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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1989年, 第9卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1989-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    学位论文摘登
    沼泽生态系统的性质
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 97-104,195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.97
    摘要   PDF (596KB)
    本文作者提出"招泽是水陆相互作用的,其有半水半陆过渡性质的自然生态系统"新概念。从其分布、形成途径、生态环境、沼泽植物群落和动物群落的特点等方面作了论证,并认为建立水陆相互作用的人工生鑫系统-基塘系统是沼泽生春建设的正确途径。
    Mire as an ecosystem, usually is considered as aquatic ecosystem, or terrestrial ecosystem. The author thinks that mire is a special ecosystem between these two ecosystems, and proposes the new concept that mire is a natural ecosystem with transitional nature of semi-land and semi-water formed by water and land interaction. The paper discusses the nature of mire ecosystem, the exploitation and utilization and ecological construction of mire in four parts. 1. Whereas mire ecosystem commonly occurs and exists in section or belts joined by water and land, mire can evolve from water-body or land. Except mire, other ecosystem cannot evolve from water or land, So the distri bution and growth of mire have the features of both water and land. 2. Water is the precondition and environmental factor of mire formation. Mire contains a lot of water, but it is not a real water-body.The paper discusses the hydrological regime and transition of ecological environment in terms of the existing and moving forms of water, water quality and hydrochemistry. 3. Ecological group is classified based on the comrosition and morphologicai-ecologieal feature of plant community and animal community. Some typical plants and animals in mires possess amphibious and transitional in order to adapt themselves to the special habitat of semi-water and semi-land. 4. There are various of types mire, so mire utilization are different, must depend on their features. Dike-pond system is a particular artificial ecosystem with water-land interaction. It makes good use of water and land resources. Building artificial sterero water-land system of planting and cultivating is an excellent successful experience in ecological construction of mire. According to the principile of dike-pond system, varionus patterns have been created in China.
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    理论地理学的科学问题
    杨吾扬
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 105-112,195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.105
    摘要   PDF (626KB)
    本文探讨了作为现代地理学理论分支的理论地理学的科学问题.作者以其它自然科学和经济学为参照系,指出一门科学理论分支的产生,是该科学走向成熟的表现。继而分析了四分之一个世纪来,理论地理学的主要成就,包括美,英和苏联的代表性作品评述。文章重点讨论了理论地理学的内容结构,指出人与环境、区位论和区城研究是结合社会盛要、并使地理学的三个传统学派创新、融合的产物。提出了理论地理学在现代地理学体系中的枢纽地位.
    Theoretical geography is a new branch of cortemporary geography. Compared with traditional geography, contemporary geography has three obvious characteristics.The whole process of the development of theoretical geography has been denoted since the 1950s. Theoretical geography consists of three main sections: 1) human being and environiment, i.e. man-earth relationship, 2)location theory as the core of this new branch, 3)regional studies introduced from systematic theory and new technology.Each section inherits one of the academic schools of traditional geography (ecological,spatial and regional) but has been intensified by innovations. Theoretical geography plays a pivotal role in geographical system.
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    陆桥运输浅析
    祁勇
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 113-121,195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.113
    摘要   PDF (652KB)
    本文从国际大陆桥运输状况分析入手,着重论述了我国开展欧亚大陆桥运输的可能性和经济效益及其与海运直达路幼的比较,提出了我国开展大债桥运抽的四个方案(绥芬河、大连、天津、连云港),并进行方案比较分析。
    The trnsport by railways through continents refers to the transport from one seaport to another one by railways across continents instead of ocean shipping. At present there are two transport routes; one is Asia—America—Europe route, the other is Europe—Asia route. The paper analyzes the present status of international transprt by railways through continents, discusses the probability and economic benefit that China carries out the transport by railways through Euraia. The distances and time of transport by railways and by sea are compared,Four plans of transport from China to some seaports by railways are proposed and compared, These four plans are Suifenhe Planet Dalian Plan, Tianjin Plan and Lianyungang Plan.
