Please wait a minute...
 首页  期刊介绍 期刊订阅 广告合作 联系我们 English
旧版网站  
 
优先出版  |  当期目录  |  过刊浏览  |  热点文章  |  阅读排行  |  下载排行  |  引用排行

ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
  关于期刊
    » 期刊简介
    » 编 委 会
    » 数据库收录
    » 获奖情况
  作者中心
    » 在线投稿/查稿
    » 征稿指南
    » 稿件格式与修改说明要求
    » 论文模板
    » 版权转让协议
  审稿中心
    » 审稿要求
    » 专家在线审稿
  在线办公
    » 主编审稿登录
    » 远程编辑登录
    » 在线生产中心
  • 地理科学
      1983年, 第3卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1983-03-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    中国不同植被类型水热条件的数值辨识
    刘多森, 蔡蔚祺
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 95-102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.95
    摘要   PDF (2695KB)
    气候、地貌、土壤等环境条件对中国植被分布的影响,已有深入论述。气候、地貌是决定地域水热条件的重要因素,而土壤形成过程及土壤类型又受地域水热条件所左右。因此,气候、地貌影响植被分布的信息,与土壤影响植被分布的信息,大部分是重叠的。综合研究植被分布与水热条件的关系,本质上在于阐明气候、地貌对植被分布的影响,当然部分地包含了土壤的影响。
    In order to identify hydrothermal Condition for distribution of vegetation,nine indices were taken from 586 meteorological stations in China,i.e.temperature effect of Chemical reactions in nature (T),mean air temperature in thecoldest tenday period (t1),number of days with daily mean air temperature≥10℃(Dt),moisture effect (M),effect of saturated water vapour pressure (V),relative humidity (f),numbcr of days with daily precipitation≥10mm (Dp),altitude(A),and latitude (L).The 586×9 original data mentioned above were treated by the method of principal component analysis.No correlation is found among different principalComponents,each component reflecting a different and independent factor.Fromeigenvectors of the first two principal components,it will be seen that the firstprincipal component reflects thermal intensity in a region,and the second reflects moisture intensity in a region.Cumulative variance of first and second principal components to 84.6%.From principal component analysis,we have obtained sets of points of firstand second principal components for 13 vegetation types of China.It is betterto use these polntsets to identify hydrothcrmal condition of different typesof vegetation in China.These vegetation types are:1.savanna,2.tropical bush,3.warm evergreen and deciduous bush,4.warm forest,5.warm deciduousbush,6.temperate dry deciduous bush,7.temperatemoist deciduous bush,8.temperate forest,9.desert,10.desert steppe,11.steppe,12.alpine steppe,and13.alpine meadow.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    新水热平衡联系方程的建立及其在水文学应用的可能途径
    吴厚水
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 103-108.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.103
    摘要   PDF (2469KB)
    对于多年平均情况,地表面水分平衡可表示为:r=f+E (1)式中r为平均年降水量(毫米);f为平均年径流量(毫米);E为平均年蒸发量(毫米)。对全年平均情况来说,地表面热量平衡可用简化方程表示:R=P+LE (2)式中R为年辐射平衡(千卡/厘米2);P为年乱流热通量(千卡/厘米2);L为蒸发潜热,约等于0.59千卡/克。上述两个方程,除常数L外,尚有5个分量,通常需要有其中三个因子方能求解。
    Based on considerations of the relationship between the evapotranspirationand the humidthermal conditions,a new connexion equation of heat and waterbalances has been developed:E=(R/L)em(R/Lr) Where E is the mean annual evapotranspiration;R,the annual radiation balance;r,the annual precipitation;L,the latent heat of evaporation;and m,anempirical coefficient.The results obtained from calculating the annual values of evapotranspirationfor some stations in the Yellow River Basin and South China by the new equation,as compared with those calculated from water balance data,are similar andacceptable.As conclusion,the application of the new equation to hydrological practicesis found to be reasonable.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    关于地区生产布局问题的探讨
