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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1996年, 第16卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1996-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    不倦的追求——记土壤地理学家李孝芳教授
    黄润华
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 193-197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.193
    摘要   PDF (190KB)
    编者按:我国着名土壤地理学家李孝芳教授是《地理科学》和《中国地理科学》(英文版)的编委和顾问,她对两刊的创办和成长给予了热忱的支持和真情的帮助,在她八十华诞之际,我们特邀北京大学黄润华教授撰写此文以表我们衷心的祝福。
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    北京的郊区化及引发的思考
    周一星
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 198-206.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.198
    摘要   PDF (369KB)
    根据P.霍尔的城市变动模型,认为城市中心区出现人口负增长是城市郊区化的典型标志,并利用人口普查资料,确定北京在1982~1990年期间已经进入了郊区化过程,中心区人口的外迁强度为常住户籍人口的6%.作者对比了中国与西方发达国家明显不同的郊区化机制,并提出了一些值得人们思考和认真对待的独特现象和问题。
    Suburbanization is a stage of urbanization process. It means that population, jobs and service trades decentralize from the inner city to suburban area. It has greatly changed the economic and urban development in the developed countries Peter Hall’s model of urban change offered a framework which can easily identify whether a city is in the process of suburbanization. How about it in China as a developing country? When did it start? And what is the present situation in process? Beijing region can be divided into three levels:the inner city(cheng qu) ,the inner suburban districts(jin jiao qu) and the outer suburban districts and counties(yuan jiao qu xian). The author discusses the situation of Beijing from the data of three population censuses(1964,1982 and 1990) and considers that the suburbanization in Beijing has been in process since 1982. During 1982-1990, population of all districts of the inner city lost 82,000 people and in fact the permanent residents holding the household registration lost 144,000, about 6.12% of permenant residents in the inner city. Like the West, suburbanization in China also happened against the macro backgrounds of improvements of transportation and living conditions, growth of urban population moving from rural areas. But in the cast of the forces that make decentralization possible, China is different from the western countries. In China, the levels of economy and urbanization are rather low; the real middle class is not rich; only very few Chinese families own private cars; and the inner cities still have great attraction for Chinese people. Investigating the causes of decentralization, the author considers three points:(1) reform of urban land use system brings about migration from the core area.(2) Construction of a large number of city roads reinforces this process.(3) Reform of housing system and renovation of delapidated houses encourage outward movement. In a word, the large scale renovation of the old city has led to suburbanization in Beijing under the open door policy and the socialist market system. It wasn’t spontaneity of any individual but under the leadership of government and “Dan Wei” (work-units). Finally, the author puts forward some thought provoking and distinctive phenomena and problems that should be seriously treated.
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    长江三角洲及苏北沿海地区7000年以来海岸线演变规律分析
    朱诚, 程鹏, 卢春成, 王文
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 207-213.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.207
    摘要   PDF (313KB)
    贝壳堤是重要的海岸标志物,长江三角洲上海地区有9条贝壳砂堤,苏北北、中部沿海区各有4条贝壳砂堤或沙坝。根据贝壳砂堤分布特点和测年数据结合新石器时代以来文化遣址分布规律,探讨总结华东沿海古海岸线演变规律。
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    图们江地区水环境质量研究
    朱颜明, 王稔华, 卢学强, 黎劲松, 陈定贵
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 214-223.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.214
    摘要   PDF (353KB)
    图们江地区5条河流18个断面水环境质量研究表明,本区地表水污染比较严重,大部分河流断面水质在Ⅳ、Ⅴ级水平,只有珲春河水质优于Ⅲ级。除布尔哈通河水质继续呈下降趋势外,其它河流污染水平基本得到了控制。河流污染物比较固定,主要是SS、COD、BOD、AR-OH、N-Na.主要污染行业是化纤业、造纸业和矿业。在区域开发的激励模式下,工业总产值增长率>25%时,其污染物负荷将超出水环境的承受能力,在制定本区开发战略时必须制定相应的环境保护对策。使经济、社会、环境得到协调发展。
    After the survey of pollution source, a study on surface water quality assessment and forcast is given by means of grey system method, fuzzy mathematic method and multivariated analysis method. Based on it, aquatic cnviromment qulity feature, treatment measures and enviromental sterategy are proposed. Quality of aquatic environment on 18 sections of 5 rivers in Tumen River area was studied. The results showed that the pollution of surface water was serious. Water quality of most rivers is between III and IV standard except Hunchun River deteriorated gradually, pollution level of other rivers has been controlled. Main pollutants (including SS, COD, BOD, AR-OH, N-NH3) resulted from discharge of chemical fiber industry, pulp and paper industry and mines. If the growth rate of industrial value is higher than 25 percent under the encouraging-model of regional exploitation, the pollution load will overtake the bearing force of aquatic environment. Thus, some of protection program against pollution must be worked out in order to achieve harmonious development of economy, society and environment.
