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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1987年, 第7卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1987-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国东部晚更新世的环境变化
    杨达源, 冯文科, 赵希涛
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 297-305.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.297
    摘要   PDF (563KB)
    近几十年来,大陆与海洋沉积物的研究已证实,距今约128-10ka间的晚更新世时期,全球气候与环境经历了一个完整的约为100ka周期的间冰期-冰期旋回,并包含多次次一级冷暖与干湿的交替变化。然而,中国东部由于处于比较特殊的地理位置-西依雄伟的青藏高原,东临浩瀚的太平洋-和比较特殊的气候类型-盛行东亚季风,因而对全球气候与环境变化的反应及其表现方式也不同于世界其他同纬度地区。
    The paleo-environmental changes during the late Pleistocene either in northern and southern parts, or in lands and seas of eastern China, were mostly non-synchronous. The oldest event of low temperature occurred during the Last interglacial period in the northern part of the South China Sea. The transitional period prior to the last glaciation came about in the northern part of eastern China about 115 ka ago. The desert environments of the inland of the northern China were developed both in the glacial maximum and in the warm interglacial period, but the loess accumulations mostly took place, during the glacial period. The sand dunes and the periglacial solifluctions in the lo wer Changjiang River region were formed during the last glacial period. Com paring the oxygen isotope curve with the paleo-temperature curve from the northern South China Ses, as well as the transgression-regression alignment from the southern Huanghai Sea, they are partly non-coordinate. The phenomena mentioned above were the result from following reasons that the paleo-environmental changes in eastern China were controlled by common factors leading to changes of worldwide environment, on the other hand, the different changes were related to the special geographical position, the topographic conditions and the monsoon circulation of east Asia as well as time lag required by adjusting process of varied changes themselves.
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    庐山的地文研究
    李吉均, 朱俊杰
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 306-315.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.306
    摘要   PDF (2083KB)
    中国新生代研究曾有两笔重要的理论遗产:一是地文期学说,一是冰期学说。前者强调了地壳运动对地貌发育的影响,杨钟健、巴尔博是这一学派的代表;以李四光为代表的后者强调第四纪的气候变化,着力于寻找古冰川在地形和沉积物中留下的信息。在研究一个地区新生代地质和古地理环境的变迁中,两种观点都是不可或缺的。但是,在具体实践上二者并不总是被恰如其份地对待的。李四光先生虽然认识到庐山是一个断块上升的山体,但由于他把庐山地形、沉积主要归之于冰川成因,对山地上升与地貌发育的关系几乎是略而不提,这样看问题至少是不够全面的[1]。五十年代初期,任美锷首次用侵蚀循环的观点,对庐山地文进行了认真的地貌学研究[2]。近年来,逐渐有较多的学者用现代地貌学的理论和方法对庐山的地貌和第四纪环境演化进行研究,这无疑是走上了能最终解决这个疑难问题的正确途径[3,4,5,6,7]。本文将主要致力于阐明庐山的地文演化,同时也不忽略气候对地貌发育的影响。
    Three fault cliffs identified clearly on both sides of Lushan show that Lushan experienced three times of intensive block-fault uplifting during Pliocene-Pleistocene period. Consequently, two piedmont trepen with typical features of pediment, now preserved as flat-topped ridges, were formed under subtropic and tropic environment. Deep chemical weathering prevailed at that time and “double surfaces of levelling”s (Budel) developed. In the authors’opinion, it seems that the suggestion of C. R. Twidale which the debris co vered pediment can not develop or at least survive in the humid tropics is unable to be adapted to the case of Lushan completely. Based on the data of paleomagnetic dating collected in recent years, the authors suggest that the Jiujiang gravels were deposited in the early Pleistocene, and the vermiculated red soil with the basal gravels were mostly plinthtic in the middle Plaistocine. Along the banks of the Changjiang River the vermiculated red soil always occurred as continued sidimentary sequence of flood-plain facies, whereas those on the piedment area of Luahan were commonly punctuated by many sedimentary gaps. We have found six sedimentary cyles in the sections of the plinthtic red soil. Among them the lower triplex is dark red in colour with iron pans or honeycomb structure, while the upper triplex is rather pale, has not iron pan and often stained by ferro-manganese coating. Sometimes the upper triplex of the plinthtic red soil constitutes a mantle of low terrace (T2) with a weathered basal gravel underlain beneath. It shows that the upper triplex means not only sedimentary regime but also geomorphologic development of Lushan. After that Hsiashu loess deposited, which can be diveded into two parts. The upper part of Hsiashu loess was surely formed in the main Wurm stage. Evidences obtained in recent years show that there are plenty of morphologic and sedimentary relics created under hot and humid climate and no glacial phenomena had been found in Lushan, area.
