地理科学 ›› 1999, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (1): 10-14.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.01.10

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

’98嫩江、松花江洪水与流域综合管理

吕宪国1, 张为中2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院长春地理研究所 长春 130021;
    2. 水利部松辽流域水资源保护局 长春 130021;
    3. 国家环境保护总局松辽流域水资源保护局 长春 130021
  • 收稿日期:1998-10-10 修回日期:1998-12-05 出版日期:1999-01-20 发布日期:1999-01-20

THE FLOOD OF THE NENJIANG RIVER AND THE SONGHUA RIVER IN 1998 AND THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE RIVER VALLEY

L? Xianguo1, Zhang Weizhong2,3   

  1. 1. Changchun Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Changchun 130021;
    2. Song Liao River Basin Water Protection Bureau, Changchun 130021
  • Received:1998-10-10 Revised:1998-12-05 Online:1999-01-20 Published:1999-01-20

摘要: 1998年夏季,嫩江、松花江流域发生历史罕见的洪水。此次洪水主要特征是水位高、水量大、持续时间长、灾情严重。由于嫩江支流相继发生洪水,致使嫩江干流出现三次较大的洪峰。农作物受灾面积456×104hm2,倒塌房屋115×104间,直接经济损失超过300×108元。洪灾的主要原因是雨量大、汛期长,土地利用不合理,区域生态环境退化,缺乏控制性水利工程。亟需开展流域综合管理工作,加强水利工程建设,尤其是控制性水利工程建设,发展生态安全型农业。

Abstract: In the summer of 1998, an exceptionally serious flood, with the characteristics of high water level, large volume of flow, long duration and serious losses caused by the disaster, occurred in the Nenjiang River valley and the Songhua River valley. Greater flood peak occurred three times in the trunk stream of the Nenjiang River due to the floods occurred in its tributaries one after another. At Jiangqiao Hydrometric Station, the water level was 141.90 m and the rate of flow was 12000 m3/s. The flood is ranged to a catastrophic one which occurs once in 50 years. Ranged to a catastrophic flood at Qiqihar Hydrometric Station that occurs once in 400 years, its water level, 0.89 m higher than the former all time high, was 149.30 m and the corresponding rate of flow was 14800 m3/s. The water level that exceeded the all time high lasted for 7 days. At Harbin Hydrometric Station, the water level, 0.59 m higher than the former all time high, was 120.89 m and the corresponding rate of flow was 17400 m3/s. The water level that exceeded the all time high lasted for 9 to 10 days. The flood here is ranged to a catastrophic one which occurs once in 150 years. The flood of the Nenjiang River damaged 456?104 hm2 of crops and 1.15 million rooms and the direct loss of economy exceeded 30 billion yuan (RMB). The main reasons of the flood are the great rainfall, the long flood season, the unreasonable land use, the regional ecological environment degradation and the lack of water control projects. It is obvious that the following measures are greatly needed: the comprehensive management of the river valleys; making development planning of the river valleys; strengthening water conservancy projects, especially the water control projects; the development of agriculture based on ecological security.

中图分类号: 

  • P331.1