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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2005年, 第25卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2005-11-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    全球化与重建国家城市体系设想
    顾朝林, 陈璐, 丁睿, 李震, 代媚媚
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 641-654.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.641
    摘要   PDF (1203KB)
    中国城市体系在城市化发展过程中为国家创造和聚集了巨大的物质和精神财富,尤其改革开放以来,国家城市体系发展很快。"十一五"期间,中国要参与经济全球化,并在国际经济中占有相对重要的地位,国家城市体系建设具有特别重要的意义。从全球化影响入手,就国家城市体系重建,例如城市体系发展战略、城市等级规模分布、城市体系功能重组、城市体系空间格局以及城市体系支撑系统进行研究。
    Globalization, internationalization, communication and high-technology are restructuring the world. Analyses of urbanization in developing countries will boost a better understanding of the impact of current globalization trends on cities. The growing interconnection between places in the world has indeed resulted in more interaction between cities throughout the world and a fundamental change in the organization of urban and regional economies. This new trend of globalization has caused most important impact on the prospects of cities all over the world. China has entered WTO since 2001. The globalization process has some impacts on urban development in the costal areas and has restructured national urban system. This paper will focus on the national urbanization strategies, urban hierarch and rank by size distributions, restructuring of function of global urban system, new spatial structures and so on.Since the China's reform and opening up, Chinese urban systems have developed rapidly. During the period of the 11th Five-year Plan, China will take part in the process of economic globalization and take an important position in the international economy, so the construction of national urban system will be of vital significance. This paper demonstrates that the urbanization degree will arrive at around 70% in the next 30 to 40 years. By 2020, urbanization degree will arrive at around 52% and there will be more than 1000 cities to be built up as municipalities. With China entering WTO and jointing globalization, it's vital for China to construct international cities. During the years between 2005 and 2020, China will establish several global cities in order to participate in the process of economic globalization and hold an important position in the international economy. The Chinese urban system will foster Shanghai and Hong Kong as core cities of the global city-regions, Beijing as global city, and Shenzhen, Qingdao, Dalian etc. as international cities. Simultaneously, it's also important to construct such cities as Zhuhai, Manzhouli, Dongxing, Alashankou and Er/enhot in developing border trade and export bases. Besides, some hub cities are also the principal parts in reconstructing national urban system. The hub cities are mainly composed of four types of cities: central cities of the big region, regional central cities, provincial central cities, and local central cities.Choosing some urban agglomerations as developing bases, some large cities as network nodes and constituting the spatial structure to link with global urban system are also important. That is to form "Three Verticals and Two Horizontals" national urban system development axes and sub-regional urban system composed of three urban agglomerations, seven city clusters and seventeen urban growing regions. Especially the importance is the construction of megalopolis of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta, Zhujiang(Pearl) River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin Region. Besides, the urban system development of western China is also concerned. Three provinces including Tibet, Ningxia and Qinghai need to be actively developed provincial and municipal cities and plannedly develop three or four central cities. Five provinces including Shaanxi, Gansu, Guizhou, Guangxi and Xinjiang need to adequately control the size of the primary cities, and actively develop sub-central cities. And the growth-pole and development-axis sustainable systems are to be completed.The main tasks of sustainable system by 2020 are as follows. (1) Construct high-speed railway and express railway, for example, to open Beijing-Shenyang express dedicated passenger line; to build Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and new passenger line from Chengdu to Chongqing; to build electrified railways from Beijing to Zhengzhou, Wuhan to Guangzhou, Harbin to Dalian, Chongqing to Dazhou, Chengdu to Kunming and from Zhuzhou to Guiyang; to build international railway path from Kunming to Southeast Asia. (2) Extend national trunk railway networks. Complete railway networks of East China, extend largely railway networks of Middle China, basically form railway framework of western China. (3) Build "Five Verticals and Seven Horizontals" national trunk highway networks composed of high-level roads. (4) Construct high-speed transportation systems for rapid urbanization regions. For example, construct three-hour Traffic Circle of the Changjiang River Delta, traffic systems of Bohai-Rim Area and so on.
