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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1989年, 第9卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1989-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    人类活动对中国北部海岸带地貌和沉积作用的影响
    任美锷
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 1-7,95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.1
    摘要   PDF (514KB)
    本文根据现代地学方法和历史资料,论证了人类活动对中国北部海岸带大型海岸地貌和沉积体直接和间接的影响。
    This paper discusses major coastal landforms and sedimentation affected directly or indirectly by human activities:(1)The coastal plain of Ncrth diangsu and its associated subaqueous delta of the abandoned Huanghe River were the direct result of human diversion of the Huanghe River southwards between 1128 and 1854 AD.(2)The present Huanghe River delta is river-dominated and micro-tidal,but has an arcuate form due indirectly to man’s cultivation of the Loess Plateau and the huge sediment load(1.1 billion tons per annum)resulting from accelerated erosion. Accumulation rate of the Bohai Sea is also greatly affected by human activity.Detailed analysis of historical data shows that during the last 5,000 years,the Huanghe River did not flow into the Bohai Sea for 758 years and annual sediment input into the Bohai Sea reached 1.1 billion tons for only 840 years.These data together with coring and shallow seismic profiling data seem to indicate that the accumulation rate of the Bohai Sea averages about 0.6-0.7m/ka in the Holocene. Man is a geological agent.This paper illustrates the enormous scale of human impact on morphology and sedimentation of the coastal zone and shows that river and sea form an integrated system,the study of whcih should receive more attention from geo-scientists.
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    拉普兰德与长白山苔原的对比研究
    黄锡畴, 赵魁义
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 8-15,95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.8
    摘要   PDF (596KB)
    作者在实地考察的基础上,从生态环境、植物群落组成、植被特征、植物生态学特征辱几方面,对比分析了拉普兰德与长白山苔原,进一步验证了长白山高山苔原的新发现。
    The northern part of Finno-Scandinaviya within the Arctic Circle is called Lappland by Finnish.There exist wide mountain tundras in Lappland,from which the term of tundra is was originated. Based en the field investigation,tnndras in Lappland and the Changbai Mountain are compared and analyzed in terms of compositions of plant commities,vegetation charaeteristitics andfeatures of plants.The analysis indicates that the ecological environment of mountain tundras in Lappland and the Changbai Mountain are extremely similar.The chartics of both mountain tundras show that the distribution of mountaintundra follow the the natural differential law,presenting the differences of different zones and regions.Tundra is a global natural lanascape type.the comparative study,the new discovery confirmed that the exists alpine tunddra in the Changbai Mountain.
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    关于工业布局理论研究的探索
    魏心镇
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 16-24,95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.16
    摘要   PDF (752KB)
    本文探讨了我国传统工业布局和新兴工业布局的一些理论问题。在传统工业布局方面着重探索了工业区位因素的作用及其演化,经济运行机制对工业布局的影响,地域工业最优组织问题。在新必高技术产业布局方面,着重探索了高技术产业的特点及其组合,影响高技术产业的区位因素和高技术园区的构造与布局等。
    With the development of modern industrial technology,the system of industry has been divided into two sectors:traditional industry and high-technology industry. The research on theory of distribution of traditional industry includes the following aspects.1)The change of factors influencing the location of traditional industry in different regions and periods is that some originally non-essential factors are becoming more and more important,meanwhile the importance of essential factors is varying with its internal mechnism of industry. 2)The influence of operating mechanism of economy on industrial distribution results in expansion,contract and adjustment by industry itself.3)At present the research of industrial location has deepened to the optimum organization of some relative industries across regions. The research on theory of distribution of high-technology industry are as follows.1)The characters and composition of high-technology industry.At preseant there are three kinds of high-technology parks:economic parks,technological parks and scientific parks.2)Location factors influencing hightechnology industry are the high density of intelligence directional to hightechnology industry;the developing technology and perfect facilities;and the fine environment for production and living.3)The structure and distribution of high-technology parks.A short way is to set up high-technology parks around old dence-intelligence districts.High-technology parks have become the main form of developing high-technilogy industry;It is the direction of new technology in the next century.
