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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1986年, 第6卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1986-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    黄河三角洲国土开发与整治
    黄春海, 张祖陆
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 197-205.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.197
    摘要   PDF (794KB)
    在黄河近代与现代三角洲的上缘,利津以西,还存在一个以蒲城为顶点的古代三角洲。三角洲地区的国土开发与整治,应依据三角洲发育的三个阶段和不同的地貌类型进行分区规划,制定不同的利用方向和改造措施。黄河河道的整治,从其大水期冲刷、小水期淤积的泥沙输送规律看,有计划地引黄灌溉和引黄放淤等综合治理措施是行之有效的。
    The Yellow River delta is divided into four-grade landform types in this article.An ancient Yellow River delta was first found,it is located inthe western section of Lijin County of Shandong Province and formed between 40 B.C.and 1048 A.D.The development of the Yellow River delta can be differentiated by three stages,i.e.ancient,modern and contemporary. Based on the above-mentioned studies,the delta district can be divided into six subdistricts according to land-use conditions and the measures of rearrangeanent for these subdistricts were put forward respectively in the paper.In the light of the regularities of discharge changes and silt transportation of the Yellow River delta,The auther suggest that the water of the river should not be channeled in high flow seasons in order to let the floodwater down-erode the bed and that the water should be drawn into the fields in dry seasons in order to leach away salt by irrigation and restrain alkalinity by deposition.
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    费思孟在中国
    严德一
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 206-211.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.206
    摘要   PDF (392KB)
    费思孟教授(Herrmann Von Wissmann)奥地利人,1932年受国际联盟聘来中国,任教南京中央大学,1937年回欧洲,中经休假,在中国五年。结合教学进行野外考察,先后到山东、苏南、皖南、赣北、滇南和两广,带领学生进行实习、科研。
    This paper asseses Prof.Wissmann’s teaching career and his field investigation on topography in China during 1032-1937.Among of them,the emphysis of the investigation was placed on the granite topography in Huangshan and Laoshan mountains,the brush landscape in Yunjiang gorge of the upper reaches of the Honghe River,the acient channels in lower reaches of the Yangtze River,the genesis of loess and China’glaciate periods,all of them made a contribution to the start of the geomorphology and quaternary of China.
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    黄河中游悬浮物理化特征的地域性差异分析
    金相灿
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 212-221.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.212
    摘要   PDF (1104KB)
    文章讨论了黄河中游悬浮物的主要理化性质,结果发现黄河干流悬浮物中蒙脱石含量相对高,粒级比较粗,有机质含量比较低下,阳离子代换量相应也少,相反支流汾谓河悬浮物中伊利石较高,粒级较细,有机质含量相对高,阳离子代换量也相应高。系统分析表明上述悬浮物的理化性质和流域土壤的理化性质相近,流域黄土和土壤理化性质的地域性差异支配着河流悬浮物理化特征的地域性差异。
    The main physical and chemical nature of the suspended substance, compositions of clay soil menesal in the mid-reaches of the Yellow River were analysed and the region a 1 differentiations were studied in this paper.The results show that the contents of suspended substance were higher,silt diameter was more coarse,for the main river,but the contents of organic matter of suspended sub-stance were lower,therefore,the capacity of cation exchange was smaller for the the tributaries,for extance in the Fenhe River and Weihe River.The chemical components of suspended substance are similar to that of loess parent material in this area, according to analysis of regional soil and chemical component of silt, therefore the author suggests that suspended substance for each profile mainly came from loess area of the reaches of the Yellow River and the regional differentiations have determined the physical and chemical nature of suspended substance.
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    拉萨地区土中热通量铅直分布的基本特征
    陈万隆, 翁笃鸣
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 222-228.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.222
    摘要   PDF (352KB)
    本文应用分层土柱热含量方法,计算了拉萨地区土中各层次热通量,并对其随深度和时间的变化特征进行了分析。在分层计算土中热通量的基础之上,采用拉格朗日插值方法,计算出地面至3厘米各深处土中热通量,从而提出;为了实测通过地表面的土壤热通量,热流板的适宜埋置深度为距地面0.5厘米。
    The paper calculates and analyses vertical distribution of heat exchange and its change with depth and time,The amplitude of heat exchange in various layer of soil increases with depth,but its value decreases in index law,and is approximately proportional to average amplitude of temperalude gradient in the same layer of soil;The phase of heat exchange delays with depth in accordance with linearity,but the initial phase is earlier π/4 than average temperature wave in the same layer,On this basis of calculation of heat exchange,using Lagrange interpolation,the paper calculates the vertical distribution of heat flux of soil layer from surface to depth of 3cm and indicates that in order to measure heat flux of surface soil,it is better to put the transducer of flux plate under the surface soil about 0.5cm of depth.
