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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1990年, 第10卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1990-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    求是精神——缅怀竺可桢师的教诲
    赵松乔
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 6-8,97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.6
    摘要   PDF (884KB)
    竺可故教授是中国现代地理学和气象学的莫基人,又是卓越的教育家和社会活动家。他倡导科学研究和为人之道必须具有求是精神。在他担任浙江大学校长时,他以"求是"作为校训,在他担当中国科学院副院长期间,始终贯彻"求是"精神,在"立德、立功、立言"等方面都做出了杰出贡献。
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    在“文革”中艰难前进的竺可桢
    沈文雄
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 9-14,97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.9
    摘要   PDF (1139KB)
    本文系统而又生动地介绍和叔述了竺可祯在文化大革命这一政治动乱中坚定的政治信仰、祟高的思想品德以及忘我的科学献身精神和严谨的治学态度。他治也进,乱也进,正道直行,竭忠尽智,以过人的毅力,建立了光辉的业绩。他把毕生精力奉献给我国科学事业和人民,在动乱的岁月中,为发展我国科学事业继续作出了贡献.
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    竺可桢的卓越贡献和光辉历程——对即将出版的《竺可桢传》的介绍
    吕东明
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 15-19,97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.15
    摘要   PDF (1055KB)
    本文从卓越的贡献、光辉的历程、笃信力行的求是梢神、以及平凡中并不平凡的品格几部分介绍了《竺可祯传》.
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    竺可桢关于地理学性质、任务与方法的论述
    高泳源
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 20-27,97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.20
    摘要   PDF (1224KB)
    文章回顾了竺可枚教授关于地理学的性质、任务与方法的论述。竺老认为,地理学具有鲜明的地域性与综合性的特点,介于自然科学与社会科学之间。创造性地提出地理学要为农业生产皿务。要采用科学方法,吸收其它学科最新理论、方法,发展地理学。
    The paper recalls Professor Zhu Kezhen’s ideas on the nature,tasks and methods of geography. 1.Professor Zhu Kezhen thought that geography had the characteristic of distinctive zonality and synthesis,and obvious practical effect.Geograpgy was a discipline between natural science and social science. 2.He creatively proposed the idea that geography must serve the national economy,especially agricultural production. 3.Geography must strengthen the combined qualitive and quantitative analy-sis,be armed with the latest scientific achievements,and instruments and equip-ments,on the one hand,setting up experimental stations,doing fixed observations, ort the other hand,using the latest theoretical knowledge in the aspects of basic sciences,such as biology,physics,chemistry,mathematics,etc.to carry on research and demonstration. 4.The study methods used by Prof.Zhu Kezhen can be summed up the following 3 items:The first is the inductive method,contrasting the distribution of different geographical phenomena in space or time,approaching their interre-lationship.The second is according to the oecurence of different phenomena fol-lowed one by one,to trace back to the relation of cause arid effect.The third is to trace the process of the transformation and evolution of the substance in nature, or energy from one object to another,from this position to another,from this moment to that moment,to seek their relation in quantity and nature.
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    竺可桢先生对中国气候区划的贡献
    丘宝剑
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 28-34,97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.28
    摘要   PDF (1147KB)
    竺可祯先生自20年代起就着手研究中国气候区划,他是中国气候区划的开创者。建国后,他长期领导和参加这项工作。竺老关于气候区划的一系列思想一直还在指导着近些年来各级气候区划的研究。他对这项工作的贡献是有目共睹的。
    Professor Zhe Kezhen is the pioneer of the climate regionalization of China. He started to study the climate regionalization of China in the 1920s.After the founding of the Peoplets Republie of China,he had been led and engaged in the climate regionalization.Prof.Zhu Kezhen’s guiding thought about climate regionatization has a profound influence.He pointed out that the climate regio-nalization abroad was not suitable 1o climate in China;the classitication must be simple and definite,gave consideration to both practical viewpoint and genetic idea;the division boundary must correspond to the natural regions of a country; various regions were influenced differently by cyclone and anticyclone in China, so climate regionalization can be divided into zones or belts,taking cyclone and anticyclone range as the criteria;temperature,rainfall and their distribution in a year as the main factors. Prof.Zhu Kezhen’s thought about climate regionalization has been guiding the studies on climate regionalization in all levels in reeent years,His contribu-tion to this aspect is obvious to all.
