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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1988年, 第8卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1988-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    三江平原自然条件与农业综合开发的研究--献给中国科学院长春地理研究所成立三十周年
    刘兴土
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 201-207,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.201
    摘要   PDF (560KB)
    长春地理所自1958年建所以来,一直把三江平原作为主要研究区域,研究内容包括:平原的形成演化和自然地理条件,沼泽的类型,成因、特性和利用保护;应用遥感技术和地面调查结合,编制资源图件,分析各类农业自然区域的数量、类型,分布、质量及其开发利用;区域农业综合开发的若干建议等。其成果丰富发展了有关地理分支的学科理论,为国家经济发展战略决策和地理学制定总体开发规划提供了科学依据.
    The Sanjiang Plain is a region developing later and not fully,and also an important commodity grain base of China. Since Changchun Institute of Geography was established in 1958 the Sanjiang Plain has been taken as its main study area,there have been about one hundred research workers engaged in the study works there;and more than 40 papers have been published in magazines at home and abroad, and 2 monographs have been published.The study contents include:the formation and evolution of the plain and its natural geographical conditions; the types,genesis,characteristics,utilization and conservation of marshes; the compilation of resource maps and the analysis of the amount,type,distribution,quality,development and utilization of all kinds of agricultural resources,by using remote sensing technology and in combination with fieldsurvey;and the suggesiton about regional agriculturol comprehensive development.Research achievements obtained not only enrich and develop the theory of branch disciplines related to geography,but also provide the scientific basis for the strategic decision of national economic development and the overall developing program of the localities.
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    广州市城区零售商业企业区位布局的探讨
    吴郁文, 谢彬, 骆慈广, 张蕴坚
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 208-217,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.208
    摘要   PDF (862KB)
    本文探讨了经济中心商业企业区位选择的要求,分析了广州市区商业布局的区位特征及形成原因,并对进一步改善商业布局提出意见.
    Proceeding from the commercial function of Guangzhou urban area,this paper expounds the principles and requirements choosing commercial location, put forward the bases to deternine the limits of commercial centers.Thirty major commercial centers in Guangzhou urban area are classified by means of cluster analysis.The function,size,hierarchy and interconnection of commercial centers of different groups are studied.The paper emphatically analyzes the major characteristics and formation factors of the commercial location of Guangzhou urban area.Finally,to counter the problems in existence, some suggestions,are put forward in order toimprove the commercialloeation of Guangzhou urban area.
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    沈阳城市边界层气候的若干特征
    韩玺山
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 218-225,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.218
    摘要   PDF (478KB)
    本文主要就沈阳城市边界层的温度垂直结构、热岛环流等进行气候分析。并对首次发现的污染物的泡状结构,穿透逆温层及螺旋烟团进行探讨.最后笔者根据大量野外观测资料绘出了城市边界层的模型。
    This paper Piscusses some climatic characteristics of the vertical,structure of temperature field,heat island circulation and heat island mixture layer in the urban boundary layer in Shenyang. The bubble structure of SO2,the penetrating inversion layer of SO2, and spiral smoke mass are analyzed.The model of an urban boundary layer is plotted based on a large amount of observed data in Shenyang and analytical results.Finally,five conclusions are given.
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    黄土中的有机质
    刁桂仪, 文启忠
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 226-231,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.226
    摘要   PDF (563KB)
    据110块样品的分析结果,黄河中游黄土的有机质含量范围是0.179-0.883%,平均值为0.39%,频率分布主要集中在0.200-0.600%范围.区域上的分布,由西北向东南含量增加.剖面上的分布随深度的增加而降低.黄土层和黄土壤层的有机质在埋藏过程中都有被"丢失"的现象,而这一现象可能主要发生在距今约80万年前.
    The analysis results of 110 loess samples from the middle reaches of the Huanghe River show that the contents of Organic matter range from 0.179 to 0.883%,with an average value of 0.390%,most in extent of 0.2000.600%.The contents increase from northwest to southeast.The contents of the organic matter in loess profile decrease with depth increasing.The phenomenon known as"been lost"of organic matter are observed in both loess and paleosol,This process might be accomplished 800,000 years ago,
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    试论新疆农业国土开发的若干基本原则
    李久成
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 232-239,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.232
    摘要   PDF (630KB)
    本文从新疆特殊干旱区大农业生产环境问题研究出发,提出干旱区农业国土开发中若干具有普遍意义的基本原则问题。
    The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is a special geographicai unit. Only recognizing and following its specific natural law and making special artilicial activities,can we obtain the relatively harmonious development between man and environment. Xinjiang is a particular arid region.Through the study of the agricultural production environment(including agriculture,forestry and animal husbandry,etc.)in Xinjiang,the concept of approaching"desert",and differentiation law in time and space,four fundamental principles which are general significance in the work of agricultural territorial development in arid regions are put forward:(1)the "opening" principle of departmental production environment,which is the foundation that every production department gets common"evolution";(2)the principle of construction first and then destruction(or called prevention first,control second);(3)the principle of abandoning weakness and making full use of strong point;and(4)the principle of environmental benefit.In addition,in a certain region,the greatest cnvironmental benefit can be obtained through connecting each little piece to form large area gradually.Finally,three vital laws,namely,natural,economic,human laws must be followed.
