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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1991年, 第11卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1991-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国干旱气候划分及其特征
    徐淑英
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 1-9,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.1
    摘要   PDF (609KB)
    本文用年干燥度、年降水量和≥10℃积温作为划分干旱气候指标。在此基础上将干旱区域分为两大类,三型及16个区。干旱区属大陆性气候。干燥少雨,降水从东向西减少。降水集中在夏季,很少暴雨。干旱区风大并多沙暴,少云,日照长,冬冷夏热,气温年较差与日较差均大。有些干旱区,日照、热量和降水配合较好,有利于农作物生长。
    In this paper,annual aridity coefficients,annual rainfall and ≥10℃ accumulated temperature are taken as the indexes for the classification of arid climate.On this basis,the arid area is divided into two great types,three patterns and 15 zones.The arid area belongs to continental climate,dry and scarce rainfall.The rainfall decreases rapidly from east(500mm)to west(10mm),and is concentrated in summer.Heavy rain seldom occurs,but once it,occurs,it brings flood and disaster to the people.Wind force in the arid area is large and brings sand-storm.There are less lower cloud and longer sunshine time in the arid area than the humid area.Air temperature is low in winter and high in summer.The ranges of annual and daily air temperature variation are the.largest in China.During rainy season,there are plenty of sunshine and heat resource,which are advantageous to crop growth.
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    土地资源评价专家系统试验研究与前景探讨
    郑兴年
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 10-18,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.10
    摘要   PDF (593KB)
    本文回顾了在自然资源研究中新技术应用的历史和发展,阐述了专家系统方法在资源研究中应用的意义,并介绍了专家系统的结构和功能;其次,设计建造了土地资源评价专家系统(LEES),并以陕西省安塞县真武洞乡为例,利用LEES系统对该乡土地资源进行了评价;最后,本文对专家系统方法在自然资源调查、分类,评价、规划、管理等方面的应用前景作了初步分析、探讨。
    The paper,at first,recalls the history of application of new techniques in natural resources research,shows the significance of application of expert system in natural resources research,and introduces briefly the structure and function of expert system.Then land evaluation expert system is designed and set up,and as an example,land resources are assessed in Zhenwudong Township,Ansai County,Shanxi Province by LEES.At last the paper analyzes and discusses the application prospects of expert system in the survey,classification,evaluation,planning and management of resources.
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    省级区域铁路货运联系的系统研究
    金凤君, 张文尝
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 19-29,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.19
    摘要   PDF (688KB)
    本文系统地研究了近20年来我国省级区域间的铁路货物交流,并采用联系强度法分析了省级区域间的空间贷运联系,指出其具有明显的地域组合,不同的联系方向,差异明显的交流强度等特征。
    In China railway is a leading transport mode to link different areas,the essential set-up of spatial economic interaction is partly established by railway freight interchange.In the article,the interprovincial freight interchange by railway is studied systematically.The interchange volume was increasing quickly in the past two decades.From 1965 to 1987,it increased from 190 million tons to 73O million tons.The regional transport function of the railway changed.In the 1960s the railway took on mainly inner-provincial freight interchange.But in the 1980s,it took on mainly interprovineial freight interchange.The contradiction between higher increasing rate of interprovincial freight interchange and lower increasing rate of transport facilities is a main reason of transport shortage at present.This contradiction should be solved from the following three aspects:increasing investment,adjusting transport costs,and improving interregional economic cooperation.The obvious spatial features in interprovincial transport linkage are:obvious areal combination,different interaction directions and interaction intensities and so on.In this article,a scientific quantitative method,interaction intensity method is used to analyze the spatial relationship between provincial regions.
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    我国泥炭基本性质的区域分异
    马学慧, 蔡省垣, 王荣芬
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 30-41,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.30
    摘要   PDF (724KB)
    本文根据近年来对泥炭地实际调查和取样,在大量化验分析数据的基础上,采用数理统计方法,对我国泥炭基本性质进行分区研究和对比,指出泥炭性质与第四纪以来区域环境和变迁有着密切关系。
    According to the investigation in recent years,the proved peat reserves are 5 billion tons.But there are still some peatlands which have not been surveyed and found.It is estimated that peat reserves will be 6-8 billion tons.China’s peatlands are mainly distributed in mountains and plateaus,especially in the Da Hinggan Mountain,the Xiao Hinggan Mountain,and the Changbai Mountain in northeast,the southern part of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,the western part of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau,having abundant peat resources.Besides,in the Sanjiang Plain,along east and south coasts there are also some peatlands.The basic properties of peat in main regions of China are as follows.In northeast mountains,there are various types of peat,the contents of organic matter and humic acid are the highest(65-70%)and 35%-40%,respectively),pH value is 5-6,decomposition degree is low (below 25%).While in plains and coasts,peat type is single,the contents of organic matter and humic acid are relatively low(50% and 20%,respectively),but decomposition degree is high.In arid zones,the contents of organic matter and humic acid of peat are the lowest(30%-50% and 15%-20%,respectively),pH value is neutral or slightly alkaline.The differences of peat properties in a region are closely related to the change of regional environment since the Holocene.Because peat properties vary with regions,the exploitation and utilization of peat and peatlands vary with regions.