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    竺可桢教授对开拓东北区地理研究的贡献
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 35-41,97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.35
    摘要   PDF (1138KB)
    本文从竺老多次组织东北区自然资源综合考察、创建各地区地理研究机构和提出东北地理研究所的主要研究方向和任务、回顾和总结长春地理研究所取得的成就等四个部分,阐明竺者为开拓和推动东非区地理研究的贡献。
    The paper discusses Professor Zhu Kezhen’s contributions to opening up and promoting the geographical research in northeast region in four parts. The firstpart expounds his academic thought on the nature and contents of comprehensive natural survey and their relation to national economic construction. He organized the comprehensive survey of naural resources in northeast region for many times,for example,the comprehensive survey,the investigation and comprehensive evaluation of wilderness resources in the Heilong River basin and obtained the achievements in these comprehensive surveys. The second part describes Professor Zhu Kezhen’s contribution to setting up geographical research institutions in various regions,and to proposing the work of each georaphical research institutions.He made a great contribution to estab-lishment and development of branch disciplines in geographical science system, such as natural resources science,desert science,glociology,geocryology,science of mountain disasters,limnology,mire science,so as to promote the development of geographical science cause of new China. The third part deals with Professor Zhu Kezhen’s main academic thoughts on the nature and study contents of geography.Especially,he put forward the thought that geography serves agriculture,and related scientific tasks and subjects.He stressed that the geographical research institutions in northeast must study the unique problems of northeast region,undertake the subjects to serve the economic construction in northeast. The fourth part states that under the guidance of Prof.Zhu Kezhen’s acad-emic thought,Changchun Institute of Geography summarized and recalled the achievements in various research fields,looked forward to the future,and edited and published the research collected works at the time of celebrating the 30th anniversary of the founding of the institute.
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    竺老关于经济地理学与经济建设的思想
    于振汉
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 42-47,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.42
    摘要   PDF (500KB)
    木文阐明了我国经济地理工作者在竺老经济地理方针和径挤建设思想指导下,在经济地理各方而做出的工作和成就。
    The paper recalls the fact that over a long period of time,economic geog-raphical workers have carried out the idea that the development of geography must be integrated with practice,serve the economic construction,which propo-sed by Prof.Zhu Kezhen.They have been engaged in the scientific research activities of natural resources survey,agricultural regionalization,productivity allocation,and regional development,ect.to enrich and develop the theory and methods for the comprehensive studies of geography.
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    海平面上升与地面沉降对黄河三角洲影响初步研究
    任美锷
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 48-57,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.48
    摘要   PDF (781KB)
    沿海的黄河三角洲地势低淦,广大面积海拔不足2m,下一世纪海平面上升,加上地面沉降,大片低地将被海潮吞没,同时海水渗入内陆,农业将受巨大影响,必须及时采取有效措施,加以防范。
    The Holocene Huanghe River Delta,with an area of 25,000km2,is one of the largest deltas in the world.The paper focusses on its coastal plain,including 3 younger deltas,i.e.,the delta near Tianjin,the modern delta and the aban-doned delta.In the first two deltas,land subsidence,both natural and man-induced,is serious and recent sealevel rise is mainly relative and a result of land subsidence.The major direct impacts of relative sealevel rise on the Huanghe River Delta are submergence and salinity increase.As a great part of the three younger deltas is less than 2m above sealevel,with a rising sealevel,the da-nger of submergence is great,especially during the storm surge.With a rising sea level,low-lying coastal plain will increasingly suffer from salt water int-rusion and drainage will be more difficult.Decisive action is urgently needed to avert or mitigate adverse effects.
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    中国海滨沼泽的初步研究——纪念竺可桢师诞辰一百周年
    陈吉余, 杨世伦, 张勇, 王兴放
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 58-68,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.58
    摘要   PDF (750KB)
    本文叙述了中国海滨沼泽的分布、形成条件,植被类型以及沉积物的组成和沉积物的构造特征,探讨了海滨沼泽的发育过程和机理。
    The paper describes the distribution,formation environment,vegetation types; sediment composition and sediment structure characteristics of seashore marshes in China,and approaches the developing process and mechanism of seashore marshes as well.