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    流动人口在北京中心区和近远郊区分布差异的调查研究
    鲁奇, 黄英, 孟健, 王国霞, 李娟
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 655-663.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.655
    摘要   PDF (976KB)
    为深入认识中国流动人口在城市内不同地带就业、生活的分布状态与分布差异,选择北京为例,着重社会学角度,分析研究了流动人口在北京中心区、近郊区、远郊区三个地带的分布差异。发现:①中心区、近郊区、远郊区的流动人口在人口来源地、来京时间长度、年龄结构、教育水平、职业构成、收入水平、居住状况、未来愿望等诸方面存在明显的地带分布梯度差异;②除教育程度相对较低外,中心区是来源地较近、年龄较大、来京时间较长、收入相对较高、就业相对稳定、消费水平相对较高之外来人口聚集地;③近远郊区是来源地较远、年龄较轻、来京时间较短、收入相对较低、就业稳定性较差、消费水平相对较低而教育程度却相对较高的外来人口主要分布区。
    Based on the practical data from the field survey conducted in 2004 by the authors, the official network bulletin and the statistical materials, this paper studies the distribution differentiation of the immigrants in the three areas of centre, near suburb and outer suburb of Beijing in their original hometowns, education level, age structure, employment, unemployment, professional training, income, consumption and future planning and so on, for the further understanding of the regional distribution differentiation of immigrants in the other large cities of China. This paper found: 1)Distribution differentiations of the immigrants in their age structure, time of their staying in Beijing, education level, employment, income, consumption, housing and willing for future migration are very clear in the three belts in general, and the characteristics of regional distribution differentiation of the migrants in the city proper in some respects are particularly different form those of the immigrants in the near and outer suburbs. 2)The city proper is the major settlement area for the immigrants with nearer hometowns to Beijing, longer stay time in Beijing, higher income, relatively stable employment etc., but with lower education level than those of the immigrants in near and outer suburbs. 3) Near and outer suburbs are the major settlement areas for the immigrants with farther hometowns, shorter stay time in Beijing, lower income, relatively unstable employment but higher education level and so on. 4) Some similar phenomena of the immigrants might be found in the other big cities in China, so it is an interesting question which needs further to study.
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    城市居住-就业空间特征及组织模式——以广州市为例
    周素红, 闫小培
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 664-670.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.664
    摘要   PDF (1001KB)
    作为城市居民生活与生产的两大载体,城市居住与就业用地及其空间组织对城市发展及空间格局起着重要的作用。随着中国城市社会经济和城市规划建设的发展,大城市居住-就业的空间格局发展巨大的变化。本文以广州为案例,分析了广州市居住-就业空间均衡性、宏观空间组织模式和不同片区的居住-就业中微观空间组织模式等,并从历史因素、政府因素、市场因素和社会因素等角度揭示了广州"自上而下"和"自下而上"两种力量共同作用下,居住-就业空间格局的演化过程和规律。论文倡导多元化的土地开发模式,提倡从居住与就业空间协调的角度调节交通需求的空间分布,进而优化城市空间结构,达到提高城市运作效率的目的,并试图在研究视角上为国内其他城市的同类研究提供借鉴。
    Being two main types of the urban land use, residential land and industrial land have important impact on urban structure. The study on this field is becoming one of the hot topics in the field of Urban geography. With the development of urban society and economy in China, the spatial organization of employment and residential sites changed greatly, which brought important impact on urban development, such as the efficiency of land use, the urban environment, the urban sustainability, etc. By some research on the characteristics of the jobs-housing balance and the typical models of the organization of the employment and residential sites in Guangzhou, some conclusions are carried out. Firstly, with the impacts of the multi-factors, such as the factors from the local government, from the market, and the society, etc., the relationship between jobs-housing in Guangzhou is becoming much more balanced, which helps to relieve traffic congestion, improve living conditions, and optimize urban structure. Secondly, there are several spatial models of jobs-housing relationship due to the dynamic factors, such as the bottom to top and top to bottom systems. The redistribution and sprawling of residential area leading the development of the distribution of both industrial land and commercial land is one of the most typical land use model in recent years, which results in the much longer distant of commuting in new developed area. Thirdly, the mixed land use instead of functional zoning is more helpful to shorten people's travel distance and make the city more efficient.
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    中国土地利用空间分形结构及其机制
    朱晓华, 蔡运龙
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 671-677.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.671
    摘要   PDF (989KB)
    应用分形理论对中国土地空间分形结构及其机制问题进行了有益探讨。首先计算了中国不同土地利用类型空间结构的分维与稳定性指数;其次,分析了北京、安徽、江苏、广东、贵州、新疆、西藏、辽宁等8省区的土地分形结构;进而,在计算北京等8省区土地结构分维与图斑数、平均图斑面积、平均图斑形状指数、第一产业、第二产业、第三产业关联度的基础上,探讨了区域土地图斑数和相应图斑形状指数对土地空间结构分维的重要影响。指出:土地结构分维所能体现出的信息主要还是受到土地类型本身几何属性的影响。
    Mandelbrot enunciated the uncertainty of the length of a coastline in his paper"How long is the coastline of Britain?"published in " Science" in 1967. The fractal concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since. It is a new method to describe the complexity of nature. Applications of fractal theory to LUCC have involved in calculating of fractal dimensions of different land types, right research methods, fractal description of land structure and its evolution, fractal modeling of regional landscape patterns, etc. Although related studies have been done in such aspects, few references on spatial fractal characters of China's land use and its fractal mechanism have been seen to date. The problem is studied in this paper. At first, the fractal dimensions and stability indexes of spatial structure of different land types of China are calculated. Secondly, the fractal characters of land use structure in eight typical provinces of China, including Beijing, Anhui, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Liaoning, are analysed, the physical mechanism of spatial fractal structure of land use is also revealed. Finally, it is indicated that patch number and average shape indexes of different regions are the most important factors that influence the land spatial fractal structure. In other words, the land spatial fractal structures of eight provinces are mainly influenced by the geometric characteristic of spatial pattern of land use.
