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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1993年, 第13卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1993-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国空间组织结构差异对省际边界地区经济发展的影响
    郭荣星
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 197-204,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.197
    摘要   PDF (470KB)
    在对中国省际接壤地区空间组织结构分析的基础上,作者采用数学方法建立了N维边界地区的空间经济行为模型。利用该模型,提出测算"行政区边界"对区域经济发展影响的定量方法,并用之分析了晋冀鲁豫四省边界地区农业经济系统。
    Based on the spatial organizational structures of the regions bordering the provinces of China, I build a mathematical model of economic performances for N-dimensional border-regions (i. e.,the regions bordering N provinces)and find that, for a given region with the same conditions of geography and technology, the largest output (FN*)of a Ndimensional border-regional system will not exceed that of a N-1-dimensional border-re-gional system, i, e., F1*≥F2*≥…≥FN-1*≥FN* Using the model, I present a quantative method to calculate the effect of "administrative borders" on the regional economic development and the application of it in the agricultural system of the region bordering Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces. The main results show that the potentials for economic development have not been fully utilized and that the annual gross products of the border-region decrease by 10.4% due to the 4-dimensional borders.
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    海气相互作用对长江上游汛期水量的影响
    章新平, 范钟秀, 周恩济
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 205-211,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.205
    摘要   PDF (459KB)
    北大西洋、太平洋、印度洋的海温异常通过大气环流的作用影响长江上游汛期的水量变化。这种遥联具有一定的韵律特点。在海气相互作用中,几乎所有的重要相关区都在洋流区,影响时间主要在冬春季。文中分析了不同海区的海温影响长江上游汛期水量丰枯的可能物理机制。
    The paper analyses the relationship between the discharge of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in flood period and both of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the circulation by the correlation analysis method. The analysis results show that the SST anomalies of the North Atlantic, the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean can influence the variation of the discharge of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in flood period by atmospheric circulation. This teleconnexion is of the certain rhythemic characteristic. The ocean current play an important role in the sea-air interaction because almost all important correlation areas are situated in the ocean current regions, and the time of the effect is mainly winter or spring. Otherwise, the effects of the SST are of the double-hump characteristics. The paper gives the possible physical mechanisms that the SST of the variant sea areas affects the discharge of the region of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in flood period. For the three oceans, the change of the currents and circulation of any one can get the response inthe currents and circulation of the other two by the regulation of atmospheric circulation. So, for the long-range hydrologic forecast of the upper reaches regions of the Changjiahg River, it is better to consider simultaneously the effects of the three oceans rather than do only one.
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    气候变化对内陆湖泊影响分析
    秦伯强
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 212-219,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.212
    摘要   PDF (501KB)
    在讨论近百年来气候变化对亚洲干旱地区内陆湖泊的影响及其湖泊响应的基础上。探讨了降水与气温变化对湖泊的影响;通过湖泊水量平衡计算阐述湖泊水位变化的原因。同时,分析了湖盆的物理形态与湖泊对气候变化响应的关系,获得了若干重要的结论。
    The climate in mid-latitude zone of the Northern Hemisphere has shown an tendency to get warm and dry since the beginning of this century. Due to such climatic change, most inland lakes fed mainly by precipitation have the change tendency of water level fall, and area shrinkage; only few lakes fed by glaciers have the tendency of expansion. By means of analysing the influence of precipitation and air temperatute change on lakes, it is found that the precipitation has a positive effect, namely, precipitation change is positively correlated with lake water level variation; while air temperatute has a negative effect. In addition, most lakes are sensitive to precipitation. And most lakes are in a state of the deficit of lake water volume for a long time, which is the reason to cause lake water level fall. The analysis of the relationsip between the lake basin shape and the response of lakes to climatic change shows that the lakes with shallow basins are sensitive to climatic change.
