地理科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 1005-1014.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2022.06.006

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东北地区唐代渤海古城遗址空间格局及影响因素分析

刘海洋1,2(), 付雨鑫1, 殷铭徽1   

  1. 1.长春师范大学历史文化学院,吉林 长春 130032
    2.长白山历史文化与族群迁徙吉林省重点实验室,吉林 长春 130032
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-23 修回日期:2022-02-09 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-08-23
  • 作者简介:刘海洋(1982−),男,黑龙江绥化人,教授,博士,主要从事东北历史地理研究。E-mail: haiyang0796@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金(21BZS116、20VGB004)、吉林省社科基金(2021G1)资助

Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of the Ancient Bohai City Relics in Tang Dynasty in Northeast China

Liu Haiyang1,2(), Fu Yuxin1, Yin Minghui1   

  1. 1. School of History and Culture, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130032, Jilin, China
    2. Jilin Key Laboratory of Changbai Mountain History and Culture and Ethnic Migration, Changchun 130032, Jilin, China
  • Received:2021-10-23 Revised:2022-02-09 Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-08-23
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China (21BZS116, 20VGB004), National Social Science Foundation of Jilin Province (2021G1)

摘要:

运用ArcGIS软件及空间分析等方法,研究了东北地区234座唐朝渤海国古城遗址分布特征,探讨了古城遗址空间格局与自然条件的关系。通过对234座古城址进行分析,发现唐朝渤海国古城址主要集中在4个集聚区,即图们江?鸭绿江流域集聚区(A)、牡丹江流域集聚区(B)、松花江?辽河流域集聚区(C)、穆棱河流域集聚区(D)。其中图们江?鸭绿江流域集聚区是最主要的遗址分布区,位于研究区的南部,占遗址总量的47.43%。研究区渤海国古代城址呈北疏南密的分布特征,形成明显的“空间组群”格局。在当时的气候环境之下,水热条件等自然因素成为影响城址的主要因素,而政治、经济、军事和交通区位等人文因素则对古城遗址的数量和分布起重要导向作用。

关键词: 唐渤海国古城址, 最近邻分析模式, 环境驱动力, 人文因素

Abstract:

During the Bohai period of the Tang Dynasty, the Northeast China was influenced by the culture of the Central Plains and underwent great changes in terms of urban patterns and architectural styles. The change provides a large number of ancient city sites for studying the social development of the Northeast China today. With ArcGIS software and spatial analysis methods, this paper studies on the distribution characteristics of 234 ancient city sites in the Bohai Kingdom of Tang Dynasty in Northeast China, and the relationship between the spatial pattern of ancient city sites and natural conditions. By analyzing 234 ancient city sites with Nearest Neighbor Analysis, this paper argues that Ancient Bohai City relics in Tang Dynasty were mainly concentrated in 4 agglomeration areas, namely the Tumen River-Yalu River Agglomeration Area (A), Mudan River Agglomeration Area (B), Songhua River-Liao River Agglomeration Area (C), Muling River Agglomeration Area (D). Among them, accounting for 47.43% of the total sites, the Tumen River-Yalu River Agglomeration Area is the most significant one located in the south of the study area. This paper also discusses the distribution of Ancient Bohai City relics in the way of from sparse to dense from north to the south, forming an obvious pattern of spatial clusters. In the climatic environment of the time, natural factors such as water and heat conditions became the main factors affecting the city sites. In order to adapt to the cold climate of the northeast, the outer walls of the city buildings were thicker than those in the central plains; sites below 500 m in elevation accounted for nearly 70% of the total number; nearly 80% of the city sites were built in flatter areas below 9°; in order to have better lighting, most of the city sites were chosen to face south on slopes; more than 80% of the sites were chosen to be within 1000 m from the river. These show that natural conditions had an important influence on the choice of the Bohai city site. Human factors such as political, economic, military and transportation locations guided the number and distribution of ancient city sites. These human factors include Bohai agriculture, animal husbandry and handicrafts economic form which made Bohai city site closer to the means of production. Bohai Kindom is also the transportation hub of the northeast of the Tang Dynasty. Transportation routes have an impact on the distribution of the city site. Bohai and surrounding people have been at war, that part of the city site plays an important military defense function. In summary, the distribution of the ancient city sites in Bohai is the result of both natural and humanistic influences, and is an important reflection of human adaptation to nature and the use of nature.

Key words: Ancient Bohai City relics in Tang Dynasty, nearest neighbor analysis pattern, environmental driving force, humanistic factors

中图分类号: 

  • K901.9