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    莱州湾南岸巨淀湖沉积地层分析与沉积环境辨识
    韩美, 张丽娜
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 678-682.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.678
    摘要   PDF (630KB)
    湖相沉积地层中沉积物的岩性特征、粒度特征和孢粉组合特征具有良好的环境指示作用,本文对位于莱州湾南岸平原上的巨淀湖沉积地层进行了研究。通过对沉积物的岩性特征和粒度特征进行分析,划分出了湖区的垂向沉积序列。通过地层对比并结合14C测年数据,确定了湖区全新世泻湖-浅海-海滩相沉积层的层位和特征,并对该层及其以上地层进行了地层划分,判断出各层的沉积环境。通过对选取样品进行孢粉分析,并结合邻近地区的孢粉组合特征和气候环境特征,得出了该湖区中全新世以来的气候环境特征。
    Because the rock characteristics, granularity features and spore-pollen assemblage features of sedimentary material in lake facies can be used to show the environment, Judian Lake sedimentary area which lies in the south coastal plain of Laizhou Bay is studied on sedimentology. The vertical sedimentary sequence of this sedimentary area is divided combining with the granularity features and rock characteristics of sediments. By comparing with the strata of "Holocene Series of the coastal plain of Laizhou Bay" and combining 14C age measurement, the strata position, features of the lagoon-shallow sea-beach sedimentary facies and the sedimentary environment of each stratum are confirmed. By spore-pollen analysis of 10 samples and the features of spore-pollen assemblage and climatic environment, the features of environmental evolvement in the south coastal plain of Laizhou Bay since the Middle Holocene were summarized.
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    黄土模拟小流域降雨侵蚀中地面坡度的空间变异
    王春, 汤国安, 张婷, 李占斌, 肖学年, 吴良超
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 683-689.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.683
    摘要   PDF (1029KB)
    运用近景数字摄影测量方法,获得在不同人工降雨时段黄土模拟小流域高精度、高分辨率的DEM数据,并以地面坡度及其组合形态的变化为切入点,通过对比分析和理论验证探讨黄土小流域降雨侵蚀过程中地貌的发育特征。研究结果表明:1)在不同的侵蚀发育阶段,黄土地貌平均坡度及坡度组合持续变化。平均坡度在地貌发育幼年期呈加速增长趋势,到了壮年期增长幅度呈递减性变化;坡度组合以侵蚀临界角度为轴点呈持续逆转变化,侵蚀临界坡度单元所占面积基本保持稳定。2)黄土地貌地面坡度及其组合形态的变异不仅能有效表征黄土高原地貌形态的空间变异规律,也可以对黄土地貌侵蚀规律和它产生的时间规律进行高分辨率的地貌认识和划分。
    The topographic feature is one of the main factors that influence the process of soil erosion and sediment yield of small watershed. It is very necessary to quantitate the topographic feature of small watershed and get the correlative parameters rapidly. According to the process resemble principle and statistic analysis of the topographic feature of small watershed on the Loess Plateau, the small tested watershed is designed. Based on 25 artificial simulated rainfalls, the dynamic development process of the topographic feature of the tested small watershed is studied by means of photogrammetry and GIS technology. DEMs at nine different erosion levels were picked up with a high precision and resolution. The spatial variation of slope and its composition derived from these DEMs are mainly discussed through comparison analysis and experimental validation. The result shows: firstly, in the process of rainfall erosion, the velocity of the increase of the surface mean-slope is increasing during erosion prophase and decreasing during erosion activity stage. The decrease of smoother slope balanced with the increase of steeper slope at erosion critical angle, namely, the proportion of erosion critical angle histogram resultants is keeping almost steady. In addition, the variation of slope composition reflects not only the spatial variation of loess morphology, but also the rule of loess erosion and the developing process as well.
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    厄尔尼诺事件的强度与登陆广东热带气旋数量的关系初探
    唐晓春, 彭鹏
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 690-696.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.690
    摘要   PDF (703KB)
    文章对厄尔尼诺事件的强度与登陆广东的热带气旋数量之间的关系进行初步的了统计分析。结果表明: 就总的厄尔尼诺年份来看, 厄尔尼诺事件对登陆广东的热带气旋总数量没有显著的影响;但就具体的厄尔尼诺事件的强度来看, 强、中和弱的厄尔尼诺事件都对登陆广东的热带气旋有明显的影响, 只是强和弱的厄尔尼诺事件使登陆广东的热带气旋数量比非厄尔尼诺年份明显偏少; 而中等厄尔尼诺事件却使登陆广东的热带气旋数量比非厄尔尼诺年份偏多。厄尔尼诺通过影响沃克环流,使沃克环流随着厄尔尼诺强度的不同而产生不同幅度的东移,进而使登陆广东的热带气旋源地的气流出现不同情况,最后影响登陆广东的热带气旋的数量。
    The relations between the strength of the El Nino phenomenon and the amount of the tropical cyclones landing Guangdong are calculated and analyzed. The results express that the El Nino phenomenon does almost not influence the quantity of the tropical cyclones landing Guangdong in the age of the El Nino. But in regard to concrete strength of the El Nino, the strong, the medium and the weak El Nino phenomenon are all to have the obvious influence, just the strong and the weak El Nino phenomenon make the quantity of the tropical cyclones landing Guangdong be less than that in the age that have not the El Nino phenomenon, but the medium El Nino phenomenon make the quantity of the tropical cyclones be more than that in the age that have not the El Nino phenomenon. Along the influence of the Walker circulation, the El Nino make the Walker circulation move east to the different range as the strength of the different El Nino phenomenon. And it make the air circulation in the sources area of tropical cyclones landing Guangdong different, and finally affect the quantity of the tropical cyclones.