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    太湖流域南宋以来旱涝规律及其成因初探
    陈家其
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 25-33,95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.25
    摘要   PDF (1025KB)
    建立了太湖流域早涝等级序列,用周期分析等方法,揭示早涝变化规律。研究表明,本区的历史旱涝变化是以准100年为主要周期的复合振动,其它主要周期有准11年等。历史时期大致存在着暖湿一冷干的对应关系。在太阳活动强盛时期,一般有一个相对湿润时期。这种关系可能是太阳活动通过西太平洋副热带高压影响季风活动所致。
    The grade sequence(1121-1983 AD)of flood and drought was reconstructed by means of processing information of the historic flood and drought,on the basis of systematical collection of historic climate records.It was divided into nine grades. The characteristics of the distribution both in time and space and the change regularity of flood and drought were studied through analysis of periodic change,In the meantime,the factors of flood and drought were preliminarily studied by analysing the relationships between flood/drought and cold/warm, as well as flood/drought and solar activity. The results showed that tha change of flood and drought in the Taihu Lake basin was a combined variation in which the main cycle was quasi-100 years and other cycles were quasi-11 years,Since the Southern Song Dynasty two wetter periods which lasted about 200 years respectively occurred in the 14th and 15th centuries and the 18th century.The former was wetter than the latter.Generally,during these wetter periods the winter was warmer and the solar activity was stronger.
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    学术活动
    国际温暖与寒冷地区湿地水文会议情况简介
    张文芬
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 33-33.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.33
    摘要   PDF (75KB)
    国际温暖与寒冷地区湿地水文会议于1988年6月6日至8日在芬兰的约恩苏召开。出席会议的计有16个国家,98位代表。会议的组织者为芬兰科学院、芬兰水与环境国家委员会、芬兰联合国教育科学及文化组织国家委员会和约恩苏大学。会议的协作单位有联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)、国际水文科学协会(IAHS)和国际泥炭学会(IPS)。中国有五位作者的4篇文章被收入会议论文集,中国科学院长春地理研究所一名代表参加了本次会议。
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    论文
    三江平原沼泽生态系信息系统及其应用
    万恩璞, 王野乔, 薄立群, 陈春
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 34-42,95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.34
    摘要   PDF (585KB)
    本文论述了三江平原沼译生态系信息系统的构成和数据处理,进行了系统的设计,分析了其功能与应用。突出了图件与数据库的相互调用和相互联系。
    Information system of marsh ecosystem is a specialized information system.Setting up the information system of marsh ecosystem in the Sanjiang Plain region has an important significance in comprehensively analyzing and dynamicly moritoring marsh environment as well as in making a regional territory resource managerment and national economy program. The information system of marsh ecosystem contains two subsystems. the marsh resource and the geographic environment in marsh area.The data mainly come from various maps,governmental reports and field investigations.The data were approved by the governmental department concerned.It has an extensive practicality and authority.Before the data were input the data base,the process of classification and standardization had been made and then a code was given to the data according to the meaning of each code figure. The system adopts CCDOS as the operating system.It was operated by the way of menu control.The mainly used software is dBASE-Ⅲ,the prograruing languages of BASIC,FORTRAN andAssembler were used to extend the system functions.In technology,a particular attention was placed on the identity of map and data.It not only stressed the relation between maps and data,but also strengthened the space position of the data.It is convenient for the users in different ways.
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    长春市倾斜面太阳辐射特征
    朱志辉
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 43-50,95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.43
    摘要   PDF (507KB)
    本文计算分析了长春市各种倾斜表面上天文辐射、直接辐射、总辐射和日照时间的方位分布和季节变化,讨论了适宜朝向,确定了最佳倾角及相应辐射量。在全年固定的南向最佳倾斜面上,直接辐射和总辐射年总量分别比水平面数值提高37%和25%;当每月固定一个最佳倾角时,分别比水平面提高49%和35%。
    Orientational characteristics and seasonal variation of monthly average daily and annual sums of extraterrestrial,direct,global radiation and sunshine duration on various inclined surfaces in Changchun.Jilin Province are computed and analyzed,The good azimuthes,the Optimum inclination angles suitable for solar energy utilization and the relevant direct and global radiation on these inclined surfaces are discussed and determined. The computative results indicate that the various radiations on non-horizontal surfaces in Changchun vary remarkably with slope and orientation.The optimum inclination angles fixed annually facing south is 45癴or direct radiation and 43癴or global radiation,The annual sums of direct and global radiation on the optimum inclined surfaces are 37% and 25% more than those on horizontal surface respectively.When south-facing optimum slopes are fixed for each month,the annual sums of monthly direct and global radiation on the optimum inclined surfaces can reach 149% and 135% of those on horizontal surface respectively.
