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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1984年, 第4卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1984-03-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    黄土高原土地资源的开发和保护
    朱显谟
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 97-105.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.97
    摘要   PDF (607KB)
    黄土高原地区系指黄河中游的黄土分布地区而言。黄河龙羊峡以下至桃花峪间为中游,地界北纬34—41度,东经101—114度,面积63万平方公里。黄土高原主要位于黄河中游长城一线以南,西起青海日月山,东至太行山,南抵秦岭,地跨青、甘、宁、蒙、陕、晋、豫等七省(区),面积58万平方公里。其中水土流失面积53万平方公里,包括217个县的全部或部分。水土流失严重的面积43万平方公里,包括138个县。
    Loess plateau is the birth place of Chinese agriculture,in which abundent and varied land resources are distributed.The soil stratum is rather thick and fertile, which provides an eucellent condition for growing plants and developing agriculture. In this area,irrational uses of the land and plunder managment have been Carried out for over thousands of years;the whole land has been almost cut into fragments,and the soil erosion is very serious;therefore the people’s daily life is very poor now.At the same time,the whole ecological environment becomes worse and worse,and the storm flow always brings flood catastrophe to endanger the people’s life and property in the low basin. The more extensive cultivation,the lower productivity;conversely,the lower productivity,the more extensive cultivation;the higher embankment hides the greater danger;conversely,the greater danger seeks the higher embankment. These two vicious cycles have been vigorously curried on in the Hunghe region basin.Therefore,it is an extremely urgent task to work out a long term plan for the conscientious protection,renovation and rational development and use the land resources as a whole. The only counter measure to deal with the special conditions of the loess plateau and the necessity of river dredge and development is that we have to enrich soil fertility,promote soil infiltration and strengthen soil anti-denudebility by means of rapid revegetation as an core and in addition with some necessary mechanical protection measures in order to put the total precipitation infiltrating into the ground as a strategic aim.And at the same time,all the agricultural productions are required to adjust their practices to concretely obey this strategic aim.
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    学术活动
    国际地理联合会(IGU)河流与平原海岸地貌工作组第三次学术会议在泰国曼谷召开
    李成治, 金燕宁
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 106-106.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.106
    摘要   PDF (77KB)
    会议于1983年12月11~17日在曼谷召开。会议由国际地理联合会(IGU)、会同联合国亚太经社会下属东亚近海勘探协调委员会(ESCAP/CCOP/EA)、荷兰政府及泰国朱拉隆功大学联合主办。会议组委会由工作组主席 J.A.M.屯.卡特(荷兰)、朱拉隆功大学校长 W.珀萨派奇及地质系 N.提拉孟科博士共同主持。
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    论文
    影响我国东北地区夏季持续低温的一些环流因子分析
    章少卿
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 107-114.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.107
    摘要   PDF (455KB)
    我们在文献[1]讨论了夏季100毫巴层南亚高压的强弱与东北地区6~9月气温的高低存在着正相关。南亚地区的高压是100毫巴层夏季特有系统,但在地面气压场上,该地区是一个低压,著名的印度季风低压,就在青藏高原的南侧。因此,对于西藏南部及印巴次大陆地区低压的强弱及其季节变化的探讨,引起许多学者的重视。
    In this paper,the author analysed the monthly pressure change of sea sur-face in India-Pakistan area (70—90°E°,10°—30°N)and computed the correla-tion coefficients between South-Asia high of 100 mb and four factors of four areas-the low pressure of India-Pakistan sea surface,the high pressure of the west Pacific,the temperature of the Pacific sea surface,the snow cover of the Qinhai-Xizhang plateau,and then following conclusions were reached: 1.The extensively per sistent low temperature easily occurs in summer in the Northeast China when the India-Pakistan monsoon is weaker and converserly, when the monsoon becomes strength,no extensively persistent low temperature occurs. 2.The monthly pressure anomaly exists stability in the sea surface of the India-Pakistan area The correlation coefficients of anomalies between summer and winter,spring are respectively 0.726 and 0.879,which are more than confi-dence level α= 0.001. 3.There are periodically climatic oscillation with regular pressure ano-maly,about 14—15 years,in India-Pakistan region. 4.In summer (Jun.-Sept.)there is a negavitive correlation between the low pressure of India-Pakistan area and the high pressure of the South Asia, the coeff,is-0.6399 which closes to the confindence level α=0.001 and the correlaton coeffient between India-Pakistan low and the area index of west Pacific high at 500 mb layer is equal to-0.4447,which is more than confidence level α= 0.05. 5.In summer the mean percentage of rain fall anomaly of five statiions on the Xizhang plateau,Lasa,Changtu,Rikeze,Bange,Lin zhi,correlated with the South-Asia high of 100 mb and the sea surface pressure of the Indi-a-Pakistan area.Their correlation coefficients are respectively 0.346 and-0.396, Which close to the Gonfidence level α= 0.1.