    刘再兴
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 109-115.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.109
    摘要   PDF (2653KB)
    国家制定了“六五”计划,并将进一步制定1986—2000年的长期规划。在五年计划和长期规划中,都要安排地区生产布局。地区生产布局,主要是确定地区之间的发展比例,使之与部门问的发展比例有机地结合起来,促进整个国民经济协调地运转。我国幅员广阔,地区差异性很大,直到现在各地区之间经济发展还很不平衡,在中长期计划中,正确安排地区间的发展比例,就具有更大的意义。这里涉及到两个重要问题:一是按什么样的地域单元来安排地区生产布局;一是根据什么样的指导思想来安排地区间的发展比例。
    On what territorial elements should we base,our arrangement of zonal production distributions?Arrangement of zonal production distributions based onprovinces,six administrative areas,metropolitan economical zones or energy region divisions are proved to be improper.Synthetical economic region divisiontaking industry as its main body and the metropolises as its fulcrums is a comparatively better scheme.What is the correct ideology governing the arrangement of zonal production distribution?Before any offical synthetical edonomic regiondivision is worked out,we should properly adjust the proportion between the levels of development of the three major territorial elements the developed coastal area,the undeveloped border area and the intermediate area;pay more attention to the development of the border area and intermediate area while consolidating and strengthening the coastal area;correctly determine the respectivedeveloping strategies of the three territorial elements according to their own conditions and propcrties;coordinate the ratios of development between these areas in a planned way and promote the general upsurge of national economy.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    辽宁风能资源研究
    袁国恩, 韩玺山, 何元斌
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 116-124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.116
    摘要   PDF (2747KB)
    当前,风能的开发和利用已引起各国的普遍重视,而如何正确估算风能资源是风能研究中亟待解决的问题。过去,对风能资源的估算主要用年平均风速资料,其计算结果的误差较大,后来,又多采用逐时风速值估算风能[1],但仍然不能适应当前风能利用中提出的一些要求,近年来,Justus[2]等人利用双参数的 Weibull 模式拟合风速频率分布计算风能取得了较好的结果。本文利用辽宁省气象台站的风速资料,采用 Weibull 模式的一些可行方法,计算并分析了全省的风能资源,提出了开发利用意见。
    In this paper,errors presented during computing wind power by routine windspeed automatic recording data were discussed.The wind power resources all overLianning province were Computed by Weibull model.Computal formulas foreffective wind power density and best designed wind speed of windpoweredgenerators were derived from Weibull model.Time and space variations of windpower in Liaoning province were analyzed.Region alization of wind power resourcesof whole province was made by taking annual mean effective wind power asindex.Some sugg setions for using wind power resources in Liaoning provincewere proposed.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    我国县图发展现状、趋势及改进意见
    黄万华, 张天桢
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 125-131.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.125
    摘要   PDF (2606KB)
    在我国现阶段各类地图中,县挂图(以下简称县图)已成为能在较多方面与农业生产结合并直接为之服务和引起广泛注意与应用的最主要图种。随着科学的进步和农业的发展,无疑对县图的数量和质量将会提出更高的要求,对县图的内容、图型、科学性等又将产生重大影响。为了探讨我国县图编辑设计理论和有关技术规范问题,我们对十四个省(区)近期出版的一百五十余幅县图进行了阅读分析,结合我们多年来参与县图编绘的实践和体会,对我国县图发展的现状和趋势作一概略分析,对编辑设计工作提出几点改进意见。