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    华西秋雨的时空分布
    梁健洪
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 51-59,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.51
    摘要   PDF (683KB)
    本文首先提出了一个划分秋雨区的新标准,利用华西地区1951-80年的气候整编资料,将华西秋雨区分为典型区、准典型区和一般区。在三个区中各选一代表站,以此讨论各个区的特点。在此基础上研究了华西秋雨的起止日期以及与秋季大气环流的关系,并且用谐波分析等方法研究了华西秋雨的周期变化。
    This paper discusses autumn rain in West China in terms of climate.The climatic data in West China during 1951 to 1980 are used to divide autumn rain region in West China into three classes.,typical,sub-typical and general areas.The beginning and ending dates of autumn rain in West China are defined.The beginning and ending dates correspond to two sudden changes in atmospheric circulation from summer to winter.Bassed on the mean rainfall of 40 stations selected in the autumn rain region,the cyclic changes in the last thirty years are studied with the method of harmonic analysis.
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    龙井县社会-经济-生态复合系统动态仿真
    杨秉赓, 赵士鹏
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 60-66,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.60
    摘要   PDF (600KB)
    本文用系统动力学的原理和方法,对龙井县社会-经济-生态复合系统进行总体动态仿真。以该复合系统过去36年的演变轨迹为基础,建立了一组动态模型,并通过此模型群模拟了在四种不同的策略下该复合系统的未来演变趋势。最后,通过对比分析,提出了"协调型"发展方案,作为调控该复合系统的依据。
    According to the principles and methods of system dynamics,the socialeconomic-ecologic complex system in Longjing County,Jilin Prcvince is simulated dynamically.On the basis of the evolution orbit of the complex system during the past 36 years,a set of dynamic models are established and the future development trends of the complex system with four different strategies are simulated.Through comparison and analysis,“Harmonization Type”development strategy is proposed as the basis of adjusting and controlling the complex system,
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    研究报道
    温州蜜柑生理落果动态异常及其环境影响
    汪铎, 俞继灿, 叶美德, 郭文扬
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 67-74,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.67
    摘要   PDF (545KB)
    运用1986年5月蜜柑生理落果期观察资料,分析了温州蜜柑落花落果动态特征和柑园生态环境条件,揭示了落花落果率异常偏高时段生态因子的影响,提出运用Logistic理论曲线模拟累积落花落果率动态,并加入生态因子进行修正,取得了比较符合实际的动态模拟效果。
    The observational data of phenology and environment during physiological drop phase of Wenzhou citrus in May of 1986 and 1987 are used to analyze both the dynamic feature of blossom drop and premature drop of citrus and the conditions of ecological environment of citrus orchards,such as topography,climate,soil and vegetation. The dynamic trends of the summation percentage of blossom drop and premature drop of citrus are simulated by means of the Logistic theory curve. It is revealed that the differences of dynamic features of blossom drop and premature drop of citrus between the normal year 1987 and the abnormal year 1986.The differences of weather-climate in the middle ten days of May between 1986 and 1987 are compared and analyzed. The results show that the middle period of the middle ten days of May is the peak period of blossom drop and premature drop of citrus.In the middle the days of May 1986,the rapid physiological premature drop and the sharp increase of drop amount were caused by high temperature and low moisture.Therefore,the proper agrotechnical measures taken in time according to the weather conditions during the middle ten days of May is an important link to strengthen the management of citrus orchards. An empiric model obtained based on the Logistic theory model and by the amendment of ecological environment factors(temperature and moisture)have improved simulation effect.It can be applied to predict the dynamics of blossom drop and premature drop of citrus in that year,in order to take necessary measures in a critical moment.
