);Jiangxi Province Graduate Student Innovation Specific Fund Project(YC2020-B124)

摘要:

以教育部公布的581家全国中小学生研学旅行基地为研究样本,运用平均最邻近指数、核密度分析、地理集中度指数、不均衡指数、空间自相关分析、地理联系率、相关性分析等方法,对中国国家级研学旅行基地的空间分布及影响因素进行研究。结果表明:研学旅行基地空间分布不均衡,主要集中于华北、华东地区,具有“环城”“沿路”“近景”分布特征;空间分布密度不均匀,高密度区位于京津冀地区和长三角地区,总体呈“东密西疏”空间格局;在全局空间上存在显著自相关性,热点区位于以北京为核心的京津冀地区,核心-边缘结构特征明显;政策制度环境、经济发展基础、区位交通条件、旅游资源禀赋及教育发展水平是影响研学旅行基地空间分布的主要因素。

关键词: 研学旅行, 研学旅行基地, GIS, 空间分布, 影响因素

Abstract:

In recent years, with the continuous deepening of the integration of tourism and education, study travel in China has developed with a high speed, and has been widely concerned by researches. Study travel bases (STBs) are important space carrier to the development of study travel activities. However, few scholars focused on the spatial distribution of STBs and its influencing factors from the perspective of geography. Thus, 581 national STBs for primary and middle school students published by the Ministry of Education of China in 2017-2018 were selected as the research sample. With the adoption of ArcGIS software, this paper aimed to analyze the type structure, spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of 581 national STBs by using average nearest neighbor index, the kernel density estimation, geographic concentration index, disequilibrium index, spatial autocorrelation analysis and geographical linkage coefficient. Results indicated that: 1) National STBs of China can be roughly divided into ten types, followed as popular science education base, cultural sites, scientific research institutions, museum, national defense and military, ancient villages and towns, nationality arts, red tourism, comprehensive practice base, youth activity center. The main categories are popular science education, museum, and red tourism, accounting for 30.63%, 20.83% and 12.91%, respectively. The spatial distribution of types of STBs in China is unbalanced as different types of STBs have obvious differentiation in space structure characteristics. 2) The spatial distribution of STBs shows the agglomeration and disequilibrium characteristics of ‘more in the east and less in the west’. North China and East China have a large number of STBs, accounting for 21.86% and 25.13%. In terms of the number of each province, Beijing with 75 STBs is far ahead of other provinces. 3) The spatial distribution density of STBs is uneven, including one high density core area, one secondary high density core area and several high agglomeration areas. It shows obviously a core-edge structure and the distribution density decreases gradually from the eastern coastal area to the western inland area. The distribution density around provincial capitals, 5A scenic spots and traffic arteries is relatively higher. 4) There is a significant autocorrelation in the overall space of STBs in China. The cold and hot spots analysis of STBs show the gradient differentiation pattern of ‘hot spots-sub-hot spots-sub-cold spots-cold spots’ and ‘hot-spots-sub-hot spots-cold spots’ from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to the north and south. 5) Policy and institutional environment, economic development foundation, location and transportation conditions, tourism resource endowment and education development level are the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of research and study travel bases. Finally, according to the results of the study, some suggestions are put forward for the development of the STBs. This study can provide a basis for the optimization of space layout and the integration and utilization of research resources of research travel bases in China, and has certain reference value for the formulation of research travel policies at the national level and in different regions.

Key words: study travel, study travel base, GIS, spatial distribution, influencing factors

中图分类号: 

  • F590