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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1988年, 第8卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1988-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    环境科学研究的实践——献给中国科学院长春地理研究所成立三十周年
    黄锡畴, 王稔华, 张学林
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 101-113,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.101
    摘要   PDF (1041KB)
    本文从 1.环境背景值;2.环境中化学元素迁移转化规律;3.环境中污染物的迁移转化规律;4.地方病环境病因;5.环境分析方法;6.环境制图;7.环境经济等7个部分总结回顾了长春地理研究所近20年从事环境科学研究的实践及取得的进展和成就。
    This paper reviewed and retrospected the research practice of the environmental science, and achievements and progresses gained by Changchun Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences in the last twenty years.It was described in 7 sections as follows. 1. study on the background value of the environment; 2. study on the movement and transfer rule of elements in the environment; 3. study on the movement and transfer rule of pollutants in the environment; 4. study on the environmental cause of endemic disease; 5. study on analysis methods of the environment; 6. study on the environmental mapping; 7. study on the environmental economics.
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    中国第四纪冰期气候与环境探讨
    郭旭东
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 114-126,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.114
    摘要   PDF (882KB)
    本文对我国第四纪冰期气候和环境进行了综合定量分析,澄清了冰期雪线的概念,研究了现代和冰期气候雪线的变化规律,认为冰期对中国北部和东部均属非冰川区的冰缘环境。
    Both topographic snow line and climatic snow line are the highest line of snow cover in extremely high temperature in summer, not the product of extremely low temperature climate in winter. Through the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the climate and environment in the glacial period in China, it is considered that the eastern and northern parts of China in the Quaternary belonged to the periglacial environment in non-glacial zones, There was no cold trough in the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River, And the mountain height never went beyond the upper limit of forest line.
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    三江平原沼泽辐射平衡与小气候基本特征
    刘兴土
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 127-135,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.127
    摘要   PDF (555KB)
    本文利用在三江平原沼泽地和开垦后裸地有关辐射平衡与小气候的大量实测数据,探讨沼泽表面辐射平衡的变化规律,并且用热平衡台站规范方法和土柱热含量方法计算土壤热通量,进而分析沼泽土壤温度和贴地气层温湿度的基本特征及开垦后小气候环境的演变,为合理开发利用和保护沼泽提供重要的科学依据。
    In the mire and reclaimed farmlands of the Sanjiang Plain, radiation balance, soil temperatute, and temperature and humidity of air were measured. And soil-heat flux was calculated with different methods. Through the analysis of a lot of data, the daily variations and the law of vertical distribution of microclimate factors on the bog surface were obtained. It is found that after the mire is reclaimed, the radiation balance increases, both soil temperature at different depths and air temperature of various height near the ground rise, and air humidity decreses obviously. Therefore, one should take the establishment of the artificial ecosystem of paddy, reed and fish breeding as the main developing direction of mire, at the same time, protect some mire in order to prevent the environment from getting dry, and maintain regional ecological balance.
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    近三十年黄淮海降水演变特征
    许孟英
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 136-145,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.136
    摘要   PDF (504KB)
    本文根据1951—1980年黄淮海地区50个气象站逐月降水资料,采用等级划分方法,分为五个等级,即多、偏多、正常、偏少、少。分析五种降水月出现频数,不同季节多雨月和少雨月次的年际变化,以及降水的周期变化。
    Based on the monthly precipitation data from January to December during 1951 to 1980 from 50 stations in Huang-Huai-Hai basin,precipitation is classified into five grades; flood, slight flood, normal, slight drought and drought. The frequency of five precipitation months, the interannual change of flood, drought and normal in different seasons and the periodical variation of five prvecipitation grades are anaIyzed.
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    农业地域类型划分的聚类分析
    姚建衢
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 146-155,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.146
    摘要   PDF (616KB)
    本文应用R型主因子法作农业地域类型形成的自然地理要素分析和综合指数构造,在聚类分析基础上划分综合农业地域类型。
    All the studies of areal types of agriculture depend largely upon the qualitative investigation in terms of geographical princeples, which tends to wards subjective appraisal of rational distribution of agriculture. Taking Lingxian county, northeast Shandong Province, which is located in the Huangfan Plain as a study region,the thesis lays emphasis on the quantification for elements of physical geography affecting the agricutural diversity as well as the clustering method for classification. By combining mathematical simulation with the conventional geographical analysis, this approach shows superiorities in improving objectivity and precision in the classification of areal types of agriculture with the aid of electronic computers. Throngh comprehensive classification, Lingxian county is divided into 5 comprehensive areal types of agriculture.
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    城市总体规划中的风象原则
    周一星
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 156-164,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.156
    摘要   PDF (587KB)
    本文按四个阶段综述了城市总体规划中的风象原则的发展过程。作者主张先考察一个城市的静风频率,然后分析风的指数和污染机率,最后在城市功能分区中应用图1的城市布局典型图式。
    Since 1970s large numbers of Chinese geographers have taken part in urban master planning and environmental protection, and made progress in the applied research on wind regime principle in urban master planning.But actually it has not been fully understood in urban planning and architectural circles. In order to promote the mutual understanding between architecurers, urban planners and geographers, this paper summarizes the development of wind regime principle in urban master planning of China, which is divided into four stages: 1) the principle of single prevailing-wind direction, 2) the principle of the least wind frequency and the wind direction’s rotation; 3) the principle of wind regime frequency, and 4) the principle of wind pollution index and pollution frequency. The author holds that it is better to integrate the advantages of several methods. First, to check the frequency of calm in a city, then to analyse the wind pollution index and pollution frequency of various wind directions, which is the main task of the analysis of wind regime in most of cities,finally, in urban functional zoning, to apply the typical patterns of urban layout in Fig. 1, but to change the wind direction of the least wind frequency into the wind direction of the least pollution frequency, the prevailing-wind direction into the wind direction of the most pollution frequency.