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    三江平原12000年以来植物群发展和气候变化的初步研究
    夏玉梅
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 240-249,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.240
    摘要   PDF (2828KB)
    在三江平原六个泥炭剖面孢粉分析和14C测年数据基础上,提出勤得利和抚远创业泥炭刹面是该区全新世泥炭沉积的标准剖面。划分五个孢粉组合带。12000年以来木本植物群和气候变化经历四个发展阶段,其中8000-5000年是最佳气候期。泥炭发育北部早于南部。
    Based on the spore-pollen analysis and the 14C dating from 6 peat profiles,the features og plart communities and climatic changes in the last 12000 years are discussed. 12000-9500 B.P.was the period of thin leaf and bush forest,the temperature was 2-3℃ lower than today.,called cool period. 9500-5000 B.P.was the period of temperate broadleaf forest.Meanwhile, during 9500-8000 B.P.Ulmus grew luxuriantly,climate was warm and dry, called the period of increasing temperature.From 8000 to 5000 B.P.Quercus mongolica was much more luxuriantly,temperature was 3-4℃ higher than today. 5000-2500 B.P.was the period of coniferous and broadleaf torest of frigid-temperature zones.About 5000 to 3000 B.P.Abies,Picea and Pinus started to increase suddenly,cold and wet climate commenced.2500 B.P.to present was called the Pinus koraiensis stage,temperature was 1-2℃ lower than today.
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    问题讨论
    长江正源再考
    孙广友, 邓伟, 邵庆春, 华润葵
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 250-258,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.250
    摘要   PDF (536KB)
    1986年夏,作者考察了长江源头区,根据河流长度,流域面积和流量的量测结果,提出长江正源不是沱沱河,应是当曲河。
    Chinese people began to research the main source of the Changjiang River 2400 years ago.Limited by the scientific level,they did not find out it. The Tuotuo River was determined as the main source of the Changjiang River in the 1970s.However,it was not correct,because when comparing the length of the Tuotuo River with the Dam River,the glacier length at headwater was added to the Tuotuo River,resulting in that the Tuotuo River is 1km longer than the Dam River.But glacier can not be regarded as river. In summer of 1986,we made a scientific investigation on the source of the Changjiang River and accurately measured the length of both the Tuotuo and Dam rivers on the maps.We discovered that the Dam River was 6.8km longer than the Tuotuo River,the Dam River 353.1km long and the Tuotuc River 346.3km.The discharge of the Dam River is 2.6 times as large as the Tuotuo River,The discharge of the Dam River is 196.18m3/sec,and the Tuotuo River 75.10m3/sec.The drainage area of the Dam River is 1.8 times as large as the Tuotuo River.The drainage area of the Dam River is 30715.7km2,the Tuotuo River 16691.0 km2. Through the synthetic analysis of the factors mentioned above,we come to the conclusion that the main source of the Changjiang River is the Dam River instead of the Tuotuo River. We have corrected the position of the Tuotuo River head which Was not correct because of adding glacier to the length of the river,and also corrected the position of the Dam River head according to Landsat images.
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    工业地理学的全球观与经济观
    王缉慈
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 259-263,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.259
    摘要   PDF (350KB)
    本文论述了我国工业地理学研究的全球观与经济观。一方面必须从国际大循环的构想出发,放到世界工业地理变化的高度来分析,另外也探讨了工业布局的经济运行机制和经济因素分析的必要性。
    This paper discusses a new trend of development in industrial geography in China. As a brand-new pattern of economic development has emerged in China since the economic reform began in the end of the 1970s,China’s geographers have been facing with a series of new problems never met before.A new concept of "the strategy of large international curculation" as a signal from a global and economic perspective is chellanging the dominating frameworks of study and education in China’s industrial geography.It is augued by the author that China’s industrial geographers should shift their emphasis of study from the distribution of mineral resources to the erational mechanism of the economy,although the study on the former is still basic and necessary.The similar change in the education of industrial geography in China should be made in the same direction. It is believed that such changes both in research and eduction will no only diversify the sudy of industrial geography and relate more tightly to the country’s development but also,in generatl,promote the internationalization of education and research,which has been seen as an important part of China’s modernization.