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    武夷山区农业气候资源开发与经济效益的研究
    张养才, 李全胜
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 122-132,195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.122
    摘要   PDF (652KB)
    本文较系统分析了武夷山南北坡不同高度不同地形光、热、水农业气候资源特征,运用模糊数学理论对武夷山区农业气候资凉合理利用的模糊数学评判,握出了主要农作制和经济林果的适宜栽种层次,并运用服挂决策寻找最佳的作物布局和农作创。指出当前农业气傲资源开炭利用主要是在300m以上山区,特别是300-600m高度的稼合开发,将是萦荣山区经济的重要因素之一。
    This paper studies the features of agroclimate resources of light, heat and precipitation in different sloping positions.sloping fields,basins and valleys, and the ecological environment types of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry in the vertical direction; and approaches the ways to exploit rationally agroclimate resources and the economic benefit, according to the meteorological data from the stations (300,500,800,1000m above sea level) on the three profiles (southeast, northwest and north slopes) from 1983 to 1986,and the short-term investigation on different basins and valleys, by referece to agricultural data of the mountainous region, and applying fuzzy estimation and the theory of systematic engineering. The inversion in this mountainous region brings on favorable thermal resources to agricultural production, to create a warmer agroclimatic ecological environment. So it is suitable to plant thermophilic crops and long-growing and late-maturing varieties as well as subtropic ecnomie fruit trees.
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    试论长春市商业地域结构
    李振泉, 李诚固, 周建武
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 133-141,195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.133
    摘要   PDF (655KB)
    本文在实际调查的基础上,分析了长券市育亚地域结构的历史演变和现状特征,根据长春市商业区位条件和城市经济发展状况,对长春市商业地域结构的合理调整与布局提出了一些探讨性的意见.
    Commerce, as a bridge linking production with consumer, plays an increasingly important role in the development of commodity economy today.The rationality of commercial district structure directly affects the economic benefit of commercial enterprises and the consumer need. So it is very necessary to study commercial district structure in order to dispose commercial enterprises reasonably, raise the economic benefit of commercial enterprises, satisfy increasingly consumer need and play the role of commerce in the development of urban economy. On the basis of the investigation,this paper analyzes the historical evolution and the present characteristics of commercial district structure in Changchun. Some constrtictive suggestions on the reasonable regulation and the disposition of commercial district structure in Changchun are made accor ding to its location conditions and economic development level.
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    田间土壤水分垂直入渗模型及其应用
    宿青山, 孙永堂
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 142-151,195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.142
    摘要   PDF (533KB)
    本文利用第二类边界问题的解法,结合肇州试验场所进行的试验,对土壤水分垂直入渗的数学模型求解,得出了在降雨和灌溉条件下,既不积水又不产流时土壤水分运动入渗解,提出了入渗精度。
    In this paper a solution of soil-water infiltration under the conditions of rainfall and irrigation is obtained through solving the mathematical model of field soil-water infiltration with the second type boundary. This solution coincides with practical response better than the solution with the first type boundary. And the calculation precision is improved. According to the infiltration test data of Zhaozhou testing ground, the distribution in time and space, the capacity and velocity of soil-water infiltration are calculated and analyzed. It is very important to utilize and manage ratoinally resources of soil, water and fertilizer.
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    陕北榆林沙区滩地水土农业生产条件
    陈广庭
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 152-157,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.152
    摘要   PDF (761KB)
    陕北榆林沙区滩地甚多,按成因可分为古河谷型、湖沼洼地型和风蚀注地型.湖沼注地型滩地面积大、平坦,土澳下部有来经充分分解的泥炭,但土坡低温和水分过饱和,是从事农业生产的不利因素.本文针对这些提出井浓井排与沟排相结合排水,利用草炭和明砂改造土城等措施,建设稳产高产基本田来发展滩区的农业生产。
    According to the origin and formation process, the sandy bottomland in Yulin, northeru Shaanxi is divided into three types: ancient valley, lake-mire lowland and wind erosion lowland. Among them, the lake-mire lowland accounts for over 75% of the total bottomland area. Taking Mangkeng bottomland as an example, the author analyses the advantages and disadvantages of water and soil conditions in the lake-mire bottomland. Because it developed from peat mire, peat layer and gley horizon are universally distributed under the soil layer. The peat layer consists of humus which is not completely decomposed. It can be used after maturation forced by man. The low tempe rature and excessive water saturation caused by gley horizon ropiness are the disadvantages of agricultural production. In accordance with the conditions mentioned above, the measures proposed are combining well drainage and well irrigation with ditch drainage, using turf and surface sand to improve soil, building the basic farmland with stable and high yield to develop agricultural production in bottomland.