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    南京市热场分布特征及其与土地利用/覆被关系研究
    苏伟忠, 杨英宝, 杨桂山
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 697-703.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.697
    摘要   PDF (976KB)
    文章采用Landsat ETM+热红外波段反演LST,分析南京市热场分布规律,构建了土地覆被指数LCI定量表示热场分布特征与土地利用/覆被的关系。结果表明:南京市存在三个连续分布且范围较广的热岛中心,主要分布在工业区;建成区平均温度比郊区高0.972℃;土地利用/类型的空间格局总体上决定了城市热场的空间分布,下垫面介质的热特征和生物学特征差异是地表温度不同的根本原因,工业热源是南京市热岛形成的重要因素;LCI可以和城市气候模型、水文模型结合起来运用,为城市热岛提供一种新分析方法。对某一特定区域而言,随着城市化水平的提高,单位面积内LCI值逐渐减小。
    How to analyze distributional characteristics of urban thermal space and its quantificational relations with land use/cover is one of the difficult problems. Many methods can be used to study the urban heat island. Remote sensing dominates over traditional research methods because of speediness, impersonality, ninety, macroscopical feature, strong periodicity so that remote sensing becomes a kind of good tool to study urban heat island. The paper analyzed space distributional rules and the cause of formation of urban thermal space in Nanjing by using Landsat ETM+ of 2002 and established land cover index based on the relations between LST and NDVI. The result indicates that there are three centers of heat island in Nanjing, mainly in industrial region, not in commercial or residential areas. The spatial distribution pattern of land use/cover affects wholly the distributional pattern of the urban heat space; the difference of surface material's thermal and biologic feature is the essential reasons of surface temperature, because of different surface materials with different heat capacity, heat conductivity, inertia and NDVI; industrial heat has important effect on heat island. The partitioning of sensible and latent heat fluxes and, hence, surface radiant temperature response is modulated both by surface soil content and vegetation cover. The surface radiant temperature response is a function of varying vegetation cover and surface soil water content. The land cover index (LCI) can reflect surface soil water content and vegetation cover, explain the essential reasons that each land use/cover contributes differentially to urban heat island. Such an index can allow changes in land use at neighborhood-scale to be input in the initialization of atmospheric and hydrological models, as well as provide a new approach for urban heat island analysis. The LCI of urban land use is smaller than the LCI of water, forest and cropland. LCI is smaller; the intensity of urban heat island is stronger. For a special region, LCI will increase gradually per unit with higher urbanization level.
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    小江流域泥石流堆积扇形成的制约因素及其特征
    陈杰, 韦方强, 崔鹏
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 704-708.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.704
    摘要   PDF (573KB)
    在系统分析了各种因素对泥石流堆积扇形成影响的基础上,提出流域腹地中流域面积、沟床比降和堆积区主河河谷宽度及主河能量等因素对泥石流堆积扇发育的影响较大。结合TM卫星影象和1:5万地形图,解译了小江流域内泥石流堆积扇的范围。在此基础上,统计了流域腹地内两大重要条件-流域面积和沟床比降与堆积扇面积之间的关系。在小江流域,堆积扇的面积随流域面积的增加而增加,二者之间是正的指数关系;而堆积扇面积与沟床比降之间可用一个负的指数关系式表达。最后,堆积区特征对小江流域泥石流堆积扇的影响主要是其堆积空间限制了大型堆积扇,比如蒋家沟泥石流堆积扇的发展。
    The debris flow fans morphology is an integrated impact of its environment conditions. All of these conditions influencing the debris flow fans in the mountain area are sorted as inner-drainage basin and deposition basin. The way each condition influences the debris flow fans is analyzed systematically. Drainage basin area and channel gradient among the drainage factors, and width of main river valley and main river energy among the deposition basin factors, are elicited as more strong factors influencing the formation of debris flow fans. Using TM image and 1:50000 topographic maps, each debris flow deposited scopes are examined. Based on that, the relationship between the two most important factors of the inner-drainage basin and the debris flow fans is discussed. In the Xiaojiang River valley, the area of debris flow fans is basically increasing with the increasing of drainage area and a positive power function can be used to express the relationship; and a negative power function can be used to express the relationship between channel gradient and debris flow fan area. Lastly, the influence of depositional basin character on the Xiaojiang debris flow fans is mostly that the valid space confines the development of supper debris flow fans, like Jiangjia debris flow fan.