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    不同自然条件下水库下游的河床演变
    龚国元
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 115-124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.115
    摘要   PDF (577KB)
    水库一般有三种不同的运用方式,即滞洪式、非汛期泄空式和蓄水式。同一水库在不同时期其运用方式还可能有所不同。前两种方式主要是为了防洪,而河道仍然保持着天然河流的特点,不会发生河型上的转化,后一种运用方式,一方面改变了上游来水来沙的自然过程,另一方面又受下游区域自然条件的影响,促使下游河道发生巨大的变化,河型上产生转化。近年来为了探索不同自然条件对库下游河床演变的影响,我们对汉江、老哈河水库下游河道进行了实地考察,分析了其它库下游河道的有关资料。
    This paper analyses channel changes of the lower reaches down reserviors and the transformations of river pattern.These rivers flow through different areas with various backgrounds and natural environments. The characteristics of channel changes under different natural conditions are.(1)The more the released discharge,the longer duration the flow and the further from the dam the erosional base level,then the longer the scour distance is;the more the discharge and the finer the material,the more intensive the scour is.(2)Three situations of channel change exist in longitudinal direction: (a)A concave or linear profile is associated with the grading of bed material and the unequality of scour over river bed (b)When bed material is composed of uniform medium or fine sand and the bed is equally scoured,the parallel lowering of the bed will occur and the longitudinal profile will inherit its original form.(c)Affeeted by the bedrock and the tributaries with heavy load, the profile will be convex.(3)Three types of transverse evolution are:(a)When both the bank and the bed are less mobile,the released discharge will primaryly cause deep scour and results in a narrowed cross-section and in decrease of width-depth ratio.(b)When the bank is less mobile than the bed,the deep scour will occur prior to the lateral erosion and the width-depth ratio might increase.(c)When both the bank and the bed are composed of uniform loose material,the deep scour and the lateral erosion will parallelly operate and less change will occur in the width-depth ratio. As far as the river pattern trasformation considered,the shorter the duration of the released flow,the more the regional storm runoff,and the worse the vegetation,then the more difficult the transformation from braided river to other river patterns.In constrast,the longer the duration of flow,the less the sediment load from the basin and the better the Vegetation,then the easier the evolution of a braided river to a single meandering river is.constrainted by the boundary conditions,these rivers may changed into a confined meandering or stable islandtype river.
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    海港形成发展与布局的经济地理基础
    陈航
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 125-131.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.125
    摘要   PDF (462KB)
    海港(本文均指海上商港,亦称港口),大多是由一系列为客货运输服务的各种构筑物组成,是海上运输的起迄点,也是各种运输方式汇集的运输枢纽和港口城市的重要组成部分。世界港口发展史表明,港口往往只在一定地方兴起和发展,并形成具有某种性质与规模的港口。
    The basis on which a seaport depends for existence and development is its hinterland.Hinterlands may be divided into two types:the direct hinterland only belonging to a specific port,and the complex or overlapls hinterland,i.e. several hinterlands can simultaneously use a certain port.Thus the property and development of any port,as well as its character and scale are not only closely related to its own specific regional background,but also affected by other relative ports,especially the adiacent ones.In other words,all ports have their econo-mic geographic bases respectively. The categoies of the regional background of ports consist of:(1)the hi-nterland and its link with the port in traffic and transport.(2)the condition of mineral resources in the hinterland.(8)the level of development and the type of economic structure in the region directly affected by the port.(4) the scal of the city which the port relies on.(5)the natural condition of the harbour and neig hbourring region.(6)the location of the port,etc.All the factors above mentioned act to the ports in different way and varying degree Because the relative ports,especially the neighbourrings,have an overla-pping complex hinterland,the shipping goods can be tran sf ered to anyone of them.This brings naturall’y an influence each other on their development.In fact, they check each other and have respective roles to play.Finally the regional combination of the port co nstitutes’1a regional port group~I. This paper analyses and assesses the regional background of the ports,and makes an approach to the regional port combination,so as to get a clear under-standing about their action on the seaports~ fo rmation,development and distri-bution.All of these provide scientific basis from point of view of geography for rationally planning and locating seaports.