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    三江平原沼泽蒸发研究
    陈刚起, 吕宪国, 杨青, 王毅勇
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 220-226,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.220
    摘要   PDF (432KB)
    据1990年和1991年两年实际观测资料可以看出,沼泽蒸发一般比水面蒸发大1~2倍,沼泽植物蒸腾在沼泽蒸发中占有重要地位,沼泽植被覆盖率越高,日蒸发量越大,植被覆盖率小于10%时,沼泽蒸发与水面蒸发相差不大。最后建立了沼泽蒸发统计模型。
    The Sanjiang Plain is situated in northeast China. It is one of the areas where marshes are distributed concentratedly and widely in China. Carex lasiocarpa marsh and the marsh with Carex lasiocarpa as dominative species are distributed widely. We choose Carex lasiocarpa marsh as observation object. Marsh evapotranspiration includes transpiration of marsh plants and evaporation from among plants. We used evaporimeters to observe the water level, and calculated the water level amplitude. The article, based on the observed data in 1990 and 1991, gives out the analytical results and comes out with the model of the marsh evapotranspiration. The evapotranspiration of the marsh is one or two times more than the evaporation of water surface in growing season. The larger the vegetation coverage,the greater the daily evapotranspiration. When the vegetation coverage of the marsh is less than 10%, the daily evapotranspiration of the marsh is close to the evaporation of water surface. The difference between the evapotranspiration of the marsh and the evaporation of water surface in sunny days is more than that in cloudy days.
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    天山北坡不同植被类型的表土孢粉组合研究
    潘安定
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 227-233,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.227
    摘要   PDF (429KB)
    在对新疆干旱区不同植被带表土孢粉组合分析的基础上,用关联度分析权重指数和法,探讨了植被类型与孢粉组合之间的关系,并归纳出环境评价等级指数和与植被带对应关系表。经初步检验,对应关系与实际状况基本相符。
    Establishing the relationship between sporo-pollen assemblages in surface soil and surrounding vegetation is an important work for correctly reconstructing paleo-vegetation, paleo-environment and their history of development and evolution by sporo-pollen analysis. The Grey System, a new mathematical theory, was applied to the research on the sporo-pollen assemblages of surface soil. Based on the sporo-pollen analysis of surface soil samples from the. northern slope of the Tianshan Mountain, the relationship between surface soil and vegetation forms was approached by the method of weight index analysis from correlation degree. A table on corresponding relationship between the sum of ecotope grade index and vegetation zones was induced., which tallies with the reality on the whole through thepreliminary test. This method would benefit the research on paleo-ecoenvironment and its evolution with the aid of sporo-pollen analysis more promptly and precisely.
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    东北区冰雪旅游资源及其应用研究
    韩杰
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 234-241,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.234
    摘要   PDF (551KB)
    东北区冰雪旅游资源独具特色,闻名全国,具有一煊的资源优势,它是在特定的自然地理环境下形成的。最后,作者还对开发这一资源提出建议。
    Tourist resources are new estate resources. Ice-snow tourist resources in northeast China play a very important role in China, and they are also characteristic resources in northeast China. On the basis of long-term researches and field investigations, first of all, the characteristics and the formative cause of ice-snow tourist resources in winter in northeast Chhina are discussed. Then the present situation and the problems of exploitation of ice—snow tourist resources are appreciated. At last, the author’s own ideas on the exploitation of resources are put forward. The main purpose of the paper is to let the organizations and departments concerned have a correct understanding of the exploitation of ice-snow tourist resources and make strategic decision, promoting the rapid development of tourism in northeast China.
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    综述
    对荒漠化研究基本问题的评述
    董玉祥, 刘毅华
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 242-249,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.242
    摘要   PDF (509KB)
    20世纪是荒漠化概念形成与发展的主要时期。荒漠化研究涉及到全球各个地区,研究时段由现代推前到整个人类历史时期,研究内容涉及到自然与社会的许多方面,由于研究基础薄弱,研究缺乏系统性,定量研究不够,一些荒漠化基本理论问题还没有解决。
    Desertification is one of the most important problems in the world. The study on desertification has become one of the most important topics in recent years because of its immense harm. This paper simply looks back the development process of the study on desertification, analyses and discusses the points in the debate of some basic problems of desertification, such as desertification definition,distribution space and time, cause, process, indicators and development trend of desertification. This paper gives the main topics of desertification which we must study lately. All in all, there were many problems in the study on desertification in the past, but those problems can be solved through the systematic and quantitative study on desertification.