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    研究报导
    铅锌冶炼厂大气污染主要模式及防治
    赵桂久, 章申, 于丽长, 彭菊初
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 158-162,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.158
    摘要   PDF (328KB)
    为了探讨铅锌冶炼厂排放废气对周围环境污染情况,我倪对Cu, pb, Zn, Cd在冶炼广周围土壤、植物中的分布、迁移与累积规律进行了研究,揭示了我国亚热带地区铅锌冶炼厂大气污染规律的模式,为了实行工农联合、统一规划、合理布局、综合防治提供了科学依据。
    The forms and degree of air polluting surroundings are different due to the differences of regional climatic conditions resulting from different natural geographical environments. There are mainly three air pollution patterns, 1) wind-rose pattern, 2) air pollution extent pattern, and 3) topography pollution pattern. According to the law that smelteries pollute their surroungdings in subtropic regions with lead and zinc smelteris in China, three types of plants (sod, castor and broadleeaf trees) should be planted according to the pollution degree.
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    赤峰达来诺尔水化学主要特征及其形成
    高照山
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 163-172,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.163
    摘要   PDF (633KB)
    本文阴述了达来诺尔水化学以氯及钾纳离子为主是Cl卜型水的主要特征,硬度低、碱度高,盐量高,水中离子随季节变化。由于基岩中含砷、锡、铁高,迫使湖水形成这种离子的异常区,铭与其它有害元素甚微,说明湖水仍舜持天然状态,并分析了形成这种特征的原因。
    Hydrochemistry in Dalai Nur Lake consists mainly of Cl, K and Na, is ClINa type of water. The hardness is low, the alkalinity is high, salt content is up to 5.62g/l, 2.7times higher than that of the Lake of the Changbai Mountain. The ion contents in Dalai Nur Lake water change with seasons, winter>spring>autumn and summer, except HCO3-. Even the same ion, its content has a little change in different places and depth of the lake, generally less than 1—3%. Water of the lake contains As, Cd and Fe. But Cr and other harmful elements are very little. Ions in the lake come mainly from bedrock and the Quaternary system. Ions in bedrock and soils are solved and leached by precipitation to enter water. Under the control of topography, the water containing these ions move to the lake area, to empty into the lake. Through the complex hydrological geochemical action of these ions in the lake, Ca, Mg and HCO3- are combined into non-soluble salts to be precipitated; ions of K, Na and Cl are relatively accumulated, forming ClINa type of water.
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    利用耗散结构理论分析河道演变
    王铮
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 173-180,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.173
    摘要   PDF (474KB)
    自然地理环境中的河道,可以看作是prigogine所定义的开放系统,这时出现的稳定态,一个充分小的宏观局域内热力学性质是一致的,但不同的宏观局域性质不同,它们形成了一种有序结构一一耗散结构。本文试图结合实际问题,探讨地理系统的动力学性质。
    River channel in natural geographical environment can be regarded as an open system defined by Prigogine, This paper approaches the formation of dissipative structure and analyzes river channel change with the theory of dissipative structure. The dynamic characteristics of river channels are shown in conclusions 1—5.
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    辽宁省苹果气候资源综合评价模型
    刘闯
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 181-188,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.181
    摘要   PDF (418KB)
    本文从影响苹果生长的各气候要素的单因于评价入手,通过各因子权重分配,建立综合评价模型.评价结果得到辽宁省苹果气候资源三种分布类型:适宜发展地区、比较适宜发展地区、不适宜发展地区.
    This paper discusses how to establish the mathematical model to evaluate apple climate resource in Liaoning Province, and gives the fuzzy mathematical evaluation models of 8 single factors.
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    吉林省商品粮基地粮食生产潜力的研究
    胡细银
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 189-191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.189
    摘要   PDF (214KB)
    吉林省哪些县可做为商品粮基地来建设?为回答此问题,笔者首先采用多指标综合价值评定法(指标包括粮食、自然条件、社会经济条件三方面共10项,其权重分别为0.5、0.25、0.25),对各县的粮食生产水平在全省的位次进行了评价。
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    自然保护区图的研制——以广西(山王卄)岗自然保护区为例
    陈小钢
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (2): 192-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.02.192
    摘要   PDF (223KB)
    根据地图信息传输和感受理论,地图学实质上是客观实体表象、符号化视觉信息传输和视觉心理、物理感受过程的科学。
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