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    华北地区春夏季的物候季节节奏研究
    陈效逑
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 69-76,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.69
    摘要   PDF (532KB)
    物侯季节节奏是地理环境的一种重要属性,认识它的变化的规律,对于掌握农业生产活动的时宜,具有时间背景的意义。本文以华北地区为例,利用数理统计方法,确定了初春至盛夏期间季节节奏正常与异常的判据,并得到一组定量描述区域物候季节节奏的回归方程。在实践上,这一组方程可以用来进行该区域内许多地点的季节预报。
    Phenological seasonal rhythm is one of the important attributes in geographic environment.Understanding its behaviour has practical significances for mastering farming seasons. This paper takes North China region as an example.First,choose the first flowering dates of Ulmus pumila,Prunus armeniaca,Syringa oblata,Robinia, pseudoacacia and Albizzia julibrissin in Beijing,Taian,Xian and other places as the phonological indexes.Second,determine the criteria of the seasonal rhy-thm from early spring to midsummer through statistical analysis.Next,build a group of regression equations to describe quantitatively the characteristics of the regional seasonal rhythm. The research shows that the consistency of physical geographic region finds expression not only in the combination characters of various geographic ele-ments but also in the variations of seasonal rhythm.These criteria and regr-ession equations can be used to judge whetherthe seasonal rhythm is normal, and to forecast the season arrival in the research region.
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    我国旱涝影响因子探讨
    唐佑民, 郭岚
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 77-85,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.77
    摘要   PDF (1661KB)
    本文从统计角度对我国东部早汾影响因子进行分析。结果表明,我国各区域旱涝主要影响因子是地球自转速度变化、太阳黑子数改变和ENSO等.其中ENSO影响最为广泛,在厄尼诺年或后一、二年,对早涝的影响尤其明显。上述因子对早涝的影响方式一般以后延相关,通过2一5年高频振动周期反映出来。
    In the first paper listed in the references,the east China was divided into eight drought/flood regions.But we,taking earth rotation velocity,sunspots, southern oscillation,etc.as the influence factors,through step-by-step regression analysis and typical analysis,discusses drought/flood influence factors of the eight regions.On the basis of them,applying spectrum analysis,we calsulated cycles of every influence factors variation and cycles of drought/flood variations of every region as well as cycles of vibration between them. The results indicate that the drought/flood influence factors of the east China are southern oscillation,earth rotation velocity,etc.Specially,the influence of EL Nino is more evident to drought/flood of most regions than that of others. Generally,there are good correlations between the year of EL Niono and the year of drought/flood of most regions.The ways that these factors influence drought/flood are shown in lad correlation,by 2-5-year high-frequency vibration cycle.
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    长江河源区冰缘环境沼泽的研究——献给竺可桢教授诞辰百周年
    孙广友, 邓伟, 邵庆春
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (1): 86-92,96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.01.86
    摘要   PDF (1183KB)
    青藏高原腹部的长江河源区属千典型的现代冰缘环境,是世界上面积最大,海拔最高的中、低纬高原沼泽。沼泽的形成过程和类型特征与非冰缘区有明显不同,本文划分出10个主要沼泽类型,并阐述了生态结构特征。
    The source region of the Changjiang River is situated in the center of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,belonging to typical periglacial environment.It is found that the region is the largest and highest plateau mire distribution area of plateau mire in the middle and low latitude zones of the world.Mire there covers an area of 8000km~2.The highest is 5350m above sea level.The mire in the pert-glacial region has special regional law.Strong thaw-freeze action is involved in mire formation process,so mire type peculiar to periglacial region is formed. Mire in this region is divided into 10 basic types such as periglacial strath mire. The formation mechanism,type characteristics and ecological features are discus-sed.Microlandforms are charaeterized by common grass mound cover,freezeswell raise,wide development of peat mire on peat accumulation,the feed of ice-meltwater and meltwater from frozen earth horizon,simple types of animal community and plant community,and many endemic species.In this region, there is only herb mire,lacking in moss Mire and woody mire.
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