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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1987年, 第7卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1987-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    长江流域近千年旱涝规律研究
    陈海龙
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 197-206,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.197
    摘要   PDF (796KB)
    本文探讨了历史时期长江上中游晚近1020年中264个旱涝年的时空分布规律和上游四个地区以及上中下游三个地区旱涝遭遇问题。对旱涝年际分布不均匀和年内季节分配集中以一及遭遇空间分布特点,从季风环流和下垫面特征,论证了它们的客观性和合理性.对旱涝周期和发展趋势等气候特征也作了探讨.
    According to historical records,there are 264 drought and flood years, occurred in the upper and middle reaches of the Changjiang River during last 1020 years from 961 to 1980.The evolutionary law and developing trend of drought and flood years are studied.The distribution of drought and flood years are non-uniform and the dry and flood seasons in a year are concentrated.At the angle of monsoon circulation,at present the climate in the upper and middle reaches of the Changjiang River is just in the late stage of frequent drought period and the early stage of least flood period.In addition,the cycle of drought and flood and the feature of drought and flood occurred in the upper,middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River are analyzed.It shows that the short period less than 10 years is in the majority,and the drought and flood occrred most frequently in the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River.
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    广东省农业生态系统地域结构的数值分类
    罗曼嘉
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 207-217,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.207
    摘要   PDF (816KB)
    本文采用点群分析方法,以《广东省一九八一年统计资料》为基础,选取了14个初始指标,将广东省107个县、市郊区做为分类单位,在计算机上作出广东省农业生态系统分类谱系。结果表明广东省农业生态系统的地域结构特点,大致呈以广州市为中心的同心结构.
    On the basis of"The Statistical Data of Guangdong Province in 1981", and selected 14 original variables,107 counties and suburbs in Guangdong Province of China are classified.In the classification,cluster analysis is applied,and the cluster hierarchy of the agro-ecosystem is achieved with a computer. One of the characteristics of agro-ecosystem is obvious regionalism.Therefore,it is necessary to research its regional structure in the study of macrosystem.According to the output level,the plant structure and the input level of energy,there is an evident regionalism in the agro-ecosystem of Guangdong Province,which presents approximately concentric circles where centre is Guangzhou city.
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    徐霞客《盘江考》辨析
    王妙华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 218-222,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.218
    摘要   PDF (375KB)
    《盘江考》是徐霞客为纠正《大明一统志》谬误,澄清南北盘江源流,在实地考察基础上所作的地学论文.《盘江考》之结论,许多是正确的,但因时代局限,亦有错误。此外,还有一些令人疑惑不解之处,本文对此进行了条陈辨析.
    "The Investigation on the Panjiang River" is a geographic thesis written by Xu Xiake,on the basis of his on-the-spot investigation,with the purpose of correcting the mistakes in"History of Great Ming Unity" and clarifying the sources and courses of the North Panjing River and the South Panjiang River.Most of the conclusions are right,but there are obvious mistakes owing to the limitation of the times.In addition,there are still some questionable points.For example:1)The exposition about the sources and courses of the North Panjiang River and the South Panjiang River quoted from"Hitory of Great Ming Unity"can not be found in any one of the four editions of"History of Great Ming Unity".2)"History of Great Ming Unity" says that the North Panjiang River and the South Panjiang River join at Pingfaheng Shanzhai. The diary on 24 Sept.1637 in "Xu Xiake’s Travels Travels in West Guangdong.Three" criticized this view seriously.But it can not be known why this criticism is not present in"The Investigation on the Panjiang River". The possible explainations about it are as follows:1)Xu Xiake mistook the mileage of the Bomeng and Duiyong mountains for that of the North Panjiang River and the south Panijaug River.2)There are something to be left out seriously in"The Investigation on the Panjiang River" 3)The diary on 24 Sept.1637 annotated by others instead of Xu Xiake himself.Spreading it from place to pa place,the writer’s name disappeared.Or the writer did not sign at the very beginning.4)The diary on 24 Sept.1637 was written by Xu Xiake himself,while "The Investigation on the Panjiang River" was writtern by somebody else in Xu’s name.
