地理科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (10): 1642-1653.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.10.013

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青藏高原高寒牧区聚落时空演化及驱动机制——以藏北那曲县为例

张海朋1,2, 樊杰1,2(), 何仁伟3, 刘汉初1,4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所/中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
    3. 北京市社会科学院市情调查研究中心,北京100101
    4. 中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院,北京 100190
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-25 修回日期:2018-12-16 出版日期:2019-10-10 发布日期:2019-10-10
  • 通讯作者: 樊杰 E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:张海朋(1992-),男,河南南阳人,博士研究生,主要从事土地利用与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail:13015536063@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20020301);国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630644)

Spatio-temporal Evolution of Settlements and Its Driving Mechanisms in Tibetan Plateau Pastoral Area: Taking Nagqu County in the Northern Tibet as an Example

Zhang Haipeng1,2, Fan Jie1,2(), He Renwei3, Liu Hanchu1,4   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. City Situation Survey Research Center,Beijing. Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing 100101,China
    4. Institute of Science and Development,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
  • Received:2018-09-25 Revised:2018-12-16 Online:2019-10-10 Published:2019-10-10
  • Contact: Fan Jie E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA20020301);Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China(41630644)

摘要:

以青藏高原北部牧区那曲县为研究对象,基于多时相高清遥感影像精确提取的2005、2010和2017年3期聚落斑块数据,综合运用GIS分析技术定量测度了那曲县聚落演化的总体特征和空间指向特性,并进一步探讨了聚落格局及演化的驱动机制。结果表明:① 2005~2017年,那曲县聚落规模和密度均呈增大态势,由数量增长型扩张转变为规模增大型扩张;聚落形态演变表现出阶段性差异,由空间无序向规整有序转变;聚落以小型为主,面积小于1 hm 2的斑块数占比高达69%,在时间演化上小聚落向大、中型聚落晋级趋势明显;聚落规模空间相关性显著,大斑块集聚区以县城所在地为中心沿青藏公路向西南方向延伸,小斑块集聚区长期围绕那曲镇外围呈“环形”分布。②特殊的自然本底塑造了那曲县聚落低山缓坡趋向和亲水近路特征,受生存环境和生计方式影响,聚落布局呈现避灾特性,聚落演化的优质草场指向性明显,随着高原乡镇经济职能的日益强化,聚落演化逐渐呈现出与内陆城镇化地区类似的乡镇中心地指向。③高海拔、破碎地貌、自然灾害多发易发、草场禀赋差异及水系纵横等自然环境因素塑造了那曲县聚落大范围小规模沿河谷阶地零散分布的基本格局,而政策、市场化与人口增长、区位条件、管理制度及文化观念等社会人文因素是推动聚落演化的主要动力。

关键词: 青藏高原, 高寒牧区, 聚落, 那曲县, 藏北地区

Abstract:

Taking Nagqu County in the northern Tibetan Plateau Pastoral Area as the research object, based on settlements spatial data which are accurately extracted from multi-temporal high-resolution remote sensing images during 2005-2017, through the comprehensive application of GIS analysis technology, this article quantitatively measures the overall characteristics and spatial orientation characteristics of the settlement evolution in Nagqu County, and further explores the driving mechanism of settlement pattern and evolution. The results show that: 1) during 2005-2017, the scale and density of settlements in Nagqu County have been increasing, from a quantitative growth expansion to a large-scale expansion. The evolution of settlements pattern shows a staged difference, from spatial disorder to regular order. The settlements of Nagqu County is mainly small, and the proportion of plaques with an area of less than 1 hm 2 is as high as 69%. As time evolves, small settlements gradually transform into large and medium-sized settlements. The spatial correlation of the settlement size is significant. The large-scale plaque agglomeration area is centered on the location of the county seat and extends southwest along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The small-scale plaque agglomeration area has a “circular” distribution around the periphery of Nagqu Town. 2) The special natural background has shaped the low altitude and gentle slope trend and hydrophilic near-road characteristics of settlements in Nagqu County. Affected by the living environment and livelihood methods, settlements are often distributed in areas with low natural disasters, and the settlement evolution shows high-quality grassland pointing. And with the increasingly strengthening of the economic functions of the plateau towns, the evolution of settlements in Nagqu County gradually shows the center of the township which is similar to urbanized areas of the interior. 3) High-altitude, broken landforms, frequent occurrence of natural disasters, differences in pasture endowments, and vertical and horizontal water system have shaped the basic settlements pattern of scattered distribution of large-scale small-scale terraces along the river valley in Nagqu County. Social and human factors such as policy, marketization and population growth, location conditions, management systems and cultural concepts are the main driving forces for the evolution of settlements in Nagqu County.

Key words: Tibetan Plateau, alpine pastoral area, settlements, Nagqu County, the northern Tibet

中图分类号: 

  • F301.2