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    秦末以来秦都咸阳地貌演变
    桑广书
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 710-716.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.710
    摘要   PDF (292KB)
    秦都咸阳地貌演变研究是秦咸阳考古和关中地区历史环境演变研究不容忽视的问题。秦末以来,秦都咸阳地貌演变包括渭河河道北移和咸阳原边坡地貌变化两个方面。通过文献考证与实地考察恢复了秦末、唐、明、清各代渭河的河道位置,秦末以来秦都咸阳段渭河河道北移4 100 m,平均北移速度1.876 4 m/a,明代以前北移较慢,以后北移速度显著加快,清顺治至现代北移速度达到5.970 1 m/a。咸阳原南侧边坡上的中小切沟主要是秦以后形成的。原坡上的村庄平台是历史上人为斩齐原坡,挖掘窑洞,引起原边逐步后退的结果,是咸阳原边坡人为地貌演变的体现。
    The study on the landform evolution of Xianyang, Qin Capital, is an important problem not to be neglected in the archeology of Xianyang and the study on the historical environment evolution of Guanzhong Basin area. The landform evolution of Xianyang since the end of Qin Dynasty contains two aspects, the northward moving of the Weihe River bed and the changing of the edge slope of Xianyang tableland. With textual research on documents and on-the-spot investigation, this paper displays the different sites of the Weihe River bed from the end of the Qin Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty, and the Qing Dynasty. Since the end of the Qin Dynasty, the Weihe River bed in the reaches of Qin imperial capital area moved 4100 m toward north at an average moving speed of 1.8764 m/a. Before the Ming Dynasty the moving speed was comparatively slow, which was obviously accelerated afterwards. From Emperor Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty to modern times, the speed of northward moving reached 5.9701 m/a. The numerous short gullies of the edge slope of Xianyang tableland took shape mainly after the end of the Qin Dynasty. The village platform on the edge slope of Xianyang tableland results from landform change caused by people in their cutting the original slope and digging their living caves.
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    浙江普陀山岛老红砂的成因与环境
    李冬环, 吴正
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 716-719.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.716
    摘要   PDF (178KB)
    作者根据野外实地考察,描述了浙江普陀山岛老红砂的性状,通过样品的采集及室内分析,从老红砂的沉积结构、石英砂颗粒表面微结构特征、微量元素等揭示了老红砂属于古风砂沉积。通过与中国华南地区老红砂的比较分析,结合老红砂的年代测定数据以及普陀山岛的地理环境特征等,揭示了该地的古地理环境。
    The old red sandy sediment on Putuo Island, Zhejiang Province was once recorded in the local chorography, but no systematical research has ever been done on such old red sandy sediment. However, since the old red sandy sediment on Putuo Island proved to be a very rare case found on the north subtropical coasts in China's middle latitude area, this research turns out to be a very meaningful one, for it helps explain the origin of the old red sandy sediment as well as the ancient geographical environment in China's middle latitude zones. The field investigation conducted by the author reveals that the old red sandy sediment on Putuo Island is mainly consisted of terrigenous clastics, the sandy sediment has mainly medium-fine grain size with more silts and clays, better-medium sorting, sandy sediment in the dominant color of brown red or black brown-red. Mostly in its strip-shaped forms, the majority of the old red sandy sediment is distributed on the land capes vertical to the coast extending toward the sea. Beneath the sediment is always a granite regolith with rough surface. Taking the Feisha'ao Cape as the specimen, the authors embarked on a sample collection and a series of laboratory analysis, including granularity analysis, quartz electronic microscope scanning, XRD analysis, thermoluminescene dating test, etc., and the paper elaborated the sedimentary characteristics, origin and evolvement law of the old red sandy sediment in the area. The research results show that, the old red sandy sediment has shown that its sediment character are similar to that of recent coastal wind-drift sands, and so may be clearly distinguishable from the beach sands. The surface textures include dish-shaped pits, snakelike ridges and up-curved cleavage thin section, etc., reflecting the typical features of aeolian environment, as well as the crystal grouth showing features of surface soil weathering.Elements found in the sediment and their ratios also recognize itself as continental sediment, therefore, it could be concluded that the old red sandy sediment falls into the category of ancient effloresced sand sediment. As shown in a comparative analysis on the old red sandy sediment found in South China, the old red sandy sediment on Putuo Island is not as typically evolved as that in South China. Combined with the age-testing data of the old red sandy sediment and geographical circumstance characters of Putuo Island, it is proposed that the old red sandy sediment on Putuo Island is the effloresced sand sediments in the medium and late period of the late Pleistocene. Since the sediment was evolved in cold and dry climate with low sea level and slight oxidization, such sediment on Putuo Island is not as typical as that in South China. The sedimentary process of the red sandy sediment in this region is mainly characterized by the self-reddening in its post-sedimentary period. As a result of regional difference, the red pigment on Putuo Island, dominant by acus-shaped iron ore, is quite different from that in South China. The difference in color is reflected by a grey dark shade, dominant by brown red and black brown red.