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    晚冰期与现代两类不同生态暗针叶林的研究及其意义
    陈西庆
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 223-230,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.223
    摘要   PDF (540KB)
    我国晚冰期和现代都存在寒温型和温暖型两类不同生态的暗针叶林,晚冰期之初,它们在东部平原的分布南界分别为37°N和31°N.晚冰期夏季降温值,东部平原(中纬)达9.4~9.8℃,西部高原达7.0℃.说明了冰期时中国东部"冷槽"的存在.
    At present there exist two ecologically different types of sub-alpine dark conifer forests in China and Japan,which are mainly composed of Picea, Abies etc.Most of Abies and Picea species belong to typical cold-temperate type.The summer temperature at the lower limit of these trees in different latitudes can be derived by the regression equation:Y=0.12X+10.01 The warm-temperate type of dark conifet forest is composed of only few species such as Abies beshanzuensis.There also developed the equivalents of these two types of dark conifer forests during the late glacial period(30000-22000 B.P.).Their southern boundaries in east low-lying plains are defined as 37°N and 30°N,respectively.The summer temperature in the early glacial period dropped 9.4-9.8℃ in east plains and 7.0℃ in west plateaus.That testified the existence of"cold-trough" in the glacial period in east China.The cold-wet climate in the early glacial period reflects a unique climate regime during the transitional period from interglacial to full glacial. The flourish of dark conifer forests is a vegetation response to the climate.
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    辽东半岛黄土的初步研究
    焦亚宁, 魏成凯, 符文侠
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 231-237,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.231
    摘要   PDF (533KB)
    辽东半岛黄土的分布具有明显的坡向性.其粒度组成、矿物和化学成分等岩性特征,与黄河中游的黄土基本一致。上部灰黄色粉土层与马兰黄土相当;下部桔黄和红褐色土层与离石黄土相似。它是在干凉气候条件下,由西北风搬运、沉积而成,并具有水的改造作用痕迹.
    The loess accumulated in the Liaodong Peninsula is a special type of loess in China.On the basis of the distribution,stratum sections and material composition of the loess in the peninsula,the material sources and formation mechanism of the loess are discussed.Acerding to the data of 14C dating and thermoluminescence,the age and the sedimentary rates of the loess are obtained.The loess in the peninsula is closely relative with the loess in Chifeng of the Neimonggol Autonomous Region.They both are silt accumulation transported by wind from inland deserts in the same period of the Pleistocene.Bat owing to the influence of special climate conditions,some loess, by the surface water,oecured a series of changes.The study on the loess in the peninsula makes it possible to further understand the palaeogeography and palaeoclimaete in the Pleistocene in the Liaodong Peninsula.
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    东北地区日照和相对湿度的优势分布型及其分区
    赵焕宸
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 238-247,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.238
    摘要   PDF (1003KB)
    本文采用主成分分析法,对日照时间和相对湿度进行解析,明确了各要素地域变动的优势分布型,并对其形成原因和过程进行动力学考察.同时,对表示各气候要素地域变动优势分布型兴衰有关联的特性值进行聚类分析,作成日照时间和相对湿度变动特性的分区图.
    Through the principal component analysis of two climatic elementssunshine and relative humidity,the dominant distribution patterns both of perennial sunshine duration deviation(3)and perennial relative humidity(Fig. 3)in the northeast region were defined.The author used the results derived from the principal component analysis of perennial monthly mean atmospheric pressure(Fig.1)to explain the cause and process forming dominant distribution patterns of perennial sunshine deviation(Fig.2)and relative humidity deviation(Fig.4),and approach the regional characteristics of two climatic elements with time change.The similarity(distance Fig.5)among the clusters was obtained with the group average method and based on the time changing eigenvalues(factor loading)of principal components of sunshine and relative humidity correlated respectively with sunshine and relative humidity in observation stations and points.The author took the similarity as the comprehensive indexes for regionalization to map the regionalization of time changing characteristics of sunshine(Pig.6)and the regionalization of time changing characteristics of relative humidity(Fig.7)in the northeast region.Finally,the author pointed out that using the cluster analysis method of principal components to regionaliza the climatic elements was a new method for regionalization.therefore,it is of great significance in the research on regional climatic characteristics,especially on regionalization or classification theory,and in the practical application of qualitative system combined with quantitative system.