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    学术活动
    全国泥炭地质工作会议在苏州召开
    戴丽华
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 132-132.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.132
    摘要   PDF (62KB)
    由地质矿产部主持召开的全国泥炭地质工作座谈会,于1983年10月27~11月1日在江苏省吴县东山镇召开。参加会议的代表共75人,其中有27个省、市、自治区地质矿产局(队)的代表54人,有14个从事泥炭研究和生产利用的科研、大专院校、生产单位的代表21人。
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    论文
    珠江三角洲的第四纪地层
    李平日, 黄镇国, 张仲英, 李孔宏
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 133-142.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.133
    摘要   PDF (958KB)
    珠江三角洲总面积8601.1平方公里,其中平原面积6932.5平方公里,占80.6%,其余为突起在平原上的岛丘,计160余座。关于珠江三角洲平原的第四纪地层,前人曾分为三段,即:下段为 Q41河流相沉积层和三角洲相沉积层,中段为Q:42风化层;上段为Q43三角洲相沉积层。或者下段为Q41—Q42的陆相层;中段为Q42-Q43的滨海相层;上段为Q43的河海混合相层。这些划分,因当时C14年代数据不足,多属推论。
    This peper deals with the Quateranry stratigraphy devision in Zhujiang Delta based on the analysis of the C14dating and stratigraphic correlation,sedimen-tary facies and cycles,as well as climatic variations reflected by spore-pollen analysis.It is concluded that six formations could be distinguished in chrono-logical order,since the Middle Late Pleistocene (Q32),namely: (1)Shipai (石排)formation(Q32-1),which is marked b the yfollowing features:C14dating about37,000±1480 years B.P.—30,000±2800 years B.P.; terrestrial gravel or thick sand with buried forests formed during a period of lowersea level;spore-pollen group representing colder climate. (2)Xinan (西南)formation (Q32-2),its lithological characteristics are mainly of dark grey clay with marine or brackish fossil acconding to C14dating (28,240±2220—15,000±550 years B.P.)and spore-pollen group representing warmer climate,it Can be concluded that this formation of deltaic facies was deposited under trangressive condition,during the late stage of Würm sub-inter-glaciation. (3)Sanjiao(三角)formation(Q33-Q41),which is characterized by deep weathering clay or alluvial thick sand and gravel interbedded with buried fo-rests.This formation is clearly the product of weathering in terrestrial environ-ment,during tile period of global lower sea level of the Late würm glaciation and Early Holocene. (4)Henglan(横栏)formation(Q42-1),its C14 dating are 8050±200— 5020±150 years B.P.,greyish black muds with abundant marine fossil.In addi-tion,the result of spore-pollen analysis indicates that the climate of that time was greatly warmer than that of Q33-Q41,and an extensive transgression exerted a strong effect on the Middle Holocene sedimentation in the Zhujiang Delta. (5)Wanqingsha(万顷沙)formation(Q42-2),similar to the 3rd stratum, is mainly composed of terrestrial sediments such as shallow-weathering clay, thick sand or fine sand interbedded with fresh water diatoms or shells and abun-dant buried forests.Horizontally,the facies turns to marine muds.Their C14 datings are 4940±250—2510±110 years B.P.and the spore-pollen group reflects a colder climate at that time.Thus,this formation might have been deposited un-der local regressive condition. (6)Denglongsha (灯笼沙)formation (Q43),which is mainly composed of derk grey mud and silt clay.From the C14dating (2350±110—1260±90 years B.P.),warmer spore-pollen composition and facies,this formation seems to be a part of the sediments of deltaic environment from about 2500 years B.P. up to the present.