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    长白山种子植物区系地理分析
    钱宏
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 75-84,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.75
    摘要   PDF (717KB)
    长白山植物区系有种子植物491属,归属4组14种分布区类型。其中世界分布(只含1种类型)69属,热带分布(包括6种类型)47属,温带分布(包括5种类型)372属,古地中海和泛地中海分布(包括2种类型)4属,本文分别对14种分布类型进行了论述。
    In the Changbai Mountain Vegetion is well developed.From bottom to top, four vertical vegetation zones can be divided:1)breadleaf-Korean pine forest zone;2)spruce-fir coniferous forest zone;3)subalpine Erman birch forest zone;and 4)alpine tundra zone.The spermatophyte flora of the Changbai Mountain comprises 491 genera.According to the distributional comparative analysis of these genera,they can be divided into 14 distribution-types: Cosmopolitan(69 genera);Pantropic(29);Tropical America and Tropical Asia (1);Old World Tropic(4);Tropical Asia and Tropical Australia(3);Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa(7);Tropical SE.Asia(Indo-Malayan)(3);North Temperate(205);E.Asia and N.America(45);Old World Temperate(Eurasia)(59);Temperate Asia(25);E.Asia(Sino-Himalaya & Sino-Japan)(37); Mediterranean,Western Asia to Central Asia(3);Central Asia(1).
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    学位论文摘登
    地学数据影象的生成及其与遥感信息复合的研究--以区域农业气候资源研究为例
    王野乔
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 85-87.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.85
    摘要   PDF (234KB)
    目前,遥感应用中广泛使用的图象处理方法,是以遥感数据的光谱特征为基础,以陆地卫星多光谱数据为主要信息源。由于自然现象的复杂性和随机性,以及多光谱数据在解象力、分辨率上的局限性,这种单一信息源的分析方法除能直接反映地物的波谱特征外,与地学研究定量化的需要仍有一定的差距。对某些自然地理因子(气候、土壤等)不能直接给出其光谱信息的反映,更不能从成因上加以显示,使分类精度受到影响。
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    1:20万地貌制图研究——以1:20万新金幅地貌图为例
    冯志强
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 88-90.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.88
    摘要   PDF (217KB)
    中国1:100万地貌图制图规范业已制定,随之1:20万等大、中比例尺地貌图制图手册和规范的制定就提上了日程。本文根据1:20万新金幅地貌图的编制实践,提出了对编制1:20万地貌图制图规范的一些看法。
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    学术活动
    第八届国际泥炭会议在苏联列宁格勒召开
    尹善春, 郭子光, 马学慧
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 91-92.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.91
    摘要   PDF (153KB)
    第八届国际泥炭会议,于1988年8月15日至8月20日在苏联列宁格勒举行。参加会议的有苏联、芬兰、联邦德国、波兰、瑞典、加拿大、中国等27个国家,约计600多位代表,我国出席会议的有16人。大会收到学术论文150余篇,我国提交大会论文19篇,受到与会代表的欢迎和重视。第八届国际泥炭会议的主要议题是寻求与交流泥炭科学和技术基本观点及实际问题的情报、信息、经验以及解决途径,促进泥炭事业国际之间的联系与合作。
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    环境生命元素与健康国际学术讨论会在北京召开
    张学林
    地理科学. 1989, 9 (1): 93-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1989.01.93
    摘要   PDF (71KB)
    “环境生命元素与健康”国际学术讨论会(International Symrosium of EnvironmentalLife Element and Health)首次在我国首都——北京召开。会议由中国科学院主办,自1988年11月1日至5日历时5天,来自西欧、北美、拉美和亚洲等16个国家250名专家、学者出席了会议,收到论文283篇。会议领导小组组长、中国科学院副院长孙鸿烈教授致开幕词,卫生部部长陈敏章同志出席会议表示祝贺,并做了重要讲话。
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