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    第二松花江汞的污染与迁移过程历史分析
    王稔华, 王书海, 王起超
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 229-240.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.229
    摘要   PDF (661KB)
    本文将第二松花江汞污染分为严重、缓解、恢复三个时期,评价了江水,沉积物、鱼类汞污染水平与汞输入速率的相关性。讨论了汞在水环境中的迁移过程。计算了汞自水环境输出的速率及发展趋势。证明在严格管理汞污染源的条件下,这一水环境可通过自然疏散过程净化为无汞害的河流。
    The Second Songhua River had undergone a serious,a remissive and a recoverable periods of mercury pollution level during the reseaches (1973-1983).In the serious period,input rates of mercury and methylmereury separately had kept 33kg/day and 1.5kg/day.The level of pollution showed analogy with the Agano River where occurred the second Minamata disease in Japan. In the course of recoverable period,the input rates of mercury and methylmercury sparately had reduced to 0.3kg/day and <3 g/day.So,pollution of water,sediment and fish has been changed into slight and medium levels.Accumulated mercury in sediment amouned to about 50T.It’s to exist as compound with insoluble organic matter and ethiopsite.Deposited mercury entered again into water through scoured and suspened process that maker up about 85 per cent for the total mercury concentration.Mercury of solution transfer mak.ed up <15 per cent.Methylation of mercury is very weak in the sediment.So,concentration of methylmercury is only slightly higher than the environmental background level in the water (0.15ppt).It’s not enough to make methylmercury pollution. Deposited mercury has been outputted by the aquatic environment such as runoff,sanding,irrigation and volatilization et al.The mean output rate of deposited mercury was 0.06.Because output processes of mercury has slow carried under lower concentration conditions,it will not be able to produce new harmfulness on the surroundings.If the pollution source will be strictly controlled,deposited mercury will be purified by the natural purification in the Second Songhua River.
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    海洋遥感数字图象处理方法与实践
    黄宝艇
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 241-246.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.241
    摘要   PDF (1071KB)
    本文通过中国东部海区的实际工作,系统地探索和研究了海洋遥感信息数字图象处理的有效方法,对反差增强、彩色合成、空间卷积、指数及对数变换、比值增强、空间域变换、多功能合成及分类方法等,进行了效果评价和分析。
    Remote sensing digital image processing is a branch of computer science.Author studied,recently,the efficient method for extracting ground informat.ion on estuary area and coastal zone in South China Sea,Huanghe River mouth,Changjiang River mouth and Jiaozhou Bay and made proffesional interpretation and effect evaluation.This paper points out the key to get a good quality picture is reasonable choice and design for processing function according to the histogram of oringvnal image,the compensation process of film non-leaner feature and mean value and variance adjustment matching for the compensation process.
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    论野外测点的代表性和相似性
    陈永申, 叶芳德
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 247-253.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.247
    摘要   PDF (344KB)
    本文讨论了野外测点的代表性和相似性问题,提出了域的最优值的计算方法和热过程相似性的判別方法,并与实际大气属性观测进行了比较。野外测点的代表性和相似性,前者在于如何确定反映自然域气象属性的观测值,后者则为所得观测值,依据怎样的判别才可推广到相应边界条件的自然群落的问题。
    This paper deals with the representativeness and similarity of field observational stations,the author recommends a new method to obtain optimum value of a region in order to reveal the similarity of heat course in two field stations. The similarity problem is not only analysed in theory,but also examined with heat observation value in the paper.The results are quits satisfying too.
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    滇西北横断山区全新世古植被与古气候的演变
    汪佩芳, 孙广友
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 254-260.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.254
    摘要   PDF (1643KB)
    通过滇西北横断山区4个泥炭剖面的孢粉分析表明,全新世以来本区植被与气候主要经历了5个发展阶段。晚更新世与全新世的界限可定为12000年。各地点的泥炭堆积速率介于0.84~0.30毫米/年之间。
    Five pollen diagrams reveal palaeophytes and palaeoclimate changes during the Holocene in the North-West Yunnan Plateau of the Hengduan Mountains.The Holocene period can be divided into five stages,the vegetation and climate of each site have nothing in the common with each other. In the North-West Yunnan Plateau,swamp isn’t developed at the same time,the initial stage of swamp-forming is early period of the early Holocene,die out at late period of the middle Holocene.
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    吉林省河流的主成分分析
    杨秉赓, 王俊, 李惠明, 刘长欢, 翟耀宗, 尚金城, 纪永明
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 261-268.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.261
    摘要   PDF (436KB)
    本文采用主成分分析方法,通过电子计算机选取五个主成分,对吉林省河流的水文地理空间分布,客观地划分为十个集聚型。在分析相似性与差异性的基础上,又用欧氏距离进行了聚类分析。水在经济和社会发展中的作用不断提高,是历史发展的趋势。水资源对各种问题影响的深刻化,不仅促使人们对开发水资源的关心,而且促进人们用新的观点与方法来、重新探讨水资源分类、评价和规划。但水资源是一种动态资源,其时空变化非常复杂,因此必须采取先进手段进行深入分析,才能揭示出其规律性。此文采用了现代技术,主成分分析的数学方法,定量的对吉林省河流进行了分类,为重新评价吉林省水资源的分配和利用提供了科学依据,因而它具有重大的理论意义和实际意义。
    By means of principal component analysis,based on 5 principal components chosen by computer,the author divides the spatial disttributions of river into gathering models.This paper also proceeds the gathering analysis using Euclidean distance,which is based on the analysis of the similarities and differences of the spatial distributions.