    In this paper a brief review has been made about the three periods of development of eotmty wall map making,and then analytical stresses are highlightedon the developing tendencies in 5 aspects:(1) The purposes of its productionbecome clearer daily.(2) The regional characteristics become more obvious.(3) The contents about quantity marks are increasing especially about agriculturalstatus.(4) Map making is developing from single map to series of maps.(5) Maps made by the joint efforts of concerning organizations of the province andthe county become more popular.Specialsubject maps based on the actual requirements of agricultural productionshould be mainly made in the future.Here we make our proposals for improvement in editing as follows:(1) Contents and informafions should be furtherenriched.(2) Regular mapping project should be established and its mathematicalaccuracy should be improved.(3) Proportion of maps for all subjects should beproper.(4) Standardization of the symbols in county maps should be graduallyrealized on the basis of the symbols used in the national graphical maps.(5) Remote sensing techniques should be more widely used so as to improve mapquality and speed up mapping processes.(6) Symbol for inhabited places ingeneral maps should be changed from a circle to plane outline for representation.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    学术活动
    第四纪地质学教学大纲讨论会在石家庄召开
    王守一
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 132-132.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.132
    摘要   PDF (182KB)
    近年来全国已有约11所高等师范院校地理系先后开设了第四纪地质学课程。为了交流教学经验及科研成果,受有关兄弟院校的委托,经河北师范大学地理系积极筹备,全国高等师范院校地理系第四纪地质学教学大纲讨论会,于1982年9月18日至24日在石家庄市召开。来自全国18所高等师范院校及有关科研和生产单位的30名代表参加了会议。会议审阅了河北师范大学、东北师范大学、华南师范学院和南京师范学院所提供的四份教学大纲;听取了各院校授课经验的介绍;对高师地理系第四纪地质学的教学性质、任务、内容等进行了充分的讨论,并取得了基本一致的意见。会议认为,第四纪地质学是高师地理系的一门综合性基础课,也是提高课。
    Related Articles | Metrics
    论文
    长白山北坡冰缘环境与土壤动物
    陈鹏, 张一
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 133-140.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.133
    摘要   PDF (2743KB)
    长白山海拔2000米以上的高山苔原带,是一特殊的高山冰缘环境。近几年来,国内许多学者对这一特殊环境进行了深入地考察研究。1979年,联合国教科文组织“人与生物圈”委员会委托中国科学院在长白山建立了森林生态系统研究定位站。从此,有许多外国学者前来考察,并对高山苔原冰缘环境产生了极大的兴趣。我们于1981年夏对高山苔原带冰缘环境与土壤动物进行了初步调查。目的在于了解冰缘环境的一般特征和土壤动物组成、分布及其与冰缘环境的关系,为进一步研究高山苔原带生态系统提供本底和基础性资料。
    As the periglacial environment of the alpine tundra is dull and harsh,itdecides that there are not too many kinds,individual number and biomass ofsoil animals.Twenty kinds of soil animals as acquired by Tullgren and Baermann Gathering Method,and divided into five phylumes and nine classes:they are Plathelminthes,Nemathelminthes,Annelida,Mollusca,Arthropoda,Turbellaria,Nematcda,Olgicchaeta,Gastropcda,Symphyle and Insect.Mean density of big soil animals is 259.5/m2,and of medium soil animalsis 75507.6/m2.Dominant species are Euchyraeidaf,Nernatoda and Collembolacommon species are Acarina,Coleoptera and Terricolae.The kinds and individual number of soil animals are decreaeing with increasing of the altitude above sea level.The density A/C of Collembola and Acarinais less than one.The kinds of the big soil animals are the most(15)in the depression,the individual number of the big soil animals are the most (720)in the northern slope.Individual density increases with increase of content of the organic substances.When moisture content in the soll is less than 50%,species and number of soil animals decrease markedly.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    珠江三角洲西江干流河床演变的近代过程
    乔彭年
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 141-150.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.141
    摘要   PDF (2966KB)
    西江干流下游具有强径流与中等潮流的动力特性。汛期,径流作用处于完全控制的主导地位,但在枯水期,潮流势力又可深入到河口以上一百公里的距离。与珠江三角洲其它河口对比,西江口门具有径流及输沙最强而潮流最弱的特点,这对河口淤积发展是极为有利的条件。就整个珠江三角洲来说,西江来水来沙量均占绝对大的数量,所以它是形成整个珠江三角洲主要的动力和物质来源。因此,对西江下游河床演变规律的研究,无疑将有助于进一步认识整个珠江三角洲近代过程的问题。