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    西北黄土高原区农业干旱特性的初步分析
    阚贵生, 孙荣强, 耿雷华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 316-325.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.316
    摘要   PDF (528KB)
    西北黄土高原泛指陕、甘秦岭以北,内蒙阴山以南,宁夏贺兰山、青海日月山以东,山西太行山以西的广大地区,土地资源丰富,为我国主要农业地区之一。然而本区气候干旱,降水稀少,水资源主要为黄河及其支流,蕴藏量较少,开发利用也比较困难。多年平均雨量由西部的200mm向东渐增至600mm,其中70-80%集中于7-9月,并多以暴雨和雷阵雨形式出现,补给土壤的有效降水很少。如陕北绥德、米脂一带梁峁区,在约450mm的降水中,仅有27%对土壤水份有较大的补给作用。降水在年际间的分配也不均匀,以榆林地区为例,多年平均雨量438mm,而有些年份少则100mm,多则900mm以上。
    The dry-day sequences (days) and number of wet-days in a year and growing seasons (April to September) are used to analyse the relations between precipitation and agricultural drought without irrigated condition, and the characteristics of annual drought variations and variations in a year in the Loess Plateau area, The significative result is obtained. In addition, the run theory is used to study drought, probability equation p= pK-1(1-p) is derived from the probability mass function of run-length f(k)= qpK-1, in which P is the probability of obtaining a sequence of k-day dry-days and p is the distribution parameters and also the conditional probability of a dry-day following a dry-day. It can be obtained from the observed data and the following equation where s1 is the total number of dry-day sequences of various lengths. Both of P and p show the stochastic characteristics of drought and distinct regional objective law of distribution in the Loess Plateau area.
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    厦门经济特区的综合开发问题
    姚士谋, 徐桂卿, 叶枫, 张立生, 胡新云
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 326-337.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.326
    摘要   PDF (749KB)
    厦门市是我国东南部重要的海港风景城市,1986年的建成区面积已达38km2,城市非农业人口(建成区范围内)有36.2万人;如果包括郊区市辖县,土地面积达1510.7km2,总人口104万人。1984年4月国务院决定将特区范围由原来的湖里加工区(2.5km2)扩大到全岛,包括鼓浪屿及其附近水域,陆地面积为131km2
    Xiamcn is an important coastal harbour and tourist city.Since the establishment of the spccial economic zone in 1980, great development in economy and urban construction have taken place.The built-up area has expanded to 38km2 and the population has increased to 362 000 in 1986.But the figures will rocket to 1510.7km2 and 1.04 million if the whole urban area (including Tongan county) is taken into consideration.The urban spatial structure will be, as Prof.Wu Liangyong suggests, one center and six Satellite towns around.The integratcd development is most important to Xiamen’s future.The stratigic position of Xiamcn can be analysed in four aspccts:favoriate geographic location, high level of economic opening to the outside, close relatio- nship with Xiamen-Zhangzhou-quanzhou economic area, and the harbour with favorite coast.Advantagious and disadvantagious factors should be carefully studied in the process of defining the comprehensive developing strategy.The paper suggests that the integrated development could he divided into three levels.Xiamen special economic zone should play the role of central city in the south Fujian Province.According to our research, the population of Xiamen will increase to 550000-600000 by 2000 (in built-up area), and the urban area will expand to 45-55km2 by 2000, including suburb satellite industrial towns.As the relations of urban arrangements with regional economy, especially those in the following respects,are so complicate with each other, they should be dealt with carefully:1.To handle carefully the relation between urban and regional economic development of Xiamen.2.A set of natural, geographical, social, economic, political and administrative factors have commonly influenced the pattern and strength of urbanregional relationship.3.To deal better with the urban nature and scale and function of the development of each city or town in its regional system.