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    问题讨论
    试论辐射干燥指数在安徽省自然地理地带中的应用
    过宝兴, 何陆祎
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 269-276.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.269
    摘要   PDF (826KB)
    自然地理地带问题,由于各家所拟区划的原则、方法和主要指标的侧重点不同,所划分的地带和界限很不一致,暖温带和亚热带的界限争议尤多。本文从热量和水分在地理环境中的对比关系——辐射干燥指数,结合辐射差额,讨论安徽省自然地理地带问题。
    This paper discusses about the problem of the physical geographical zone in Anhui province in the light of the balance of heat and water in geographical condition,i.e.the radiative aridity index and the radiation balance. According to the formula,the evaporative power E=(δ/(δ+r))(1/L)×0.8Q-(δ/(δ+r))(1/L)Re+(r/(δ+r))Ea and coefficient K=E/r and R=Q(1-a)-Re,the radiative can be calculated. Based on the chart showing the radiatative aridity index,the author divide temperature zone with K and natural zones with K,and regards the isopleth of R= 60kcal/cm2.yr as the derision between the warm temperate zone and the subtropical zone,the isopleth,of K=1.1 as the division between the deciduous broadleaf forest (brown earth) zone and the northern subtropical deciuous and evergreen broadleaf mixed (forest yellow-brown earth) zone,the isoplth of 0.8 as divesion between the northern subtropical deciduous and evergreen broadleaf mixed forest (yellow brownearth) zone and the mid-subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest (red-yellow earth) zone.Therefore,Anhui province can be diveded into three natural geographical zones:(1)The warm temperate submoist region-deciduous broadleaf forest (brown earth) zone. (2)The northern subtropical moist region-deciduous and evergreen broadleaf mixed forest (yellow-brown earth) zone. (3)The mid-subtropical moist region-evergreen broadleaf forest (red-yellow earth) zone.
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    研究报道
    北京地区土壤中镉的分布特征
    夏增禄, 李森熙, 穆从如
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 277-283.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.277
    摘要   PDF (651KB)
    本文以区域性土壤镉含量的调查和污灌区土壤镉污染的调查所取得的结果,探讨北京地区镉在几种典型土壤剖面中的分布和区域分布,并按作者拟定的分级标准编制了北京地区土壤镉含量分布图。
    The feature of cadmium distribution in profiles of some natural soil in Beijing area were discussed in this paper. Under natural condition,the cadmium was accumulated in B layer of brunisoilc soil,However,it was not accumulated obviously in leached drab soil and typical drab soil,and it was not accumulated in ling drab soil. The content of cadmium in surface was always higher than that of the subsoil in fluvo-aguic soil.The content of cadmium was increased with soil texture grade increase in subsoil of fluvo-aquic soil. The map of cadmium distribution in soil in Beijing area was drawn. Rcgional differentiation of cadmium in natural soil was less. Little soil were pollutcd in vary degress at sewage water irrigation area.
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    龙日坝泥炭沼泽改造途径的实验研究
    杨福明, 杨宗荣
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 284-289.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.284
    摘要   PDF (355KB)
    若尔盖高原沼泽是我国最大的一片高寒地区的泥炭沼泽,通过四年来沼泽地排水和实施不同的改造措施,沼泽土壤性状、植物群落和产草量均发生不同程度的变化,为改造沼泽,扩大牧场提供一些有价值的数据。
    The Ruoergai marsh is the largest peat moor of the plateau and frigid zone in China.It is disteibuted intensively over Ruoergai,Hongyuan and Aba counties,Sichuan province.The area of the peat moor is about 31.14% (1315280 acre) of the region’s total pasture area.Though the number of livestocks have increased 4.5 times since 1949,the development of the region’s animal husbandry is hindered obviously for the moor gathering water and parasites breeding.Therefore,certain representive the Longriba peat moor was selected as a study base that was transformed in 1980. This paper mainly approaches the effects and relations of some factors (physics,chemistry,biology et al.)to the moor transformation,and provides some useful experiment for improving and expending pasture.
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    学位论文摘登
    三江平原地区农业生产结构的系统诊断
    王耀麟
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (3): 290-292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.03.290
    摘要   PDF (209KB)
    农业生产是个自然再生产和经济再生产密切结合的物质生产过程。就大农业整体而言,它是个复杂超大的多元动态系统,农业系统整体功能的好坏决定于系统结构的优劣。农业生产结构是指一个地区农、林、牧、付、渔五业以及这些部门内部各生产门类在整个农业生产中的构成及其结合方式。即:农业系统的要素以及要素之间联系的总和。
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