    The main river course of Xijiang in the Zhujiang delta is characterized byalluvial process and closely connected with the evolution of the delta.Withregard to the fluvial process of the reach in recent period,only the threefollowing problems will be discussed in this paper:(1) The profile of the river bed has a very gentle gradient and greaterundulation in elevation.This is the result of interaction of many factors suchas hydrodynamics,sediments and boundary of the estuary during a long developing period of the delta thro ugh deposition.(2) The characteristics of deposition and erosion of the river are primarily demonstrated in:1.The cross section of the bed is more stable than theprofile.2.The secular trend of deposition interrupted by a short period oferosion and deposition.3.There are seasonal changes with erosion occurring inflood season and deposition in dry season.4.The cross section of the mouthtends to become narrower and deeper gradually.5.An adjustment of river hasoccurred due to the projects of the joining dykes and constructing sluices,landreclaimation from the sea and the controlling engineering of the mouth.(3) The oncoming sediment of Xijiang basin is the primary source ofthe material in forming the subaqueous delta offshore.For the present,thedelta is extending towards the Continental shelf.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    博斯腾湖芦苇资源调查中遥感技术的应用
    华润葵, 李玉勤
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 151-158.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.151
    摘要   PDF (3084KB)
    前言博斯腾湖位于新疆天山东段的焉耆盆地,面积988平方公里,是我国内陆地区最大的淡水湖[1]。在湖西南开都河三角洲前缘,即小湖区和湖西北的黄水沟洪积平原地区,发育有大片芦苇沼泽。本区芦苇沼泽受天山融雪水和地下水的补给,水分条件较好。土壤以腐殖质沼泽土、泥炭土和盐化泥炭土为主。该区处于欧亚大陆腹地,属大陆性干旱气候区,芦苇生长期内日照长、积温高、昼夜温差大,适宜芦苇的生长发育。因此,博湖芦苇株高、径粗、叶茂、纤维长,是我国重要的优质芦苇生产基地之一。
    It was efficient and reliable to investigate the reed resource of Bositeng Lakein Xinjiang province,characterized by complicated types of reed land and verydifferent reed growth using colour infrared airphotos,Landsat images andmultiband imagery.At first,based on Landsat images and relevant data,we conducted(regional preinterpretation)to analyze ecological environment of study area,thecharacteristics of reed land types and imaging mechanism to determine the programfor abstracting remote sensing information and aerial photographic conditions. On the processed Landsat images and airphotos,we considered typicallygeographic features and reed land types,preselected ground sampling sectionsand spots,then determined indexes classifying reed land types according tosampling data and image characteristics,established various interpretation keys,drew distribution maps of reed land types and measured the area of varioustypes of reed land following geometric correction.On the other hand,based onsampling values and habitat Conditions of reed,we divided study area into anumber of pieces,estimated weight per unit area with weighted average methodone piece by one piece,finally calculated the total reserve of reed resource.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    苏南太湖地区城市(镇)发展的生态问题
    徐桂卿, 姚士谋, 董雅文, 吴楚材
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 159-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.159
    摘要   PDF (2701KB)
    苏南太湖地区范围包括苏州、无锡、常州三市及江阴、沙州、常熟、太仓、昆山、无锡、吴江、吴县、武进、宜兴等十县。土地总面积1.5万平方公里,人口约1100万人。本区靠近沪宁杭等特大城市,自然、经济条件优越,水陆交通发达,工农业生产发展迅速。随着城市规模的扩大,小城镇的发展,非农业用地不断增加,激化了这一地区人口和土地之间的矛盾。由于城市人口密集,工业布局不合理,交通拥挤,环境质量明显下降,城市生态条件日趋恶化。因此,总结城市发展中的生态问题,预测今后城市发展中可能出现的生态变化显得十分重要。本文结合近年来在苏锡常三市及其周围典型城镇的调查,探讨有关城市的一些生态问题及其解决途径。