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    试论湖南境内中亚热带东西部界线划分问题
    程伟民, 胥学仁
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 143-150.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.143
    摘要   PDF (765KB)
    我国中亚热带地域广大,自然条件复杂,带内自然环境地域分异明显,尤以东西部差异更为显著。随着自然资源调查和农业区划工作的深入开展,这条界线的划分问题,自然引起了有关科学工作者的重视与争论。
    Mid-subtropic is a major part of the subtropical zone in China,which occupies about 17.6 percent of the country’s total area.The climate is warm and humid there,with high precipitation and high temperature appearing at the same period.Areal differentiation of topography,natural resources,vegetation and soil is obvious,particularly in the eastern and western part.So it is necessary to delineate a objectively scientific basis for natural regionalization,and for rational allocation of agriculture,forestry and animal husbandry. The differences between eastern and western parts of the mid-subtropical zone obviously lie on the various composition of natural environment and the way of land use. Much controversy has been evoked about to where the demarcation line should be drawn within Hunan province and what are the criteria based on.After careful study on the differentiation in local terrain,hydro-thermal conditions as well as field survey in Hunan province,the authers would like to assign the demarcation line betwen the west and the east of mid-subtropics in Hunan province existing on the northeast of Wu-Ling Mountain,across Yuan river to east flank of Xuefen Mountain.From north to south the demarcation line passes through several counties:Shimen,Linfeng,Taoyuan,Huangcai (Ningxiang), Dongkou,Wugang,Xinning up to the administralive boundary line between Hunan and Gungxi provinces.
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    水口水电站建设与闽江中下游生态环境关系的预测
    余泽忠
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 151-158.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.151
    摘要   PDF (556KB)
    闽江水口水电站是华东区拟建的最大水电站,装机容量140万千瓦,计划年发电量49亿5千万度。该电站的建设对闽江中下游的生态环境将引起什么样的变化?现就下列几个大家关心的问题进行探讨。
    If a comprehensive survey of river course of middle-lower reaches of the Min river and the hydrographic characteristics is made,the conclusion that the harmless effect on the ecological environment when a hydropower station is built at Shuikou Can be reached.The reasons are: 1.After the station is completed,most of the minerals and organic matters will still be washed away into the lower reaches during the flood stage since the torrent of the middle reaches will go on flowing downward in great quantities. 2.After the station is completed,the discharge of lower reaches during the low water stage will be increased by the adjustment,so that the movements of tidal current will be as regular as usual and that is more favourable than before for the irrigation and navigation. 8.After the station is completed,the ecological environment will be as same as before both at the mouth of the Min river and beyond it,so there will be no obvious effects on the migration of fishes and the fishing production. The problem of any sudden disappearance of fishes at the fishing ground owing to the shortage of baits will not at all occur. 4.A great quantity of mud and sand will be washed out from the middle reaches beyond the dam so that deposition of silt within the reservoirs must not be very serious.
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    遥感影象多时相分析在土地专题研究中的应用——以湖北浠水实验区为例
    邹尚辉
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 159-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.159
    摘要   PDF (458KB)
    遥感影象的分析是土地资源研究的有效手段。而由重复摄影(或扫描)所取得的多时相(Multi temporal)遥感资料(或称多季节资料—Multi-seasonal data),给环境的动态监测及予报提供极为丰富的信息。遥感影象的多时相分析(又称时间鉴别分析—Time disoriminant analysis 或时间间隔遥感技术—Technique of Time-lapse remotesensing)则是研究环境动态变化的极好手段。
    The multitemporal analysis of remote sensing images is to compare and discriminate the differetiation in temporal images of various time and environment by means of spetific technique for revealing the process and tendency of environment revolution.This paper takes Xishui county of Hubei province as an example to expound its application on land studies. The technical methods of multitemporal analysis generally Can fall into the following Categories:1.Optic composition of two or multi-seasonal images.2. Ratio method.The normalized density ratio of MSS5 and MSS7 can better express season change of vegetation.3.Amplifying method of computer-optics.In the study,the visual interpretation still had been adopted as a principal method, supplementing with the optic composition.The results,distinguging and mapping various land types as well as expounding the dynamic changes in future in the test area have been reached.