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    研究报道
    松嫩平原莫莫格孔粘粒矿物组合及其古地理意义
    颜秋兰
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 264-271,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.264
    摘要   PDF (927KB)
    本文根据松嫩平原莫莫格孔地层中粘粒矿物分析结果,依据粘粒矿物组合特征及演变规律,并结合古生物和地层岩性资料,恢复松嫩平原晚白垩纪(明水二段)-晚第三纪-第四纪更新世时期的沉积环境和古气候状况。
    This paper emphatically studies the.formation,composition and evolution regularity of clay minerals in strata of Momoge drill hole.According to the data of paleobiology and strata lithology,paleosedimentary environment and paleoclimate are restored,paleogeography is reconstructed in the Songnen Plain from the late Cretuceous,the Neogene,to the Pleistocene of the Quaternary. In the strata of the late Cretaceous,montmorillonite,as enclosed waterbody mineral,is dominant with good crystallinoty,reflecting the lakeshore sedimentary feature and hot and slightly wet paleoclimate at that time. In the Neogene,influenced by global warm and humid climate,the basin was in the.period when lakes and rivers alternately developed,corresponding forming 5 clay mineral association zones in which kaolinite or montmorillonite was alternately as main mineral.The climate underwent such change process from,hot and dry,hot and humid,warm and relatively dray warm and relatively 1 umid,to warm and slightly dry. In the Pleistocene of the Quaternary,iniluenced by global glacial climate, lakes,swamps and basnis in linland gradually shrank,at last became dry and cold steppes.In clay mineral association zones,illite was main minearal,adding into chlorite,Palecclimate underwent the provcss from cold and dry, warm and humid,warm and dry,to cold and dry.
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    四平市大气环境污染物浓度的计算机模拟研究
    郭振华, 刘贵, 包淳斌, 石玉华, 曹善杰, 张水
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 272-282,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.272
    摘要   PDF (986KB)
    本文在调查四平市污染大气的点源和面源的基础上,采用计算机模拟的方法,计箅出四平市每平方公里大气中SO2的年平均浓度。在大气扩散模型选用上。对Hanna模型的应用进行了改进,从十六个方位计算了面源影响及横向扩散影响。
    Based on the intensities of the point sources and area sources of air pollutant SO2,average annual concentration of SO2 in per square kilometre air in Siping City is calculated with the method of computer imitation.For choosing diffusion model,the application of the Hanna model is improved,and the affection of area sources and horizontal diffusion are calculated in 16 directions.
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    试论中国人身高的地域差异
    孙关龙
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 283-289,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.283
    摘要   PDF (434KB)
    本文初步论述了我国地域人身高差异。目前我国高纬度地区人身高普遍高于低纬度地区的人;同纬度沿海人高于内陆人;城区人普遍高于农村人。
    Stature is an outstanding mark of different regional people.The differentiation of stature between southerner and northerner in China is nctable,showing an increasing tendency from south to north.The differentiation of stature of people between inland and coast is obvious,generally,on same latitude,people of coast are taller than people of inland.The differentiation of stature of people between cities and countryside is evident,generally,in same area people of cities are taller than people of countryside.However,in recent ten years,with the rise of people’s living standard of countryside,this differentiation is lessening in some areas.The differentiation of stature between Chinese nationalities is distinct,for example,people of the Tibetan,Korean, Mongolian and Uygur nationalities are comparatively tail,who are living in higher latitude areas or higher altitude areas.
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    学位论文摘登
    丹东地区城镇体系的研究
    王建军
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 290-292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.290
    摘要   PDF (218KB)
    丹东地区城镇体系是指由丹东市及其所辖的凤城、东沟、宽甸,岫岩四个县范围内的90个各级各类城镇所组成的城镇体系。这一地区位于辽宁省东南部,总面积1.9万平方公里,与朝鲜隔鸭绿江相望。丹东是我国最大的边境城市。作为一个开放的边境城市,丹东在辽宁省及东北地区占有相当重要的地位。
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    学术活动
    加拿大国际湿地会议与湿地研究
    赵魁义
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (3): 293-294.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.03.293
    摘要   PDF (149KB)
    加拿大湿地与泥炭生产国际科学讨论会于1987年8月24-30日在埃德蒙顿(Edmontor)举行。芬兰、挪威、英国,美国和中国等10多个国家,200多位代表出席,收到论文上百份。会议由国际泥炭协会副主席加拿大泥炭委员会秘书长 Tibbetts 先生主持,用两天半时间进行学术报告,四天时间进行外业参观和考察,参观加拿大不同的湿地类型,考察森林沼泽排水和泥炭开采现场.在大会上报告的论文有:(1)加拿大湿地资源的基本状况;(2)泥炭生产在园艺市场上的趋势;(3)北部泥炭地生物的贫乏;(4)国有湿地保护问题。
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