地理科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 993-1004.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2022.06.005

• • 上一篇    下一篇

基于学籍地址和地理编码的乡村小学教育资源空间可达性分析

张艳林1(), 李敏1,2, 刘宇文3,4,*(), 李佳5, 侯钰婧2   

  1. 1.湖南科技大学地球科学与空间信息工程学院,湖南 湘潭 411201
    2.湖南科技大学湖南省“十四五”教育科学研究重点培育基地-教育信息化研究基地(技术应用方向),湖南 湘潭 411201
    3.湖南文理学院师范学院, 湖南 常德 415000
    4.湖南文理学院师范学院湖南省“十四五”教育科学研究基地-乡村教育研究基地(乡村教师发展方向),湖南 常德 415000
    5.西南科技大学信息工程学院, 四川 绵阳 621010
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-13 修回日期:2021-10-14 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-08-23
  • 通讯作者: 刘宇文 E-mail:zhangyanl02@163.com;770744443@qq.com
  • 作者简介:张艳林(1983−),男,湖南郴州人,副教授,主要从事地理信息系统开发与应用研究。E-mail: zhangyanl02@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    湖南省教育科学规划基地重大课题(XJK22ZDJD34)、交通部委托重点项目(YL190804)资助

Spatial Accessibility Analysis of Primary Educational Resources Based on Student Home Address and Geocoding: A Case Study in Zhuzhou County, Hunan Province

Zhang Yanlin1(), Li Min1,2, Liu Yuwen3,4,*(), Li Jia5, Hou Yujing2   

  1. 1. School of Earth Sciences and Spatial Information Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, Hunan, China
    2. Key Cultivation Base of Educational Informatization Research in the 14th Five-Year Plan of Educational Science Research in Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, Hunan, China
    3. Teacher’s school, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000, Hunan, China
    4. Research Base of Rural Education in the 14th Five-Year Plan of Educational Science Research in Hunan Province, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000, Hunan, China
    5. School of Information Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, China
  • Received:2021-05-13 Revised:2021-10-14 Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-08-23
  • Contact: Liu Yuwen E-mail:zhangyanl02@163.com;770744443@qq.com
  • Supported by:
    Key Project of Educational Science Planning Base in Hunan Province (XJK22ZDJD34), Key Program Entrusted by Ministry of Transport (YL190804)

摘要:

基于“学籍信息中的家庭地址承载了学生空间位置”这一假设,通过学籍信息收集了湖南省株洲县小学生的家庭地址,借助高德开放平台提供的地理编码和POI搜索服务,获得到了株洲县小学生的空间位置和分布,并基于最短路径分析和高斯型两步移动搜索法分析了株洲县小学教育资源的空间可达性及其特征,尝试为区域教育资源的空间均衡性分析与规划配置提供新的数据源和方法借鉴。结果表明:① 基于学籍地址和地理编码技术能够较准确地获取株洲县小学生的空间分布。② 株洲县小学生就近入学距离的最大值、平均值和中位数分别为11.83 km、2.10 km和1.81 km,就近入学距离小于2.0 km的学生仅占55.46%,为株洲县兼顾公平和效率的教育资源配置工作带来了挑战。③ 株洲县北部城镇地区因学校数量较多,平均就近入学距离较小,教育资源的空间可达性普遍较高,且空间差异小,均衡性好;而东南部的乡村地区,平均就近入学距离较大,教育资源的空间可达性普遍较低,且空间差异大。④ 基于情景分析,在不造成局地生源稳定性问题的前提下,新增3所学校后,东南部地区的平均就近入学距离和教育资源的空间可达性有很大的改善,龙潭镇和龙门镇的平均入学距离由3784 m和3520 m降低到3116 m和2636 m,教育资源的空间可达性分别由0.0492和0.0982提高到0.0762和0.1496。

关键词: 空间可达性, 教育资源, 小学, 学籍地址, 地理编码, 两步移动搜索法

Abstract:

Based on the assumption that a student home address implies a geographic location, this study retrieved the geographic coordinates and spatial distribution of primary school students by using the geocoding APIs provided by AutoNavi Information Technology Co. Ltd after collecting the registered student home addresses in Zhuzhou, Hunan province. Shortest distances through the road network from student home to all schools in the area were calculated based on the Dijkstra algorithm and the spatial accessibility of primary educational resources was assessed by using a two-step floating catchment area method. This study is aiming at providing a new method to obtain the spatial distribution of primary school students and a new viewing angle to assess the spatial equilibrium of educational resources in rural areas. Results show that: 1) the geographic coordinates can be adequately obtained by using registered home addresses and geocoding APIs. 2) The maximum, mean, and medium of shortest distances from student home to their nearest school are 11.83 km, 2.10 km, and 1.81 km in the study area, respectively. Only 55.46% of the shortest distances from student home to their nearest school is less than 2.0 km in the study area, which rises a challenge for achieving a fair and efficient educational resources distribution. 3) In the northern region of the study area, the averaged shortest distance from student home to their nearest school is generally small and the spatial accessibility of primary educational resources is uniformly high because there exist many schools. However, the shortest distances are relatively large and the spatial accessibility is low in the south-eastern region because the number of schools in this region is small. 4) At last, the averaged shortest distance from student home to their nearest school was largely reduced and the spatial educational resources accessibility was highly improved in the south-eastern region of the study area in a scenario of installing three new schools. For example, the averaged shortest distance was reduced from 3784 m and 3520 m to 3116 m and 2636 m, and the spatial accessibility was improved from 0.0492 and 0.0982 to 0.0762 and 0.1496 in Longtan and Longmen, respectively.

Key words: spatial accessibility analysis, educational resources, primary school, home address, geocoding, two-step floating catchment area method

中图分类号: 

  • K901.2