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    广东下录埋藏泥炭的特征、成因及古地理环境探讨
    万恩璞, 王曼华, 马学慧
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 338-347.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.338
    摘要   PDF (532KB)
    下录位于广东省遂溪县境内,为雷州半岛两大埋藏泥炭集中分布区之一。下录埋藏泥炭是我国南部滨海地带迄今为止所发现的泥炭层厚、储量大、埋藏浅、形成时期较早、保存完好的矿点。研究它的特征、成因和发育,对于发展煤炭学和泥炭学,探讨古气候和古植被的演变、海陆变迁等古地理环境具有重要意义。同时,对寻找和勘测滨海地区的泥炭也具有一定的生产价值。
    Xialu peat in Suixi county, Guangdong Province, is the well-preserved and shallow buried peat which is found in the seashore zone of south China, characterized by thick peat layer, large reserves and earlier peat-forming period. It mostly belongs to woody peat, with higher carbonization, benzenbitumen, humie acid and oil contents, having certain industrial value. On the other hand, the peat contains high ash, low cellulose, hemicellulose and nitrogen. According tostratum and sporo-pollen analysis, the.peat accumulation process can be divided into 3 sedimcntal cycles, and each cycle began from the semiment of rotten wood. Geologically, each cycle began in the period of transgression when vegetation disappeared. Xialu peat formed in 60000-30000 yr. B.P.Because crust subsidence and accumulation rate of organic residues were in balanced state in the process of peat formation, the hugely thick:peat basin was formed.
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    北京地区太阳直接辐射的分光能量
    周允华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 348-357.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.348
    摘要   PDF (490KB)
    太阳直接辐射是太阳辐射中最重要的组成部分,在许多领域中,人们不仅要求知道太阳辐射在全波段的积分辐照度,而且往往需要了解它们的光谱分布及其随时间、空间和随气象条件的变化规律。有关这方面的测量工作,我国开展得不多,只有一些地区的短时段观测资料[1-2]。本文第一次获得了北京地区全年的系统观测结果,从而有可能对太阳直接辐射分光能量的基本特性及其和气象条件的关系作出系统的研究。
    By means of thermoelectric Actinometer mounted with eight coloured glass filters, the spectral irradiance of the solar direct radiation were measured in Beijing during 1977-1978 and 1983-1984. Based on 1423 series of data obtained from the observations, the effect of the solar elevation, observation time and seasons as well as aerosol and water vapor on the spectral irradiance are analysed. The observation results were also compared with that obtained in the Qingzang Plateau. Finally, the cmpirical formulas which have been proposed by the author for estimating ultraviolet and visible direct radiation are examined by using all observation data. The result is very satisfactory.
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    瑞士Greifen湖沉积物中放射性核素累计值预测研究
    万国江, P. H. Santschi
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 358-363.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.358
    摘要   PDF (762KB)
    湖泊沉积物不仅记载着积水区域环境质量的历史变化,而且反映出沉积过程的环境条件和沉积物质的地球化学行为。瑞士Greifcn湖是一个受人为活动强烈干扰的富营养湖泊,其下层滞水带季节性缺氧。
    Comparing the radionuclide inventories of sediment (90Sr,137Cs,230,240Pu,2,0Pbex,7Be) with the inventories expected from atmospheric fallout records, we find that the ratios are between 0.38-1.3 in the sediment core GR-83-11 of Lake Greifen. On the basis of the erosion in drainage basin and of the retention in laker a model is made from measured quantities to predict the radionuclide inventory ratio in this paper. The best agreements between calculated and observed inventories were obtained for the nuclides. For the calculated error. we would easily be explained by different mechanism of additional removal for individual nuclide.
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    松辽平原土壤中稀土、铀和钍等微量元素的环境背景值
    王玉琦, 孙景信, 屠树德, 张元纪
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 364-368.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.364
    摘要   PDF (248KB)
    松辽平原位于我国东北地区的中南部,主要由辽河、松花江、嫩江及其支流冲积而成,是东北地区的重要工农业生产基地,在我国国民经济中占有重要地位。稀土及铀、钍等元素作为地球化学指示剂得到越来越广泛的重视。目前,国内、外在这方面的工作已得到迅速发展。研究它们的分布及迁移规律对探讨岩浆起源、成矿物质来源和地球化学演化等都有重要作用。本文首次用INAA方法测定了松辽平原96个典型剖面表土中的八个稀土(La、Ce、Nd、Sm、Eu、Tb、Yb和Lu)及铀、钍元素的含量;对松辽平原土壤中上述元素的分布类型进行了检验,并给出了它们的背景值。同时,对分布于该地区的主要类型土壤(黑土、黑钙土、草甸土、棕壤、褐土、栗钙土、暗棕壤和白浆土)中的稀土元素和铀、钍的含量水平及其分布特征作了初步探讨。
    In this paper, the contents of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu),U and Th in the soils of the Songliao Plain were determined by NAA. The types of frequency distribution of concentrations for these elements were tested. The background values of 8 REE, U and Th were given.In addition, the concentrations and distribution characteristics of REE, U and Th in diff crent types of soil in this area have been also discussed.These soils are black soft, chernozem, meadow soil, brown earth, dark soft, chestnut soft, dark brown earth and lessive. The results obtained show that the contents of 8 REE, U and Th in soils of the Songliao Plain are generally close to those of world’s soil. The average value of the total REE in soil of this area is 172 ppm. The standard deviation is ±19.6 ppm and the coefficient of variation is 0.114. After normalized by mean values of chondrite, the REE patterns for different main group soils are very similar to each other, as well as to those of typical North America shales, all with negative slopes. The background values of U and Th in this area are 2.34 and 1.08 ppm, respectively. These values are also close to those of world’s soil and the average abundance of the crust. The ratio of Th and U is 4.6.