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    问题讨论
    庐山地区混杂沉积的特征和成因
    张林源, 牟昀智
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 167-176.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.167
    摘要   PDF (1011KB)
    自本世纪三十年代李四光教授把庐山地区一部分第四纪沉积物和地貌现象确认为冰川成因以来,我国东部,尤其是东南部低纬低海拔山地的第四纪冰川问题,在国内外研究者中一直存在着冰川和非冰川观点的争论。本文基于本区混杂堆积物的若干特征;就成因问题进行探讨。
    The glacial problem of the Quaternary in the eastern part of China,especially in the mountains at low latitudes and low altitudes,has been debated among domestic and foreign researchers.The points in debate are those of glaciation and non-glaciation.This paper deals with the problem in the light of some features of the diamietons of the region. The allitic weathering of the diamicton is very obvious in the region. However,a key question for determining the sedimentary environment and its genesis is of period over which warm,humid weathering prevailed.Those who advocate glaciation of the Lushan have already pointed out that under the condi-tion of warm,humid weathering the deposition of diamictons often occurred. Based on analysis of data,however,the following is proposed:the composition of diamicton of Dagu period on the piedmont came from the weathered crust constructed by vermicular red soil,in the mountains.that is to say,lt had gone through strong warm and humid weathering before deposition.This proves that the warm,humid weathring prevailed in the region in the early period. Based on its generation and development process,the original diamictons of different ages and colours in the region can be divided into three types: modern slope sediments laid down by creep,slope sediments which came from earlier diamicton and crept slowly along the slopes cut by stream,and debris-mud flow sediments. Based on a series of charateristics of the diamictons,it is considerable that the diamicions in the Lushan are not of glacial origin,however,they can not be explained by any single non-glacial process.Diamictons of different ages and geomorphological expression have been produced by various mechanisms. The Dagu diamicton(corresponding to Mindel glaciation)which was said to be typical morainedebris is really a sediments of piedmont fan.Its main features can be explained by the mechanism of debris-mud flow accumulation.
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    天然河道沙波分类研究
    詹小涌
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 177-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.177
    摘要   PDF (370KB)
    沙波是冲积河流中水流与河床边界相互作用的产物。沙波在与水流、河床边界相互影响的过程中不断地运动和变化。沙波运动是推移质运动的一种主要形式。从微观的角度讲,沙波本身是由一定级配的泥沙组成,追踪沙波表面的泥沙运动表明,泥沙质点在水流作用下,以滚动、滑动、跳跃式运动或悬移、推移相互交替等方式向前运移,大量的泥沙运动则综合表现为一个比较完整的波的运动,从宏观的角度讲,整个河床的泥沙构成了大小不一,形态各异的各种各样的沙波或一系列错综复杂的沙波群。
    Based on the survey in the field and the analysis of field data,this paper has introduced the concepts of sand wave and its transportation,and discussed the classification principle and then suggested a clssification system of sand wave in alluvial stream. According to the classification,the sand wave in alluvial stream is divided into two grades.The first grade includes two kinds of sand wave and the second includes six.This paper gives respectively definition to each kind of sand wave,descripting its geometrical shape,formation,transportation and so forth,and emphasis to the differentiation,in the first and the second grade of sand wave.
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    教学研究
    关于军事地理学几个问题的探讨
    冯配岳, 沈伟烈
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 183-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.183
    摘要   PDF (366KB)
    几千年来的战争都是在地球上一定的空间与时间中进行的,它离不开一定的地理环境。军事指挥员在准备战争或进行战争时,总是要研究分析地理环境、人的因素、经济条件和军事力量等对战争行动的影响。即使是导弹、核武器等现代技术兵器使用于战争,仍然受上述因素的制约。
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    三江平原开发与整治论坛
    从气候资源特点探讨三江平原合理开发与整治
    刘兴土
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (2): 188-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.02.188
    摘要   PDF (469KB)
    三江平原地区包括黑龙江、松花江、乌苏里江冲积形成的沼泽化低平原、兴凯湖平原以及横亘其中的完达山地,面积辽阔,资源丰富,是我国尚未充分开发的地区之一。
    Based on the climatic law of the Sanjiang Plain,the following suggestions on the rational development and administration of the region were pointed out. They are (1)to fertilize the existing farmland to increase yield of unit area as the agricultural direction in the future because of rich light energy resource and great production potenfial;(2)to carry out the lpolicy [regulating rivers and watercourses bringing waterlogging and draught under control and [combining draingge with storage in view of the ratio of precipitation and possible evapora-tion and unsteady precipitation;(3)to distribute rationally crops and variety to prevent low temperature hazard according to the thermal condition;(4)to take the measures to make the change of the ecological environment in good circulation because recently soil erosion becomes serious.
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