地理科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (9): 1525-1535.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.09.004

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设计创意人才的空间集聚及其影响机理研究——基于城市舒适性视角

何金廖1,2(), 彭珏1,3, 胡浩1,2,*()   

  1. 1.华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,上海 200062
    2.华东师范大学城市发展研究院,上海 200062
    3.华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200041
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-16 修回日期:2020-12-24 出版日期:2021-09-25 发布日期:2021-11-17
  • 通讯作者: 胡浩 E-mail:jlhe@iud.ecnu.edu.cn;bsdhao@126.com
  • 作者简介:何金廖(1983-),男,湖南邵阳人,研究员,博导,主要从事城市与经济地理研究。E-mail: jlhe@iud.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42171214);杭州市软科学研究重点项目(20200834M22)

Spatial Agglomeration of Design Creative Talents and Its Driving Factors: Based on the Perspective of Urban Amenities

He Jinliao1,2(), Peng Jue1,3, Hu Hao1,2,*()   

  1. 1. The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2. The Institute of Urban Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    3. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200041, China
  • Received:2020-06-16 Revised:2020-12-24 Online:2021-09-25 Published:2021-11-17
  • Contact: Hu Hao E-mail:jlhe@iud.ecnu.edu.cn;bsdhao@126.com
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(42171214);Major Program of Hangzhou Soft Science(20200834M22)

摘要:

从城市舒适性理论出发,系统梳理了创意人才及其空间集聚过程的相关文献,构建了驱动中国设计创意人才空间集聚的城市舒适性指标体系,通过大数据方法从国内设计师社交平台站酷网获取设计创意人才的属性数据,运用地理集中指数、区位熵、负二项回归方法,深入剖析了中国设计创意人才的空间集聚特征与机理。研究表明:① 中国设计创意人才及其创作在空间上呈现出显著的集聚现象,以北京为主的一线城市最为集中,但杭州、长沙、武汉、郑州这些新兴城市也表现良好,甚至超过部分一线城市;② 城市舒适性理论在解释中国设计创意人才空间集聚时具有很强的解释力,其中文化环境、教育环境和自然环境是影响设计创意人才空间集聚的核心因素;③ 证实了西方创意阶层理论的部分结论,发现文化基础设施、文化遗产、文化旅游、高素质人力资本、温暖的气候与良好的空气质量是提升城市对创意人才吸引力的重要因子,同时发现科研投入对设计创意人才集聚具有明显挤出效应,并且西方学者普遍强调的生活环境舒适性因子对设计创意人才影响有限。为深入理解创意人才的空间过程及其影响机理提供了详实的实证案例,为地方政府改善城市创意环境提供了参考依据。

关键词: 创意人才, 创意产业, 集聚机制, 城市舒适性, 设计师

Abstract:

Creative talents are the new dynamics to urban and regional economic development. However, limited attention was paid to the spatial agglomeration mechanism and driving factors of creative talents. Based on the theory of urban amenities, the paper establishes an index system of urban amenities to the spatial agglomeration of creative talents in design sectors in China. An extensive dataset with over 3 million designers registered in the online platform zcool.com was adopted as the sample for this study. It aims to examine the spatiality of China’s creative talents and its association with urban amenities for cultural production. Using the quantitative methods such as location quotient, geographic concentration index, and the negative binomial regression method, we investigate the characteristics and mechanism of the spatial concentration of Chinese creative designers. The results suggest that: First, the distribution of creative designers shows a significant spatial agglomeration. First-tier cities like Beijing are the most dominated, but emerging cities such as Hangzhou, Changsha, Wuhan, and Zhengzhou are also well-performed, even better than some first-tier cities. Second, amenity-based approach has a strong explanatory power in explaining the agglomeration of Chinese design creative talents. The cultural environment, educational environment, and natural environment are the core factors that affect the agglomeration of design creative talents. Third, this study echoes with some conclusions of the creative class theory. Cultural infrastructures, cultural heritages, cultural tourism, high-quality human capital, warm climate, and good air quality were essential to enhance the city’s attractiveness to creative talents. Simultaneously, it is found that scientific research investment has a significant crowding-out effect on the accumulation of creative talents. The amenity factors of the living environment that were emphasized by Western scholars have a limited impact on agglomeration of creative talents. In conclusion, this research adopted a more inclusive urban amenity theory, and proved that urban amenities matter in the process of concertation of creative designers. It also provides a reference for local governments to promote their brain gain policy for creative talents.

Key words: creative talent, creative industry, agglomeration, urban amenities, designers

中图分类号: 

  • K902