地理科学 ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 1024-1033.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2022.06.008

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犯罪恐惧感与犯罪活动空间分布的匹配关系及其影响因素

张延吉1(), 游永熠2, 朱春武3, 郭华贵2,*()   

  1. 1.福州大学人文社会科学学院,福建 福州 350116
    2.福州大学建筑与城乡规划学院,福建 福州 350116
    3.得州农工大学景观建筑与城市规划系,美国 得克萨斯 卡城 77840
  • 收稿日期:2021-10-11 修回日期:2021-12-15 接受日期:2022-06-06 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-08-23
  • 通讯作者: 郭华贵 E-mail:chairman7up@126.com;huaguiguo@gmail.com
  • 作者简介:张延吉(1989−),男,上海人,副教授,博士,主要从事社会地理学和环境犯罪学研究。E-mail: chairman7up@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金青年项目(21CSH006)资助

Spatial Matching Relationship Between Criminal Activities and Fear of Crime and Its Influential Factors: A Case of Beijing

Zhang Yanji1(), You Yongyi2, Zhu Chunwu3, Guo Huagui2,*()   

  1. 1. School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, Fujian, China
    2. School of Architecture and Urban-rural Planning, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, Fujian, China
    3. Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, Texas A&M University, College Station, 77840, Texas, USA
  • Received:2021-10-11 Revised:2021-12-15 Accepted:2022-06-06 Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-08-23
  • Contact: Guo Huagui E-mail:chairman7up@126.com;huaguiguo@gmail.com
  • Supported by:
    Youth Program of National Social Science Foundation of China (21CSH006)

摘要:

利用北京社会调查、法律文书、兴趣点、路网、定位数据,发现盗窃及暴力犯罪密度对犯罪恐惧感并无显著关联或影响偏弱,犯罪活动与犯罪恐惧感存在“匹配且具高安全性”“匹配且具高危险性”“不匹配且比主观感知更危险”“不匹配且比主观感知更安全”等类型。脆弱人群更易高估安全风险;防卫空间及街道眼理论分别适用于解释客观犯罪和主观感知,高密度、混合型、密路网的可渗透环境容易产生比主观感知更危险的情形;物理与社会失序、居住不稳定性会产生比主观感知更安全的情形;高人员流动性及高地位社区的居民则易低估安全风险;出入管控和环境维护能起到减犯罪、降恐惧的双重作用。

关键词: 犯罪恐惧感, 防卫空间, 街道眼, 失序, 社会解组

Abstract:

By using social survey, court records, Points of Interest, road networks, and Baidu Location-based Service population dataset in Beijing, this research finds that the densities of theft and violent crime cases have no significant or weak-to-moderate correlation with fear of crime. Furthermore, according to the security situation and level of mismatch between perceived fear and actual crime, we classify each sample into four types: ‘matching and high security’, ‘matching and high danger’, ‘mismatching and more dangerous than it looks’, ‘mismatching and safer than it looks’. It indicates that fear of crime and actual criminal activities are two distinct social phenomenon whose spatial patterns, forming mechanisms, and policy recommendations need to be separately analyzed. The vulnerable features including female, low-income, non-managerial level, and victimization experience make people inclining to overestimate the risk of crime. The female, low-income, immigrant, and married person are also more exposed to actual crime, suggesting some specific prevention measures should be taken for these vulnerable individuals. The permeable environment with densely population, mixed function and compact road networks would result in more dangerous situation than subjective perception, since defensible space theory and street eyes theory are appropriate to explaining crime and fear of crime at the macro spatial scale, respectively. Meanwhile, the stricter access control at the micro spatial scale is beneficial to both the reduction of criminal activities and the relief of fear of crime. In addition, residential instability, physical disorder, and social disorder would lead to the relative safer situation than human perception. But in general, environmental maintenance can simultaneously suppress actual crime and mitigate fear of crime. Rather, the residents dwelling in high-mobility and high-status communities tend to underestimate the risk of crime.

Key words: fear of crime, defensible space, street eyes, disorder, social disorganization

中图分类号: 

  • K901