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    全球海平面上升机制和趋势及其环境效应
    杨桂山
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 250-256,295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.250
    摘要   PDF (511KB)
    对全球海面上升的几种影响因素作了介绍和分析,对未来海面上升的估计值及其可能造成的环境影响,作了较系统的综述。
    Global warming,caused by the atmospheric build—up of CO2 and trace gases(CH4, N2O, CFCs)could raise global eustatic sea level. For processes appear as dominating on a time scale of decades to centuries: thermal expansion of oceans, melting of alpine glaciers and small ice caps, and changes in the mass balance of the large polar ice sheets (Greenland, Antarctica). But relative sea level rise in the different coastal areas are mainly controlled by local neotectonic movements and land subsidence by anthropogenic effects. Over last 100 years, climatic warming has raised global sea level by 10~15cm. There is no firm evidence to suggest that global eustatic sea level rise next century will exceed 100cm, most of the studies foresee a rising range between 50 cm and 100cm. Sea level rise will cause a series of environmental effects: permanent inundation, increased coastal erosion, temporary flooding and salt water intrusion of estuaries and aquifers, which will bring about enormous losses of society and economy and people’s life in the coastal areas.
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    数值模拟在古气候研究中的应用
    刘晓东
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 257-267,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.257
    摘要   PDF (724KB)
    通过近十几年来利用大气环流模式对古气候模拟的研究,指出数值模拟方法应用于古气候研究的优点,介绍了对中白垩纪、新生代晚期、末次冰期等几个典型地质时期的数值模拟情况和古气候模拟所取得的主要成果,并展望了数值模拟在古气候研究中的前景
    Studies of paleoclimate simulated by using general circulation models(GCM) of atmosphere in recent years are summarized and reviewed systematically in this paper. First the advantages of numerical simulation method used in paleoclimate research are pointed out. Numerical calculations can quantitatively show the nonlinear relation-ship between climate and various factors influencing it. Results of numerical simulations can fill the gaps of observaation research in both space and time, that is, sometimes GCM can tell us something about atmosphere behaviour that could not be obtained from observations. The most advantage of the method of numerical simulation lies in its altirnative tests or even null experiment that hopefully clarify how and why the atmosphere behaves under certain physical hypothesis. Such experiments are probably impossible to perform in the actual atmosphere. Then main aspects and achievements of paleoclimate simulation for several typical geological periods (the midcretaceous, late cenozoic, last glacial maximum and since then)are introduced. A series of numerical simulations and experiments made by using different GCMs explore actions of various factors to build up paleoelimate, such as the earth’s s orbital parameters,trace gases in atmosphere and boundary conditions(sea temperature, locations of continents, altitude of mountains, ice sheets, vegetation and so on). These results are undoubtedly very meaning to study and understand deeply the cause and law of climatic change and even to foreshadow the future of climate. Finally the wider vista of numerical simulatin in the area of paleoclimate research is prospected.
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    问题讨论
    论历史上回族的形成与空间迁移——与金其铭先生商榷
    卢仲康, 成清扬
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 268-272,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.268
    摘要   PDF (374KB)
    对金其铭《中国人文地理概论》中有关回族的形成与空间迁移、分布提出不同看法。分析了回族大跨度迁移来华的原因,提出至明代才形成一个民族,最后分析回族遍天下的情况。
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    研究报道
    海南岛雨水、河水、地下水氢氧稳定同位素特征及其关系
    陈静生, 王忠
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 273-278,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.273
    摘要   PDF (360KB)
    通过海南岛若干地点1990年夏季雨水、河水及地下水氢氧稳定同位索的测定,探讨了其与大陆降水同位素的比较,及岛内水的同位素分布特征,并试图应用同位素方法探讨岛上若干地点雨水、河水、地下水之间的相互关系。
    This paper deals with the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in rain water, river water and groundwater from Hainan Island of China. Water samples were collected in summer season of 1990. Results show: 1. The δD values of rain water samples from Hainan Island are much lower than δD values which were obtained by extrapolation from the distrbution tendency of δD values in rain water of the mainland China. The elope of the meteoric water line in Hainan Island is also much lower than that in the mainland China. 2. The δD and δ18O contentes of rain water, river water, and groundwater in eastern and southern areas are little higher than those in western and northern areas. The δD and δ18O contents in rain water, river water and groundwater decrease from low altitude to high altitude. The similarity of δD and δ18O of distribution of contentes in rain water, river water and groundwater, indicates the co-genesis of rain water, river water and groundwater in Hainan Island. 3. Data calculated by the isotope mixture equation showthat after each rain period the recharge of rain into streams is much higher than the recharge of rain into groudwater. This fact may lead to the shortage of groundwater resource in Hainan Island.