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    潍河下游地区海咸水入侵动态系统分析
    陈鸿汉, 张永祥, 王新民, 任仲宇
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 224-231.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.224
    摘要   PDF (382KB)
    以潍河下游为研究区,采用趋势面分析等数理统计方法对海咸水入侵历史、现状及其发展规律进行定量研究,指出产生海咸水入侵的根本原因是由于过量开采地下淡水资源,必须科学控制地下淡水资源开采量,以防治海咸水入侵
    In this thesis, with the method of trend system analysis, the history, present status, development law and hydro chemical characteristics of sea-salt water intrusion are systematically and quantitatively researched in the lower reaches of the Weihe River. The result indicates that the over exploitation of fresh water resources is the basic reason of sea-salt water intrusion, and the hydro-chemical dynamics is the important factor. The exploitation of fresh water resource must be scientifically controlled, in order to prevent and govern the sea-salt water inrtusion.
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    我国地面太阳辐射量的时空变化研究
    查良松
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 232-237.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.232
    摘要   PDF (296KB)
    在分析我国到达地面太阳辐射量(1957~1992年)时空变化分布规律基础上,阐述了火山爆发产生的气溶胶和城市发展带来的人工气溶胶对太阳辐射量变化的影响,以及大气中气溶胶增加和地面太阳总辐射量的减少在环境研究中的问题。
    By using the data of solar radiation measured at the surface from 1957 to 1992, its distribution of spatial and temporal variation is analysed. The direct(s) and global (q=d+s) solar radiations of the whole country have decrcased since 1972, with larger changes in the Yangtze River valley than in the others. The scattered(d) radiation increasing is found in Northeast and coastland of South and East. The most obvious decreasing of the direct and global solar radiation occurs in the Yangtze River valley and Sichuan basin in midsummer. The decreasing in the direct and global solar radiation coincides with the resuts of the increasing in the input of aerosals and atmospheric pollution from domestic and industrial sources besides volcing eruption. In addition, the decreasing of direct and global solar radiation-belt occurred in midsummer and the Yangtze River valley is closely connected with the continual subsidence and the lack of rainfall in the subtropical anticyclones. Recently, cooling of the surface in the Yangtze River in summer is primarily due to significant global radiation reducetion.
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    我国人均粮食变化的地理研究
    郭柏林
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 238-244.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.238
    摘要   PDF (385KB)
    人均粮食占有量是反映粮食供给水平的重要指标。本文分析了我国人均粮食占有量变化的阶段和地理特征,并探讨了其与粮食增产的关系,对因地制宜调控人粮关系有一定参考价值。
    The possessive ratio of grain per capita. is the important index that reflects supply standand of grain. The article analyses the stages and geographic characteristies of the change of possessive ratio of grain per capita. in China and probes into the relationship between it and increment of output of grain. It is worthy of reference that regulates the relationship between people and grain in line with local conditions.
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    东北区泥石流初步研究
    宋德人, 李颖骆, 泽斌, 孙传生
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 245-251.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.245
    摘要   PDF (253KB)
    通过实地考察研究,对东北区泥石流形成的综合环境背景、泥石流活动状况和基本特征、主要类型、分布规律、发展变化趋势以及防治对策等问题进行初步研讨
    Northeast China, accounting for about one eighth of the total national area with an area of over 1.23?106 km2 is one of the important bases of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, energy and heavy industry, with vast territory and rich resources. Affected by natural and artificial factors, the regional environment is becoming more and more serious and debris flow occurs almost every year. The above-mentioned causes great damage to the life and property of the people and hinders the development of regional economy, thus, it is a crucial task to make research on the disaster of debris flow. According to the one-year study and practice of debris flow in northeast, this paper describes the comprehensively environmental setting in which debris flow is formed, state of debris flow activity, basic features, main types and laws of distribution, then, makes the first discussion about the trend of development and countermeasure of prevention and control of debris flow.