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    研究报道
    黄淮海平原土壤养分的彩红外影象分析
    李天顺
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 369-373.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.369
    摘要   PDF (282KB)
    土壤养分的精确含量,来自实地的采样分析,这是一件浩繁的工作。但就实用而言,区别出土壤养分含量的高、中、低三个级别,已有广泛的用途。本文以河南省封丘县为例,利用彩红外影象的标志分析,做了划分土壤养分状况的尝试,具有快速方便、经济实用、划分级别虽较粗,但分布区域精确等优点。
    The analysis of colour infrared images shows that these four factors:soil texture, wheat community exterior in the early jointing stage, the distance of crop land from villages and communication lines,and farmland utilization features,have definite interpretation elements, And they are obviously correlated with soil nutrient, The rank of the four factors in soil nutrient is that the first is the soil texture, the second the wheat community exterior, the third the distance of crop land from villages and communication lines,and the last the farmland utilization features. Through comprehensive judgement by the arthmetic progression mark, the soil nutrient is classified into three grades of high, medium and low.
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    海滨盐沼沉积物的特征
    杨世伦
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 374-382.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.374
    摘要   PDF (554KB)
    海滨盐沼是在潮汐影响下生长耐盐喜水的草本植物的滨海湿地环境。在不同的气候和海水盐度条件下,其植物的种类不同;而不同的植物种类和不同的海岸动力状况,又使植物的生长下限位置不同。海滨盐沼是自然界中生产力最高的生态系统之一[1]。对海滨盐沼的研究将为海岸带资源的合理开发利用及古代油、气、泥炭等矿产的形成提供理论依据(采样断面见图1)。
    Based on the analysis of samples collected from the coast of north Jiangsu Province and Shanghai from July to November 1985, the characteristics of the sediments both in salt marshes and ncarby bare flats are discussed. From sea to shore, the characteristics are as follows:1.Usually, mean grain size becomes small and the standard deviation becomes big except in erodent coast, and the coast where vegetation density becomes rare towards the bank. 2.Salinity and the content of organic matter get greater, while pH value gets smaller. 3.The content of heavy minerals increasc mainly because of the increase of mica. 4.The content of spore-pollen increases.In, salt marshes, pollen of herbs is domenant, 5.The number of Foraminifera decreases.
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    学术活动
    比较地理学的事例分析与建议——参加西班牙马德里IGU数学模型工作组会议的几点体会
    林炳耀
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 383-387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.383
    摘要   PDF (366KB)
    1986年8月26日至28日,我应IGU Math、Models Working group主席比基姆的邀请,作为该组常委成员参加数学模型组学术讨论会并任住房与劳动力市场数学模型组主席。会议期间对我国若干领域的地理研究工作与国外有关工作进行对比分析,总结已向学会汇报,述此,以供参考。
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    学术位论文摘登
    松花江流域经济活动与地表水污染
    刘晓风
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (4): 388-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.04.388
    摘要   PDF (197KB)
    松花江流域总面积约55万平方公里,1983年总人口4930万左右,其中城镇人口约1630万,占人口总数的33%,高于同年全国平均值(21%)。全流域平均人口密度90人/km2,低于全国平均值(107人/km2)。流域内有耕地1.66亿亩,人均耕地3.4亩,垦殖指数0.196。1983年全流域工业总产值365.2亿元,人均工业产值741元,工业产值密度6.64万元/km2,这两项指标都高于全国平均水平。
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