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    长白山西麓哈尼泥炭沼泽初探
    乔石英
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 279-287,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.279
    摘要   PDF (585KB)
    哈尼沼泽形成于晚更新世。距今9000年开始积聚泥炭,经历了从低位至中位的发展阶段。中全新世金龙顶子火山爆发,熔岩流又自西部堰塞湖盆,使之再次进入水分充足的富营养阶段。至今泥炭沼泽复从低位一中位向高位阶段发展。泥炭层系中保留着气候,植被及地质环境演变的记录。
    Hani is located in the west of the Changbai Mountain, which is one of the large peat-mires in the northeast of China. Its area is about 18km2. The vegetation girdles about the mire, whose transition between the groups is obvious. The mire is evidently controlled by the fault lake basin. The peat occurs in a single layer 1-9 m in depth. Although the low-moor peat is the main part of the mire, there are still some mid-fen peat in the deep and at the surface, the raised bog peat stratum is only 1 cm. Overall it is a developing peat-mire. The area entered the stage of forming peat 9000 years ago. Some mid-fen peat was formed at the beginning of the middle Holocene epoch. During 5000-6000 yr. B. P. the Jinlongdingzi volcano erupted, which caused forests destruction, the ground water level rising and the lava blocking up again. This caused the marly and sand layer edposition, then came to the stage of development of low-moor again, which lasted till the Late Holocene epoch. There remain the trails of volcanic activity about recent 1100 years in the mire. The reasons why volcanic active zones usually company with peat-mire are as follows: 1. The volcanic activity of the Cenozoic era is usually the response or the precursor of the split and sink of the crust. Quite a few of the volcano erupted along the fault basin. The crust is still in the stage of settlement, which provided the geological structural condition to form peat. 2. The volcanic lava and pyroelast have both the property of pyrogenie rock and sedimentary rock. It supplies a geomorphological environment easily to store water such as dish-like lacuna, crater lake and barrier lake, tec. 3. Most of the basins are situated on one or several fault zones, which are the cannel of ground water and the stable resource to the mire water. The hydrophilous plantsgrow luxuriantly in the basin. 4. In the volcanic area, the air is saturated with CO2 and the volcanic products contain so much dissolved minerals that make the plant grow luxuriantly. Then the abundant substance is provided for the accumulation of peat. The large scale peat-mire will form if all the above factors combine best with the appropriate hydrothermal conditions.
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    山地城市土地评价的若干问题—以重庆市沙坪坝区为例
    欧阳安蛟
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (3): 288-294,296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.288
    摘要   PDF (436KB)
    我国是一个多山的国家,有为数众多的城市分布在山区。研究山地城市土地评价具有重要的理论和实践意义。本文探讨了山地城市的因素评价体系及无形区位分值计算模式的距离衰减效应等问题。
    China is a mountainous country. There are many mountain cities in China. Because of topographic effect, the land evaluation of mountain cities has its specific characteristics to a certain extent. So it has important significance to study urban land evaluation in the mountainous area. The paper includes four sections: 1. The system of urban land location factor in mountain city. 2. The method of using decay coefficient of slope in calculating intangible locationfactor scores. 3. Structure characteristics of land grade. 4. Feasibility of using region as a unit to evaluate land in mountain city.
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