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    江苏建湖地区全新世孢粉组合及其地质、古地理意义
    吴学忠, 王绍鸿, 赵希涛
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 252-259.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.252
    摘要   PDF (414KB)
    对江苏建湖地区若干全新世剖面进行了系统的孢粉分析,划分出6个孢粉组合带,恢复了本地区自早全新世以来的古植被演替与古气候古环境变迁,探讨了本区全新世地层时代划分与对比
    Throuth the systematic polynological study of four sections in Jianhu county, Jiangsu province, six sporo-pollen assemblages have been obtained, and the paleovegetation and paleoclimate since the Early Holocene in this area have been restored. The paleoenvironment changes and stratigraphical division during the Holocene in this area have been discussed. The spor pollen assemblages in Jianhu area can be divided into 6 zones, from bottom to top as follows: Zone A: Cupressaceae-Pinus-Betula-Artemisia Gramineae sporo-pollen zone revealing a cool and slightly dry climate in the Pre Boreal period. Zone B: Quercus-Castanea-Pinus-Artemisia-Chenopodiaceae sporo-pollen zone revealing a temperate and semi moist climate in the Boreal period. Zone C: Quercus-Castanopsis-Castanea-Typha-Atriplex sporo-pollen zone revealing a warm and moist climate in the Atlantic period. Zone D: Quercus-Castanea-Chenopodiaceae-Artemisia-Typha sporo-pollen zone revealing a temperate and semi moist climate in the Sub-Boreal period. Zone E:Chenopodiaceae-Artemisia-Gramineae-Pinus sporo-pollen zone revealing a temperate-cool and slightly dry climate in the Sub-Atlantic period. Zone F: Artemisia-Typha-Hydrocharitaceae-Salvinia-Pinus sporo-pollen zone revaling a temperate cool and semi moist climate in the Sub-Atlantic period.
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    辽河三角洲湿地的景观变化分析
    王宪礼, 胡远满, 布仁仓
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 260-265.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.260
    摘要   PDF (235KB)
    利用遥感、GIS手段对辽河三角洲1986年和1994年两个时段的湿地景观进行研究,认为本区景观变化是由两种作用力相互作用而形成的,从而形成了本区独具特色的景观变化方式,即半自然湿地(以苇田为主)向人工湿地(以稻田为主)转化,自然湿地(主要是滩涂景观)向半自然及人工湿地转化的特征。表现出一种自陆向海的变化趋势
    Landscape change is the process of landscape transformation from one phase to another, as a reault of interactions between the inner contradictions and outer factors. Using technology of remote sensing and GIS, the paper analyzed two maps of wetland types of Liaohe delta in different periods to study the changes of wetland landscape in time and space. We found that the change of the components of the studied area is not very evident, the artificial wetlands, semi natural wetlands and natural wetlands are still the main components of the area which is more than 90% of the total area. The changing tendency of wetlands is from the land to the sea. The semi natural wetlands are diminishing in recent years, and the artificial wetlands and natural wetlands are increasing comparatively. There are two main factors determining the landscape changes, which are the nature evolution itself and the human disturbances.
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    综述
    萨拉乌苏地层研究新进展
    苏志珠, 董光荣
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 266-273.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.266
    摘要   PDF (327KB)
    从历史回顾、分歧焦点和新的进展三个方面,评述和总结了中国北方重要的第四纪地质问题之一——萨拉乌苏地层研究所取得的成绩
    Salawusu River Area is one of the standard sections of Late Pleistocene Strata in north China. However, there are a lot of diffierent views about the strata since the establishment of Salawusu Formation, espescially in the aspects of sedimental facies, stratigraphic data and its climate significance. Here, the authors look back on the developing process of the study on Salawusu Strata, analyse the points in debate of some basic problems such as the sedimental facies, stratigraphic data, its climate significance and the formation causes of the climate environment, and discuss the achievements in the last decade in the studies on Quaternary geology and the recent progresses in the environmental evolution.