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    我国天山自然条件的基本特点
    王树基
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 42-47,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.42
    摘要   PDF (421KB)
    本文利用大量实地观测分析资料,论述了我国天山地区的自然条件,特别是气候、水文、垂直地貌带和自然景观的基本特征。表明我国天山山地这一湿岛在干旱区的重要地位及在发展绿洲经济中的作用。
    The development and evolution of the Tianshan Mountain went through three stages:fold uplift in the Palaeozoic Era,denudation planation in the Mesozoic Era to the Early Tertiary,and fault-block uplift in the Late Tertiary to the Early Quaternary.The distribution pattern of precipitation in the Tianshan Mountain is that precipitation in the west part is more than that in the east part; the north slope more than the south slope;and the interior more than the outer fringe.The pattern of temper ature distribution has an opposite pattern.There are 210 rivers,big or small,in the Tianshan Mountain area.All of them are inland rivers.And most of them originate from glaciers and alpine snow cover area.The distribution of annual runoff volume present a large yearly variation,and a small interyearly variation.The vertical belts of mountainous geomorphology and landscape are all obvious,but the landscape belts of the south slope greatly differ from that of the north slope.
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    综述
    大气CO2浓度的变化及其气候环境效应
    曹银真
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 48-59,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.48
    摘要   PDF (821KB)
    在全面分析国内外有关气候变化著述的基础上,本文指出,就气候变化的自然因子而论,未来气温有可能下降。从人为因子而言,温度有可能上升。当升温肘,北美及地中海西北部等地可能趋于干旱,而欧亚、南美及澳大利亚等地不可能出现干旱。但升温引起的海面上升是全球性的,对我国沿海地区将产生巨大影响。
    The analysis of climatic change and the effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration shows that climate will tend to become cool in the future according to natural factor affecting climate,but it will tend to become warm according to man’s factor.When climate becomes warm it will get arid in the North America and the Northwest Mediterranean,while in Eurasia,South America and Australia it will get humid.The rise of sea-level produced by warming will have great effect on the area along the coast of China,as well as on all coasts of the world.If natural resources,especially land and wood resources,are reasonably used,most of desertification in east and northwest China will develop toward the ecological environment with high efficiency.
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    学科进展
    城市地理学发展动态
    姚士谋
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 60-66,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.60
    摘要   PDF (556KB)
    本文简述了城市地理学形成过程、近十年来中国城市地理学的实践及其学科发展与建设,最后叙述了中国城市地理学发展趋势和中国城市化道路问题。
    Urban geography is a young discipline of geography,and an important branch of human geography.The origin,formation and development process of urban geography are discussed.Urban geography originated west Europe and North America.The Central Place Theory proposed by Christaller played a significant role in the development of urban geography.Although China has a long history in urban development,urban geography came into being late.In the semi-colonial society time,urban geography developed at a very low speed because of very low productivity.In fact,urban geography of China began to develop in the 1950s and the 1960s.China has made great progress in urban geography since 1978.Lots of researches have been completed on the function,size,character,spatial structure,development and trend of a city,and urban system.Many important articles and books have been published.They enriched the research scope of urban geography.
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    研究报道
    利用卫星影像编制吉林省植被类型图(1:50万)
    白玉光, 祝廷成
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 67-75,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.67
    摘要   PDF (538KB)
    《吉林省植被类型图(1:50万)》是《中国植被图(1:100万)》的一部分。在编制过程中采用遥感手段,节省了时间和资金,较新的TM影像具有比MSS影像更高的地面分辩率,在卫片解译中采用多时相分析,多因子分析,影像的多时相分析,对照分析法和制图综合。根据解译结果,提出了吉林省植被分类系统,划分出60个群系,总计72个成图符号。
    “Vegetation Type Map of Jilin Province(1:500000)”is a part of “Vegetation Map of China(1:1000000)”.Much expense and time were saved with the aid of Landsat images.The images of TM have higher spectral and geometric resolution than MSS,which increases the preci sion of image interpretation.According to the vegetation features of Jilin Province,the following four methods for interpreting the images were used:1)the multitemporal analysis of images;2)the analysis of related environmental factors;3)the synthetic analysis of images;and 4)the comparison of adjacent images and cartographic generalization.On the basis of the image interpretation result,the authors built the vegetation classification system,and divided the vegetation of Jilin into 60 formations and 72 mapping units.