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    目标规化法在水文模型参数识别中的应用
    周成虎, 汤奇成
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 249-254,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.249
    摘要   PDF (349KB)
    本文论述了目标规划法在水文模型参数识别中的应用,详细地介绍了其基本思想和计算步骤,并把目标规划法的计算结果与最小二乘法的计算结果进行对比分析。认为目标规划法是识别水文模型参数的一种新的较好的方法。
    This paper discusses the application of goal program to the identifacation of parameters of a hydrological model.The clue and calculating steps are discribed in detail.Through comparing the results from the minimum square method with the results from the goal program method,it is credible that the goal program method is a new and better one to identify the parameters of a hydrological model.
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    渭北旱原的降水与蒸发
    韦省民
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 255-265,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.255
    摘要   PDF (765KB)
    本文从气候学角度对陕西省渭北旱原的水分收支(降水与蒸发)状况进行了分析。利用西安1932-1980年降水资料将本区各站降水资料延长到49年,得出本区各级保证率降水量.利用彭曼公式,考虑海拔因子,计算出本区的水面蒸发与蒸发力;验证了贝利公式,计算出本区的年实际蒸发,得出本区的水余亏量。
    The paper analyses the water budget(precipitation and evaporation)of the arid plateau in north of the Weihe River in Shaanxi Proyince.The precipitation data are collected from each station in this region for 49 years, and from Xian station from 1932 to 1980.The precipitation for different guarantee is obtained.The evaporation from water surface and the potential evaporation of the region are calculated by H.L.Penman’s formala. The annual actural evaporation of the region is calculated by H.P.Bailey’s formala.The concept of optimal evaporation is introduced and the surplusdefieit index of water is disueussed.The potential evaporation ealculatied by Penman’s formala being emended,the surplus-deficit amount of water is obtained. The principal conclusions are as follows.1)The annual precipitation is 525.97-641.1mm.It is increascent from east to west.80% of ensuring rate of precipitation is 470-568mm.2)The annual evapotation from water Surface and the potential evaporation are 920.1-1303.9mm and 748.0-1101.9 mm,respectively.They are decrescent from east to west.The maximum of annual variation occurs in June,and the minimum in December.The difference of annual actual evaporation is not large,471.6-516.8mm.The annual evaporation ratio is 0.79-0.92.It is also decrescent from east to west.3) The annual deficit-surplus amount of water is-215.1-15.0 mm.Water is surplus in autumn and deficit in the other seasons.
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    研究报道
    若尔盖高原黄河古河道及其古地理意义
    孙广友, 张文芬
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 266-272,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.266
    摘要   PDF (1077KB)
    若尔盖高原采日玛至玛曲之间的沿泽洼地,是黄河的一段古河道。白河对黄河的袭夺是形成这段古河道的直接原因.古河道的地面高度和组成物质相当于现代黄河的二级阶地,即发育于中更新世.从地貌和地层分析,古黄河在若尔盖高原曾大范围摆荡,遗留下许多宽谷治泽,蕴藏着丰富的泥炭资源。
    The old channel of the Huanghe River is located to south of Maqu,Gansu, Province,72.5Km long from south to north,5-11Km wide from east to west. A vast piece of swamps developing within the old channel,presents an inverse"S"shape clearly on Landsat images.As for geomorphological type,it corresponds to the second terrace of the modern Huanghe River.The surface constituents are peat layers and fine sand with river facies,The mineral composition is similar to that of the second terrace of the modern Huanghe River near Maqu. Neotectonic movement is a basic cause of the old channel formation. Tangke was the sunsidenee center of the Ruoergai Plateau in the Pleistocene,which caused the old Huanghe River to move eastward.The capture of the Huanghe River by the Baihe River is a direct cause.The old channel developed in the middle Pleistocene.Based on the analysis of geomorphology and stratigraphy,in the Pleistocene the old Huanghe River wriggled on the Ruoergai plateau extensively.Riganqiao-Keharqiao compond valley near Waqen is a large old channel of the Huanghe River.In these old channels there are rich peat resources.