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    城市地貌图的设计思想和编制方法初探——以南京市城区地貌类型图为例
    沙润, 李久生
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 165-172,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.165
    摘要   PDF (1052KB)
    城市地貌的研究在我国刚刚起步,城市地貌图属于应用地貌图。本文结合实例对城市地貌图的图例系统和一般编制方法进行了探讨。
    The urban geomorphological map is one of the basic maps for urban construction. The mapping of urban geomorphological maps must be based on the urban environmental and geomorphological conditions, meet the needs of urban construction, focus attention on the key points,and contain substantial contents. This paper deals with the principles of classification, the legend system and the general mapping methods in combination with the mapping of the geomorphological type map of the city proper of Nanjing.
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    浙江温州地区沿海平原的成陆过程
    吴松弟
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 173-180,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.173
    摘要   PDF (562KB)
    本文分析了唐宋以来温州地区沿海平原的成陆过程,论述了成陆过程的主要特点,指出成陆过程基本上局限于南北雁荡山间和几条东西支脉之间,总的看成陆过程十分缓慢,但明清以来经济开发规模增大,使成陆速度不断加快。
    The analyses of the epeirogenic process of the coastal plain in Wunzhou district since the Tang and Song dynasties show that the epeirogenic process has the following characteristics. The epeirogenic process was basically confined to the section between the South and North Yandang Mountain and several branch ranges from east to west. The epeirogenic sepuence of the same river was southwest first northeast second. In general the epeirogenic process cf the coastal plain in Wunzhou district is very slow. In the long historical period land only advanced ten or twenty kilometers. Since the Ming and Qing dynasties agricultural development and forest felling caused forest destruction and soil erosion to accelerate the epeirogenic rate of coastal plain continually.
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    问题讨论
    福建省境内中、南亚热带之间界线的数值划分
    晏路明
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 181-188,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.181
    摘要   PDF (522KB)
    本文建立了划分中、南亚热带的Fuzzy综合评判模型,从而确定了福建省境内的中、南亚热带之间界线的最佳位置,客观地、定量地表示出这条界线的过渡状态。在模型中,还运用PCA方法确定了因素的权数分配。
    The mathematical model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of the division between the middle and south subtropical belts is set up to define the most reasonable location of the boundary between the two belts in Fujian Province, and to show the various transitional states near the boundary objectitvely and quantitatively. In the design of the model, some relatively recognized climatic indices and their standards of division are chosen to guarantee single-factor evaluation rationality. In the comprehensive evaluation, the method of principal component analysis(PCA) is applied to determine the weight assignation of related factors, so as to avoid subjectivity and to balance the deviation of the index boundary objectivelyo Finally, the paper discusses the east and west sections of the boundary in dispute, and points out that it is difficult for traditional qualitative methods to explain fuzziness of geographic boundary, while the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model has its advantages in this respect.
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    学术活动
    国际地理联合会(IGU)景观综合工作组及其学术活动简介
    王凤慧
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 188-188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.188
    摘要   PDF (71KB)
    景观综合工作组是IGU的17个工作组之一,全称为"景观综合——复杂景观管理的地生态学基础"(Landscape Synthesis—Geoecological Foundation of Complex Landscape Management)。景观综合工作组的主要任务是:(1)建立和发展景观综合研究的理论和方法论体系;(2)以协调人—地关系为目的,组织景观综合方面的国际学术交流和研究协作。
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    问题讨论
    更新山泥炭的理化性质及其变化规律
    张伟才
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 189-195,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.189
    摘要   PDF (427KB)
    更新山泥炭沼泽经历了由低位—中位—高位沼泽的三个发育阶段,并相应形成了低位木本-草本泥炭、中位木本-草本-藓类混炭和高位木本-藓类泥炭。不同类型泥炭,其理化性质有明显的差异。导致这些差异的原因,除了沼泽发育不同阶段的气候环境、物质来源和沼泽植物组合不同外,还与泥炭的有机质含量多寡、植物残体的分解程度等有关。
    Gengxinshan peat bog has been passing through three periods from eutrophic, mesotrophic to oligotrophic bog, and has correspondingly formed eutrophic wood-herb peat, mesotrophic wood-hreb-moss peat and oligotrophic wood-moss peat. Different types of peat have obviously different physical and chemical properties. Some properties have certain changing law. In the developing process from eutrophic to oligotrophic peat,decomposition degree,pH value, ash content(Ag), calorific value(QDTr), total sulphur content(SQg), phosphorous pentoxide content(P2O5), and humic acid content are all evidently decreased; bnt water content(Wf),volatile matter yield(Vr) and organic matter content tend to increasing; contents of SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2. in ash are apparently decreased. The reasons resulting in the differences of these properties are related to not only the different climatic environments, nutrient sources and various plant composition in different mire developing stages, but also the organic matter content of peat and the decomposition degree of plant residues and so on.
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    学位论文摘登
    芦苇资源定量解译方法的初步研究
    孙百达
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (2): 196-198.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.02.196
    摘要   PDF (489KB)
    为提高芦苇资源遥感定量解译水平,满足生产需要,我们以黑龙江省宝清县芦苇公司苇场为试验区,对芦苇资源的遥感定量解译方法进行了初步探讨。一、芦苇资源遥感定量解译中影响因子分折芦苇的生物特性、光谱特性及二者以传感器为媒介建立起来的有机联系,是芦苇资源遥感定量解译的理论依据。
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