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    青海湖南岸全新世黄土剖面、气候信息及湖面升降探讨
    陈发虎, 汪世兰, 张维信, 潘保田
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 76-85,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.76
    摘要   PDF (628KB)
    本文根据青海湖南岸哈拉力黄土-古土壤剖面气候信息,讨论了青海湖区距今10300年以来气候的四次冷暖和千湿交替变化。其中距今7000—3500年为湖区全新世气候最宜时期,当时年均气温比今高2.5℃,而距今8500—7000年和3500—2800年间年均气温分别比今低5°—6℃和2.5℃。全新世以来青海湖存在四次商湖面时期,它们与气候的四次温湿期一致,最高湖面不超过觋今湖面30m。
    According to climatic information,14C dating,spore-pollen analysis and grain size data of Halali loess profile,and the distribution and 14C dating of depositional terrace at south bank of Qinghai Lake,the paper discusses the climatic changes in Qinghai Lake area and the Lake level fluctuations since 10300 years B.P.It is pointed out that there are four relatively warm and humid periods in Qinghal Lake area since the Holocene.They are the periods from 10300 years B.P.to 8500 years B.P.,from 7000 years B.P.to 3500 years B.P.,from 2800 years B.P.to 2000 years B.P.,and from 3500 years B.P.to present time.The optimum climate period in Qinghai Lake area was the period from 7000 years B.P.to 3500 years B.P.when polypodium plants grew luxuriantly around Qinghai Lake,it was quite warm and humid,the average annual temperature was 2.5℃ higher than that at present.The cold and dry periods happerned in 8500 years B.P.to 7000 yearsB.P.,3500 years B.P.to 2800 years B.P.and 2000 years B.P.to about 1300 years B.P..Qinghai Lake level generally tended to lower in the Holocene,but there were four periods of relatively stable high lake-level corresponding to warm and humid periods.
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    大兴安岭岳桦林的类型、结构特征和分布规律
    周瑞昌, 杨国亭, 马克平, 孔刚
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 86-93,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.86
    摘要   PDF (682KB)
    岳桦林在东北大兴安岭分布在海拔940—1650m的山地。依据其组成、结构及分布特征划分三个类型。本区岳桦林在组成和结构上与长白山地岳桦林有明显的不同。岳桦林具有水土保持作用,应予以保护。
    Ermans birch(Betula ermanii)forest can be found in the mountain area of 940-1650m above sea level in the Da Hinggan Mountain of Northeast China.According to the composition,structure and distribution characteristics,the forest can be classified into three types.Ass.Herbsau-Betula ermanii,Ass.Rhododedron dauricum-Betula ermanii and Ass.Vaccinium vitis-idaea-Betula ermanii.Ermans birch forest takes the significant position in the subalpine area and is the main body of the mountain sparse cold-coniferous forest belt, In the Da Hinggan Mountain this kind of forest is not distributed in belt around the mountain top, Because of the special ecological environment,the forest, in this area differs from that in the Changbai Mountaro in the composition and structure.The direct economic benefit of ermans birch forest is not very great,but it so it should can play an important role in water and. soil conservation be protected effectively.
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    学位论文摘登
    东北地区煤矿城镇发展与布局的研究
    宋玉祥
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 94-96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.94
    摘要   PDF (211KB)
    东北地区是我国最早建立起来的以重工业为主体的工业基地,又是我国城镇化水平较高的地区。到1985年末,全区市镇人口达6271.4万人,占全区总人口60.8%,远高于全国平均水平。煤矿城镇是东北地区城镇体系的重要组成部分,煤矿城镇的发展建设,对完善区域城镇体系,推动地区经济发展有重要意义。本文的煤矿城市指因煤炭开采而兴起,煤炭工业为主要的工业生产部门、煤炭工业职工居全市各部门职工人数首位的城市。煤矿镇指煤炭年产量大于20万t,以煤炭工业为主要工业生产部门的建制镇。
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    学术活动
    国际地理学会地貌灾害组织及其活动
    陈志明
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 97-97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.97
    摘要   PDF (76KB)
    为了配合本世纪最后10年的“国际减灾10年”活动,国际地理联合会(IGU)在1989年初建立了相应的学术组织——突发地貌灾害研究组(Study Groupon Rapid Geomorphological Hazards)。这是IGU中除22个委员会之外的6个研究组之一。
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    1990年芬兰泥炭生产和利用国际会议
    张文芬, 陈淑云, 赵大岭
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (1): 98-98.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.01.98
    摘要   PDF (79KB)
    1990年6月11日至15日在芬兰于伐斯屈拉召开了国际泥炭生产和利用会议。会议由芬兰泥炭工业协会组织,协作者为芬兰技术研究中心、芬兰地质调查所和于伐斯屈拉议会。参加会议的有14个国家209位代表,中国参加6人。会议论文文摘计87篇,中国在分会发言一篇,展出三篇。会议的宗旨是:在90年代将有更多的地区建立泥炭工业和利用泥炭,深入地研究和开发工作在许多国家得到了非常可喜的进展,工业用泥炭越来越显示出它的实力,泥炭新的吸引力还表现为能源以外的利用途径。
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