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    松花江流域水体中汞的环境背景值
    齐少华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 273-279,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.273
    摘要   PDF (399KB)
    表本文按水文地理特征采集松花江流域未受污染的水样95个,悬浮物样53个、鱼样100个、沉积物样144个.其汞的分布类型大多呈正态和对数正态分布。流域水体中汞的背景值分别为水-0.009-0.025ppb、悬浮物-0.651-2.757ppm、鱼-0.050-0.254ppm、淤泥级沉积质-0.016-0.070ppm和沙质沉积物0.008-0.023ppm.
    The Songhua River is an important economic river in the Northeast China From the Songhua River basin,95 unpolluted water samples,53 suspended substance samples,100 fish samples and 144 sediment samples are collected.The test of the distribution types of the mercury in the water body show that the mercury in water,suspended substances,fish,and sediments presents mostly normal and logarithmic normal distributions.The background values of the mercury in the water body of the basin are 0.009-0.025ppb in water,0.651-2.757ppm in suspended substances.0.050-0.254ppm in fish,0.016-0.070ppm in silt sediments,and 0.08-0,023ppm in sandy sediments,respectively,
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    我国一些天然水中的氟
    何世春
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 280-285,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.280
    摘要   PDF (414KB)
    本文报道了天然水中氟的分布,指出地带性氟的分布受气候、地质地貌、岩性、土壤性质和天然水的温度、pH值、矿化度、水化学组成等影响,非地带性氟的分布主要受温泉、地下热水、火山和含氟矿床等制约。研究结果对地方性氟病的分布和防治研究有重要参考价值.
    Fluorine is distributed in natural water regularly,by way of zonal or nonzonal distribution.The zonal distribution of fluorine is closely related with weather,topography,landforms,the acid and alkali nature of soils and the temperature of natural water.The nonzonal distribution is mainly related with warm springs,underground hot water,vocannos and the regions associated with deposit containing fluorine. In nature,the rocks containing fluorine are dissolved in water by water disivation.The fluorine contents in natural water is quite different.Under humid climatic conditions,underground water contains a small amount of fluorine.In saline alkli regions under dry climatic conditions,shallow ground water contains a large amount of fluorine.The water in rivers contains a small amount of fluorine.The fluorine contents in lakes are quite different. The fluorine content in sea water is stable.Warm springs and underground hot water contain a large amount of fluorine,so they can not be drunk. The amount of fluorine in natural water is proportional to Na+1,Cl-1, SO4-2 and mineralized degree.Even in a same place,ground water contains a small amount of fluorine in water-bearing strata with coarse particles,and a large amount in strata with fine particles.In saline alkali regions,the water in deep wells contains a small amount of fluorine.Sometimes the water containing a small amount of fluorine can be found on certain sections of river banks.This kind of water can be used as sources water.This paper points out the way to look for the water containing a small amount of fluorine.
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    学位论文摘登
    三江平原地区的土地利用
    张成文
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 287-289.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.287
    摘要   PDF (190KB)
    三江平原地区位于黑龙江省东北部。行政上包括五个市、十七个县、四个农管局所属的四十八个国营农场、森工企业的八个局。全区土地总面积在16000万亩以上,其中平原占61%、山地丘陵占39%。总人口700余万,其中农业人口占53%。一、土地利用的优势和存在的问题本区土地利用的优势主要表现在地广人稀,水土资源及其它物产丰富,开发利用的潜力大。气候适于小麦、大豆等作物的生长,并可满足绝大多数一季温带作物生长的要求。
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    常州市城市水资源系统及优化供水方案研究
    周克俊
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (3): 290-293.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.03.290
    摘要   PDF (285KB)
    常州市地处长江下游冲积平原,是新兴的中型工业城市,解放后,工业迅速发展,城市人口不断增长,使城市用水量大幅度增加。同时,工业废水未能及时处理,污染地表水和地下水,使部分水源地的供水能力降低。地下水过量开采,又引起水位下降.因此,常州市城市用水不足的问题很突出.一、区域水源特征1.地表水常州市河网稠密,较大的地表水体主要有滆湖、京杭大运河、德胜河、利港河、澡港河及长江。滆湖位于市西南,水浅,容量小,不宜作为城市供水的长期水源。
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