地理科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (1): 1-14.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2022.01.001

• •    下一篇

史前人类探索、适应和定居青藏高原的历程及其阶段性讨论

陈发虎1,2,3(), 夏欢3, 高玉1,2, 张东菊2,3, 杨晓燕1,2,3, 董广辉2,3   

  1. 1.中国科学院青藏高原研究所古生态与人类适应团队,北京 100101
    2.青藏高原地球系统与资源环境国家重点实验室,北京 100101
    3.兰州大学西部环境教育部重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2021-08-06 修回日期:2021-10-09 出版日期:2022-01-10 发布日期:2022-03-21
  • 作者简介:陈发虎(1962-),男,陕西丹凤人,研究员,博导,中国科学院院士,主要从事环境变化和史前人类–环境相互作用研究。E-mail: fhchen@itpcas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41988101);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20040000)

The Processes of Prehistoric Human Activities in the Tibetan Plateau: Occupation, Adaptation and Permanent Settlement

Chen Fahu1,2,3(), Xia Huan3, Gao Yu1,2, Zhang Dongju2,3, Yang Xiaoyang1,2,3, Dong Guanghui2,3   

  1. 1. Group of Alpine Paleoecology and Human Adaptation (ALPHA), Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Tibetan Plateau Earth System, Resources and Environment (TPESRE), Beijing 100101, China
    3. MOE Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental System, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
  • Received:2021-08-06 Revised:2021-10-09 Online:2022-01-10 Published:2022-03-21
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41988101);The Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20040000)

摘要:

系统梳理了近年来的考古发现与研究成果,总结出人类向青藏高原扩散直至定居的5个阶段性发展过程:古老型智人自中更新世晚期就开始了对高原的适应;现代智人于40~30 ka前已经开启了对高原腹地的探索;末次冰消期以来的气候转暖时段,细石器人群向高原大范围扩散,并在全新世早中期的活动更为频繁;粟作农业人群至少在5.2 ka前进入高原东部低海拔的河谷地带,在4.8 ka以后开始定居在高原东部3 000 m以上海拔的区域;3.5 ka以来麦作的传入和牧业经济的发展助力人群大规模定居高海拔区域。人类在向高原扩散和定居的过程中经历了漫长的生理与文化适应,但受限于当前考古发现与研究材料,史前狩猎采集、农业和牧业等人群在高原的时空分布、对高海拔环境的生理与行为适应﹑与低海拔人群和以藏族为主的现代高原人群之间的联系,以及高寒地区河谷农业和山地高原面游牧双重经济活动对高寒文明形成的支撑作用和高寒文明的普适性等问题仍需要深入研究,期待未来多学科交叉融合共同推动对这些问题的理解。

关键词: 青藏高原, 极端环境, 人类适应, 环境考古, 人类活动历史

Abstract:

The history of human activities on the Tibetan Plateau is crucial for understanding human adaptation to the extreme environment of cold and hypoxia. This paper systematically reviews the archaeological discoveries and studies in recent years, and provides an overview of five development stages of prehistoric human colonization of the Tibetan Plateau from the known of the earliest occupation until permanent settlement. 1) The Denisovan mandible and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) found in Baishiya Karst Cave (BKC), 3 280 m above sea level ( a.s.l.), on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, indicate that the ArchaicHomo sapiens, such as Xiahe Denisovan, may have adapted to the plateau at least 190 thousand years ago (ka) during the late Middle Pleistocene and long-term existed in and around the BKC until the last Glacial period; 2) The Initial Upper Paleolithic assemblages, from excavations at Nwya Devu site (4 600 m a.s.l.), reveal that modern humans began to explore the interior region of the Tibetan Plateau as early as 40-30 ka; 3) The relatively rich microlithic sites on the plateau from last deglaciation to early-mid Holocene, show the frequent activities of microlithic hunt-gatherers during this period, especially during 0.9-0.6 ka, perhaps the results of climate warming; 4) According to the evidence of plant remains from the Neolithic sites, millet farmers have entered low-elevation regions (< 2 500 m a.s.l.) on eastern Tibetan Plateau at least 5.2 ka, and permanently settled in regions at elevation above 3 000 m a.s.l. on eastern Tibetan Plateau since 4.8 ka; 5) After 3.5 ka, the introduction and development of wheat and pastoral economy facilitated permanent human occupation in the high-altitude regions (> 3000 m a.s.l.) of the Tibetan Plateau, which is a consequence of cultural exchange in prehistoric Eurasia. These reflect the long-term physiological and cultural adaptation of prehistoric humans in the process of spreading and settling on the plateau. However, our understanding of prehistoric human activities on the plateau is still limited by the number of archaeological sites and excavated materials. Therefore, we suggest that future work should be focused on seeking more prehistoric sites, conducting the systematic study, and solving the following issues: the spatial and temporal distribution of prehistoric hunter-gatherers, farmers and herders on the plateau, their biological and behavioural adaptation to high-altitude environment and connection with prehistoric low-altitude population and modern Tibetans, and the formation and universality of alpine civilization. We expect that new discoveries and multidisciplinary endeavours will promote the understanding of these issues in the future.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, extreme environment, human adaptation, environmental archaeology, history of human activities

中图分类号: 

  • K903