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    基于遗传算法的水文时间序列变点分析方法
    金菊良, 魏一鸣, 丁晶
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 720-723.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.720
    摘要   PDF (550KB)
    为处理常规变点分析方法计算复杂、识别全部变点困难等问题,提出了用遗传算法进行水文时间序列多变点分析的一套新方法(AGA-CPAM)。实例计算的结果说明,AGA-CPAM用于水文时间序列多变点诊断简便、可行和有效,在各种非线性时间序列灾变分析中具有推广实用价值。
    Analysis of stages and aberrance points of hydrological time series conduces to understand and manage the complex characteristics of hydrological system evolution process, which can be applied in many fields, such as hydrological frequency analysis, hydrological prediction, hydrological computation and so on. In order to overcome shortage of common change-point methods, such as computation complex and the difficulty of diagnosing all change points, a new method of change-point analysis based on accelerating genetic algorithm developed by the authors, named AGA-CPAM for short, is presented for hydrological time series. The modeling of AGA-CPAM is the key in this paper, which includes three steps as follows. Step 1 is to determine the search ranges of change point number and position of hydrological time series according to scatter point plan and dot value figure of hydrological time series. Step 2 is to optimize the parameters of change point positions and jumping values based on the criterion of least square of the subsection fitting errors with accelerating genetic algorithm. Step 3 is to analyse the stages and aberrance points of hydrological time series obtained from Step 2 based on cause of formation, which results can be used as scientific foundation of prediction, simulation, regulation and control of hydrological time series. The computation results of the case study can include two terms as follows: (1)With the accelerating genetic algorithm developed by the authors, both of change-point position values and jumping values can be optimized at the same time, and the difficulty problem of much computation of common change-point analysis methods is solved. (2)The example results show that AGA-CPAM is visual, simple, practical and efficient, and that AGA-CPAM can also be applied to cataclysm change analysis of different nonlinear time series.
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    元胞自动机的地理过程模拟机制及扩展
    罗平, 耿继进, 李满春, 李森
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 724-730.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.724
    摘要   PDF (881KB)
    地理空间、地理梯度、地理流和空间关系是经典地理学进行地理过程分析常用的4个基本概念,元胞自动机(CA)作为复杂空间系统研究的重要工具。分析表明,其与经典地理过程分析理论具有类似地表达机制,因而能有效地进行地理过程模拟。但由于标准CA是一种更广泛抽象的空间模型,其对地理特征的描述存在一定局限,限制了其更真实地模拟地理过程的能力。论文提出了基于地理特征的CA概念模型,深圳特区土地利用演化的实证研究表明,地理特征CA概念模型具有极大的应用价值。
    Space, grade, flow and spatial relation are basic analytical conception of classical geographic process. The study shows that it has similar expressing mechanism between classical geographic process analyzing theory and cellular automata(CA) in four aspects as follows: (1) Cellular automata model express the concept of geographic space by cell, state, cellular space, etc. (2) Cellular automata represents the concept of geographic grade by the concept of neighbor. The essence of both the rule of neighbor and geographic grade is the selected object of spatial interactions, their difference is that the rule of neighbor is a kind of selective way based on geometry feature and geographic grades is a kind of selective way based on both geometry feature and non-geometry feature. (3) Cellular automata model express the concept of geographic flow effectively by local evolvement rule of cellular state, the direction of cellular flow depends on neighbor rule, and the strength of cellular flow depends on the distance between cells strongly, which is similar with the attenuation of strength of spatial interaction with distance. (4) The spatial relation of cellular automata is expressed mainly by framework and figure of cell that hides and includes spatial relation of both geometry and non-geometry. The framework and figure of cell express the absolute position of cellular space, relative position, distance, direction and topologic relation by geometry feature, and express the spatial distributing and combination of cellular state, attribute relation between spatial object. Therefore CA has ability of simulating geographic process. But as a more widely and abstractly model CA has some shortcomings of expressing geographic characteristic. The defective substance is lack in expressing geographic feature of cell, and is not able to describe the deeper geographic attribute information. It can be showed in four aspects as flows: the first is the describable restriction to geographic space cell, and not only it is not able to describe the higher spatial position, but also it is not able to describe the other geographic position that belong to attribute meaning. The second is the describable restriction to local spatial relation based on the concept of neighbor, by which local spatial interaction and spatial relation can not be represented truly because it define neighbor based on just geometry feature. The third is the restriction of presupposition that the medium of cellular flow is homogeneous. The fourth is the restriction of local evolve rule. The evolve rule of cellular state is applicable to all cells, in fact this needs an assumption that all geographic cells follow the same rule. The paper attempt to bring the geographic feature concept including geometry and non-geometry attribute into cellular automata and expend cellular automata in three aspects including cell, neighbor model and local evolvement rule: (1) selecting cellular entity concept to replace cell concept to promote the conceptual description of geographic space; (2) selecting neighbor by integrating geometric and non-geometric feature; (3) bringing attribute control into local evolve rule of cell. It makes studying flow in the condition of non-homogeneous spatial medium possible that attribute control is brought into extended-CA. Finally, the paper make a case study on land use evolvement of Shenzhen City, which draw conclusions that extended-CA model has great applied value.