    Well known as a heavenly endowed place,the Taihu Lake area is dense inpopulation,widely spread over with mediumand smallsized towns,prosperous ineconomy and Convenient in communications and transport.Since liberation,therehas been a rapid development both in urban economy (industry in particular) andin urban construction.However,due to the inadequate understanding of ecological environment in parallel with the growing development in economy,quitea number of problems pertinent to ecology came into question,such as unsuitablestructure of land use,imbalance of water supply and demand,seriousness of environment pollution,subsidence of ground surface and deterioration of human health.These questions,if handled with indifference,will possibly lead to an imbalancein urban ecology and even to a trend from bad to worse.To make a good job of the researches in urban ecology around the TaihuLake region,the three following points are here proposed.1.To rationally make an overall arrangement of cities and towns from theviewpoint of regional ecological equilibrium;2.To properly solve the problems about dividing of regions according tourban functions from the requirements of human living conditions;3.To alter the urban economic framework and its developing trend fromthe angles of material circulation and energy exchange.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    研究报导
    居民感应地理研究的一个实例——对赣州市的调查分析
    徐放
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 167-174.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.167
    摘要   PDF (2790KB)
    人类自诞生以后,不断地认识、改造自然界。可以说现在地球上的任何自然环境都或多或少地受到人类活动影响。同自然环境能影响人类一样,那些人类改变自然面貌而形成的环境,如城市,也必然反过来对人类产生影响。同样的环境影响在每个人的头脑中有各种不同的反映——感应。人们正是在这样一种既是自然的、人为的——客观环境、又是在每个人自己所理解的、认识的——主观环境中生活、工作。正如英国彼得·安布罗斯(Peter Ambrose)所指出的:“作为地理学家,如果我们试图从环境方面去解释人类行为,那么我们主要感兴趣的是主观环境,而不是客观环境。”[1]每个人头脑中的主观环境和对环境的行为是各不相同的,就象容器中气体分子的运动:是无规的;但是对一定的人们集团来说,其统计效果却有一定的规律性,完全可以对其进行统计研究,”正好象容器中气体分子无规运动的综合效果能表现出压力和温度一样。
    What is a subjective environment?What are its characteristics?This articleattempts to make some research about subjective environment and to employ itscharacteristics in urban planning.According to the results of this investigation,people do not perceive theGanzhou city as an ancient city surrounded by two rivers.In other words,thecityconstruction of Ganzhou does not give people the impression of itsdistinguishing features.It is a pity for wasting such scenery resources.Another important enlightenment is that how we should design the roads fora city,especially a city in China,since there are so many bicycles to be used onthe road in our eotmtry.The “Three Parts” road planning……the main part of theroad for motor vehicles,and two subparts for bicycles……seems to be the mostsuitable design to be used in our clties.And the road system seems to be betterimpressed when roads intersect each other at right angles.Furthermore,as comparing this investigation with D.Appleyard’s of Cindadin Guayana,we are Sure that there are objective statistical laws for people’sperception as inhabitants are grouped by their various differences.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    内蒙古克什克腾旗高原砂地的环境地球化学特点及其与克山病的关系
    尹昭汉, 岳淑容, 赫荣臻
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 175-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.175
    摘要   PDF (2798KB)
    近年,对东北山地丘陵的棕色森林土、黑土地区以及西北黄土高原的环境地球化学与克山病关系的报导较多。这些地区的共同特点是土壤中的腐殖质含量较高,而水溶性硒的含量较低。本文将通过对腐殖质含量极低的高原砂地环境地球化学特点与克山病关系的论述,补充说明低硒环境是克山病的一个重要相关因子。