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    研究报道
    2000年来中国北方游牧民族南迁与气候变化
    王会昌
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 274-279.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.274
    摘要   PDF (323KB)
    论述了2000年来中国北方游牧民族南迁与气候变化的关系。气候温暖时期,中国北方游牧政权与中原农耕世界和平共处;气候寒冷时期,游牧民族南迁,中原政权不稳,二者对峙,甚至建立了“牧者王朝”
    In this paper the corresponding relationship between the migrating south of the nomadic nationalities in North China and the climatic changes is studied. In the warm period the nomadic nationalities dwelt in north of the Great Wall lived together in peace with the agricultural nationality dwelt in the Central Plains (comprising the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River). However the in cold period the nomadic nationalities lauched an all-out offensive on agricultural world because the forage grass withered, the water source had dried up in the prairie. At the same time in the Central Plains the agricultural world was also hit by the cold climate, the agriculture drop in production, the economy depressed, the national power declined. Thus, they cannot sustain the blows from nomadic world. Because the period of cold climate got longer and longer, and the degree of cold climate got bigger and bigger in recent 2000 years, the extent of migrating south of the nomadic nationalities became larger and larger. In fact as early as the Han Dynasty the theory of “Interaction between heaven and man’s world” had been founded. The theory is the concentrated expression of feedback machanism of climate ecology-economy-society.
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    北威尔士北美云杉林土壤水运动规律的研究
    刘景双
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 280-286.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.280
    摘要   PDF (255KB)
    本文论述了北威尔士北美云杉林〔Picea sitchensis(Bong)Carr〕土壤非饱和水在土壤剖面上的垂直和水平方向的时空变化过程及规律。结果表明,表层至10cm深和35~50cm深的土壤层内非饱和水含量始终高于10~20cm和20~35cm深两层的非饱和水含量。土壤非饱和水有从上向下和从下向上补给中间层的规律。受水势梯度的影响,犁沟内非饱和水可以侧向补给相邻畦埂的土壤。在监测期,土壤中没有饱和水和过饱和水运动过程出现.
    In this paper, spatial and terporal variation process and law of unsaturated soil water on soil profile and horizontal direction under Sitka spruce forest in North Wales were approached using the tensionmeter technique. The result shows that contents of the unsaturated soil water at shallow soil depth (0-10cm) and at lower soil depth (35-50cm) are always larger than that at the soil depth (10-20cm) and at soil depth (20-35cm). The flow of the unsaturated soil water in the upper layer of soil (0-10cm) and at lower soil depth (35-50cm) appears in a law of supplying middle layer of soil. Affected by hydraulic potential gradient, the unsaturated soil water in the furrow soil may supply laterally the ridge soil of adjacent furrow. During mearsurement period, it is not occurence that saturated soil water and oversaturated soil water leach out from the soil profile.
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    评介
    评介国外两种沼泽湿地地图
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (3): 287-288,286.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.03.287
    摘要   PDF (131KB)
    在全球资源、环境、人口等问题向人类提出挑战面前,湿地无论是作为一种土地类型,还是作为一种多功能的生态系统和具生物多样性的人类生存环境,对它的深入研究、合理利用和保护,已引起人们日益重视,特别是拉姆萨公约签订以后。我国亦已把该内容纳入《中国21世纪议程》的优先项目计划中。编制湿地专题地图是加强湿地管理、保护和持续利用的方法和重要措施之一。1996年6月在德国不来梅召开的第10次国际泥炭大会上,第一次设分组专门交流和讨论关于作为土地利用规划的泥炭地和湿地的生态制图和信息系统问题,我国对沼泽专题制图问题在80年代已有探索。近年来,我们承担了国家自然科学基金资助的沼泽制图课题。’94湿地环境和泥炭地利用国际讨论会(长春)上,爱沙尼亚朋友赠送我一幅《爱沙尼亚沼泽图》,赵魁义研究员访问加拿大带回一份《加拿大湿地图》,现作一概要评介,将具有借鉴和参考的意义。
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  2019-03-04
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  2018-12-25
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  2016-05-31
· 严正声明
  2016-05-11



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