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    基于机器学习规则推理的湿地识别研究
    阮仁宗, 冯学智, 肖鹏峰, 沈渭寿
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 731-736.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.731
    摘要   PDF (460KB)
    遥感作为人类获取地表信息最重要的手段之一,对于湿地研究具有重要的价值。文章运用机器学习规则推理的方法克服常规遥感研究方法在湿地研究中的弊端,使分类精度得到很大的提高。与传统的最大似然法相比,分类精度提高了13.51%, 达到了83.81%。基于机器学习规则推理分类,不仅利用了光谱信息,而且利用了纹理信息和坐标信息,并使用了掩膜技术。研究发现,这种方法能使湿地类型以及湿地与高地之间的混淆现象得到有效的克服。
    Wetland, which lies between land and aquatic systems, is one of the most important systems on the earth, and one of crucial links of matter and energy exchange in the earth systems. Remote sensing, one of the significant methods for the acquisition of the information on the earth surface, is a valuable tool to the researches of wetland. In the paper, the machine learning methodology is used to identify the wetland in order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional methodology in the research of wetland. Compared with traditional classification method, rule-based inferring method has improved the accuracy of classification by 13.81%. In the classification of wetland by using machine learning methodology, not only the spectral features of geo-objects, but also other features such as textural features, location features are used. Moreover, the mask technique is used too. It is proven that the technology can really improve the accuracy of classification of wetland greatly.
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    松花江上游地区汞污染的化学生态效应
    王宁, 朱颜明, 朴明玉, 孟丹
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 737-741.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.737
    摘要   PDF (712KB)
    采样分析了吉林省东部松花江上游金矿开采区及其附近水、土壤、动植物及河流沉积物样品中汞的含量,发现河流沉积物中汞的污染相当严重;受其影响当地的植物和两栖类动物——中国林蛙体内总汞和甲基汞含量也明显高于对照组。实验表明,林蛙内脏对汞的富集能力大于肌肉;秋季对汞的富集大于春季;河流沉积物中甲基汞的含量与林蛙体内甲基汞的含量有较好的正相关。汞污染的来源与区域内个体金矿的滥采滥排有直接关系,表明人类活动所产生的有毒重金属在地表过程中出现了化学生态效应。
    By analyzing the mercury contained in the waters,soil, propagations and sediments near the gold mine, on the upper Songhua River, which is along the east of Jilin Province, we have founded that the mercury pollution in river sediments was very serious. Being affected by it, the mercury concentration in the plants and the amphibian,Rana Chensinensis of the polluted samples was much higher than that of the unpolluted samples. The experiment results show that the accumulation of bowels is stronger than that of muscles, that the accumulation is stronger in autumn than that in spring, and that there is positive correlation between the methyl-mercury concentration in the river sediments and that in the Rana Chensinensis's body in the region. The mercury pollution is caused by the over-exploitation and random waste-discharging by the individually owned gold mines, and shows that the pollution and chemical ecology effect, of such poisonous heavy metal, manifested through the land-surface process, is caused by excessive human activities.
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    武汉汉阳湖区土地资源评价研究
    吕晓剑, 冯长春, 郭怀成
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 742-747.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.742
    摘要   PDF (736KB)
    在Arc/info地理信息系统支持下,以武汉汉阳湖区为例,选取自然生态指标、社会经济指标和区位指标,建立了土地资源评价体系,对汉阳湖区的土地资源质量进行了科学评价。评价中运用层次分析法确定评价因子的权重,同时利用Arc/info系统强大的空间分析和图形操作功能,将图形和属性数据统一管理,加强了评价的整体性和准确性。评价结果符合当地实际情况,评价指标的选取以及评价所采用的方法体系,为城市湖泊地区进行土地资源评价提供了参考。
    Land resources is one of the basic resources to the survival of human being. Whether it can be used properly is a key problem to regional sustainable development. The purpose of land resources assessment is to identify the properties and qualities of land in various positions and situations, then to demonstrate their best utilization directions by quality classification. Hanyang is now undergoing an accelerating process of urbanization. It is a typical urban lake watershed. Disorder of land use and unsuitable exploitation intensity have brought much pressure on land sustainability and water quality. In this paper, taking Hanyang as a case, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and multifactor integrated assessment model were applied to establish an assessment system of land resources. The assessment system was composed of natural ecological factors, social economic factors and location factors. It put the same emphasis on natural properties of land resources, such as hydrological and geological conditions, as their social economics and location properties, which made it different from the traditional classification of town ground. Considering the impacts on land quality engendered by surrounding lakes and regional ecological situation, habitat environmental and ecological indicators were integrated into assessment system, so the qualities of land resources were reflected more thoroughly and typically. AHP was used in this study to obtain the weight of each indicator. The method can quantify decision-makers' experiential opinion, and combine data, expert attitude and analyzer's external judgment together. More than 20 experts on geography and ecology and relevant specialists who were familiar with the actual situation of Hanyang, were invited to fill the judgment matrix sheet. This made assessment system more authoritative in determining weights of all quantitative and qualitative indicators. Then a computer program was applied to calculate the weights, operated on the MATLAB mathematical software platform. As a result, four most important factors in assessment system were land use intensity, soil foundation bearing capacity, emporium impact and ecological sensitivity. After finishing the assessment system, property data and pictures were dealt with at the same time under the Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, which shortened the assessment period and improved the accuracy of results significantly. Using GIS technology, land database including space and property data could be developed, and with its spatial analyst models, assessment units and data could be obtained easily. Associating assessment system with GIS models, every assessment unit's synthetic score was also got. According to these scores, the quality of land resources in Hanyang was classified into five levels, and the percent of each level from I to V was 2.5%, 16.1%, 32.2%, 30.3% and 18.9%, respectively. With GIS software package, the distribution map of results is drawn. The results showed that the land resources with best quality were located in both sides of Hanyang avenue. Land around lakes like Longyang and Moshui lakes had great potential in the future due to its adjacency to water landscape and good eco-environment, and its quality was better than other land comparatively. The assessment result accorded with the actual state of Hanyang in higher extent than previous assessments. It could give much advice to regional land utilization planning, and especially conduced to harmonize land exploitation and regional eco-environment protection. The selection of assessment factors and the whole methods system used provided a reference for the assessment of land resources in similar areas.
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    记载郑和下西洋使用牵星术的海图
    刘南威, 李竞, 李启斌
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 748-753.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.748
    摘要   PDF (1249KB)
    从航海天文角度研究了《郑和航海图》的价值。《郑和航海图》是中国古代航海经验的结晶,它既是郑和等人航海实践的记录,又是宋、元时代牵星航海经验的总结。文章推算出牵星术"一指"相当于天体高度的1.9°。同时考证出以"指"为量度单位起源于战国时期,证明中国的天文导航技术由来已久,且独具特色,自成体系。
    This paper studies the value of Zheng He's Charts from the angle of navigation astronomy. Zheng He's Charts were the crystallization of the ancient Chinese navigation. They were both the records of the experiences accumulated by Zheng He and his forerunners in their seafaring activities and the summary of the astronomical navigation during the Song and Yuan dynasties.The calculation shows that the unit of measurement "Zhi" is equivalent to 1.9?. Further inference is drawn from the ancient literature that this measure in navigation astronomy originated as early as the Periods of the Warring States.
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    综述
    城市空间结构的复杂性研究进展
    房艳刚, 刘鸽, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 754-761.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.754
    摘要   PDF (1005KB)
    城市空间结构一直是城市地理学和城市规划研究的核心之一,而复杂性是正在被逐步认识的现象。目前城市空间结构的复杂性研究是城市研究的前沿领域,对城市规划也具有重要的指导价值。本文首先论述了城市系统、城市空间结构与复杂性研究的关系,然后从城市子系统空间结构复杂性、城市系统空间结构复杂性和城市空间结构演化复杂性三方面综述了国内外的研究进展。最后讨论了目前城市空间结构的复杂性研究存在的问题,并就今后的研究重点做了展望。
    Urban spatial structure is always one of research cores both in urban geography and urban plan. The complexity is known gradually by common people and researcher. The complexity studies of urban spatial structure is one of the frontiers of urban researches. It has important instructional value to urban plan. At first, this paper discusses the relationships among urban system, urban spatial structure, and complexity studies. The main part of this paper summarizes the advancement of complexity studies from the following three aspects: the sub-system spatial structure of city, the spatial structure of urban system, and the evolution complexity of urban spatial structure. In the end, this paper discusses the problem of complexity studies about urban spatial structure, and suggests the future study emphases.
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    15N示踪技术在湿地氮素生物地球化学过程研究中的应用进展
    孙志高, 刘景双, 于君宝, 王金达
    地理科学. 2005, 25 (6): 762-768.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.06.762
    摘要   PDF (1260KB)
    稳定性同位素技术是现代生态学研究中的一门应用技术,它几乎在生态学研究的各个领域都有着广泛的应用。其中15N技术由于具有示踪和区分氮素物质的源与去向等优越性而在生态系统氮循环研究中发挥了极为重要的作用。文章主要从湿地氮素的输入过程、转化过程以及归趋过程三方面综述了该技术在当前国内外湿地氮素生物地球化学过程研究中的应用进展,特别指出当前基于该技术的湿地氮素生物地球化学过程研究尚缺乏一定的系统性、深入性和广泛性。最后,文章就该技术在湿地氮素生物地球化学过程研究中的应用前景进行了展望研究。
    As an applied technology in modern ecology research, stable isotope technique has been prosperously applied to the ecological fields. Because stable isotope 15N technique can trace and distinguish the source and fate of nitrogen matters, and it plays a very important role in the research on nitrogen cycling in natural ecosystems. This paper firstly summarizes, mainly from the processes of input, transformation and fate, the advance in current research on the biogeochemical process of nitrogen in wetland based on stable isotope 15N technique. Then it analyzes the issues existed in current research, and points that, in particular, the current research is still very weak, and lacks systemic, deep and broad study. Finally, this paper forecasts the prosperous application of this technique in the research on the biogeochemical process of nitrogen in wetland, and indicates that its application will promote the depth of wetland quantitative research and contribute to the development of wetland science in China.
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