    The plateau sandy soil of Keshiketengqi (it is called Keqi for short) is situated in the sheep farm of HaolukuBudengshan.It is a long and narrow regionwhich is 100 km across from east to west and 60 km from north to south.According to previous record,“Keshan Disease”and “KasehimBeck Disease” have occurredmany times in this localitsy the nearer 100 years.These diseases are the immediateharm to the people’s health in body and heart.It is possible that these diseases andthe characteristics of the local environmental geochemistry are closely related,The characteristics of environmental geochemistry in Keqi plateau sandy soilare rich of silicon and poor in many trace elements,particularly the water solubleselenium.The deficiency of water soluble selenium necessarily leads to low seleniumcirculation in soilplantanlmalhuman body system.Water soluble selenium content of grassland soil is around 0.8 ppb;that of cultivated soil is around 0.65 ppbthe average of selenium content in grain and forage grass is around 7 ppb and6 ppb respectively;that in sheep wool is around 25 ppb.The circulation oflow selenium is interrelated with“Keshan Disease”and “White Muscle Disease”in this locality.These circumstances probably are important to the inducement ofsuch diseases in this locality.Through supplying selenium to the residents and domestic animals of thislocality,the selenium level in bodies are raised year by year.Selenium plays animportant role in the prevention and cureness of “Keshan Disease” and “WhiteMuscle Disease”.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    哈尔滨黄山剖面孢粉组合的初步研究
    夏玉梅, 汪佩芳, 王曼华
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 183-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.183
    摘要   PDF (2889KB)
    黑龙江省哈尔滨东北郊的黄山(又名荒山),由于盛产哺乳动物化石和石器,引起第四纪工作者的普遍注意,成为我国东北第四纪地质研究的典型地区之一。但是,对黄山第四纪地层划分、时代、成因及其沉积环境的认识,至今尚未统一,1974年曾与有关单位协作,对哈尔滨黄山和肇源三站的第四纪地层进行了考察和初步总结。本文是在此基础上,对1978年于该剖面下部进行加密取样和补充分析,并结合植物残体分析和C14年龄测定结果的进一步总结。
    The section of Huang Shan is one of the standard sections of quaternary stratigraphy in northeast China,it is situated in the northeast suburbs of Haerbin.Having studied it for many times,we obtained results on the sporepollen association consistent with those on C14 plant fossil,animals fossils,etc.The Huang Shan section of the late period of late pleistocene was dividedinto two sporepollen association.In the late half of the period,Picea was predominant,except having a little Selaginella and Bctrychium.The climate was verycold and wet.In the last part of the period,Artermisia,Chenopodiaceae and otherherbacous pollen increased,and Picea and tree pollen dccreased,The climate changed to drycold.The above mentioned pollen association feature was representative of periglacial vegetation and periglacial climate.It also proved that the climate of DaiLi glaciation had spread to Huang Shah region.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    学术活动
    北海道的国土开发利用情况
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (2): 188-189.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.02.188
    摘要   PDF (967KB)
    根据中国科学院和日本学术振兴会(JSPS)学术交流计划,笔者应邀于1982年11月2日至12月3日到东京、仙台、扎幌、名古屋、广岛和京都等地讲学访问。在逗留日本期间访问了六所大学地理系,11个有关研究所,参观了8个生产单位,此外在各地还作了内容丰富的野外考察,从而增长了有关日本地理方面的感性认识。现仅就在北海道访问期间看到和接触到有关北海道国土开发和整治,泥炭地开发利用的见闻作一简要报导。
    Related Articles | Metrics
  编辑部公告 More  
· 声明
  2019-03-04
· 新年贺词
  2018-12-25
· 新春祝福
  2016-12-30
· 《地理科学》影响因子年报(2016版)
  2016-09-18
· 祝贺我刊三篇文章入选“首届最具影响力中国地理期刊优秀论文”
  2016-05-31
· 严正声明
  2016-05-11



  友情链接 More  


版权所有 © 《地理科学》编辑部
地址:长春市高新北区盛北大街4888号 邮编:130102 电话:+86 431 85542324 E-mail: geoscien@neigae.ac.cn
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发 技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn