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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1996年, 第16卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1996-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国土壤系统分类高级单元的分布规律
    龚子同, 陈鸿昭, 王鹤林
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 289-297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.289
    摘要   PDF (2644KB)
    本文着重探讨中国土壤系统分类高级单元的分布规律.研究结果表明,在已确立的14个土纲中,有6种呈现出规则性连续分布,还可以划分出干旱、干润和湿润三大系列的土壤,其它8种构成地域性间断分布.此外,在山地还表现出土壤垂直分布.
    Characteristics of special distribution of the categories in Chinese Soil Taxonomy were studied through analyzing the diag-nostic horizons and diagnostic characteristics and their relations to the variation of the various soil-forming factors in China, and using soil mapping technology. Results indicate that the distribution characteristics of the higher categories in Chinese Soil Taxonomy are different from the past used zonal distribution which are inferred based on the relationships among typical profiles and bio-climatic conditions. Among the fourteen soil orders, there are six belonging to the basic type, which show regu-larly continuous distribution and can be divided into three large soil series: aridic, ustic and udic soils. The other eight soil orders belong to the special type, with band-shaped, spot-shaped, chessboard-shaped, patch-shaped, distributions. Moreover, there is a vertical distribution characteristic in mountains.
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    从新构造应力场论公路水毁问题——兼论地貌发育的对抗性原理
    艾南山, 陈洪凯, 李后强
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 298-304.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.298
    摘要   PDF (2587KB)
    根据沙依德格尔的对抗性原理,研究了新构造应力场对公路水毁的影响问题,发现在高应力区,如果公路走向平行于新构造应力场的剪切面或垂直于这个应力场的主压应力方向,公路的稳定性即将变坏.
    Scheidegger’s Antagonism Principle about two types of process active in the formation of Earth’s surface landforms is a fundamental principle of landscape evolution. The two processes have a basic different stochastic nature, endogenic processes are essentially systematic(non-random)and exogenic ones essentially random. The genesis of orientation structure of river valley along which highway is mostly built has tranditionally been ascribed solely to exogenic, nontectonic causes. The orienta-tion is not random indeed but corresponds to the shear lines of a neotectonic stress field in an area. Road can be regarded as a kind of artificial landscape on which the neotectonic stress field has an effect in same way. If direction of a road is parallel with shear lines or perpendicular to principle press stress of a neotectonic stress field, its stability will go bad specially in a high geostress area. Investigation on the failure and washout disarsters, of roads in South Gansu Province and West Sichuan Province has proved this hypothesis.The water destruction of road being similar to destruction of a navigation channel or road tunnel is a kind of natural disas-ter of the man-earth system which is a behavior in the critical state of complex system and should be researched by the ap-proaches of nonlinear dynamics or complexity thoery from the Man-Earth Synergetics.
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    中国沿海地区国民收入预测的新组合模型
    刘玉龙, 陆大道, 刘卫东
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 305-311.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.305
    摘要   PDF (2578KB)
    着重讨论一种基于灰色GM(1,1)模型及国民收入决定函数模型而建立的新组合模型.该模型建模方法简单,组合性强,并且在汲取各模型的拟合精度提高.该模型汲取了灰色GM(1,1)模型模拟国民收入变化趋势的优点和国民收入决定函数模型模拟国民收入波动的优点,使组合模型不但在趋势上符合国民收入的发展,而且也给出了在波动方面的比较一致的模拟.
    This paper presents a new composite model for the forecasting of national income(NI)in littoral China based on Grey-system model and the function model of national income. Grey-system model has a good characteristic about the developmental extension of national income, and function model of national’income has a good characteristic about fluctation of national econ-omy. This new composite model takes advantages of these two models. The results show that this new composite model is ef-fective in forecasting of in littoral China.
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    汉水沉积物中元素的地球化学特征
    闫百兴, 何岩
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 312-316.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.312
    摘要   PDF (2435KB)
    本文系统研究了汉水沉积物中元素的含量水平、分布、相关关系,元素含量与粒度关系及沉积物矿物组成等地球化学特征.研究结果表明:汉水沉积物中As、Pb、Cd呈富集状态,Cu、Ni、Co、Fe呈分散状态;库底沉积物中元素含量高于河底沉积物,沉积物中Cu、Cd、Zn、Ni之间及Co、Fe、Mn、Cr之间相关性较好;随粒径减小,粘土矿物所占比例呈上升趋势,碎屑矿物所占比例呈下降趋势;除Hg、Mn外,其它元素含量与一定粒径的相关性较好.
    The Han River, which is the longest tributary in the Yangtze River system, has an area of 17.4?104 km2 and originates from the south slope of the Qinling Mountains. The geochemical features of elements in sediment in the Han River are studied in a systematic way based on field investigation, sampling, analysis and measurement in laboratory. The content, distribution, variation, composition of minerals and the ralationship between element contents and the diameter of grains in sediment are thoroughly discussed. The results show that the elements of As, Pb, Cd are enriched and Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Cr, Hg are decen-tralized in sediment. The contents of most elements in sediment in lakes are higher than those in rivers. There is a close correlation among Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni and also Co, Fe, Mn, Cr in sediment under the condition of a=0.001. The smaller the diame-ter of grains, the more the percentage of clay mineral and the less the percentage of clastic mineral. There is a better correla-tion between the content of most elements and the diameter of grains except Hg and Mn.
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    应用GIS进行生态系统对酸雨的相对敏感性分析
    何隆华, 杨宏伟
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 317-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.317
    摘要   PDF (2498KB)
    对我国东部7省1市进行了生态系统对酸雨的相对敏感性分析.采用GIS作为空间分析的工具,综合分析了基岩类型、土壤缓冲能力、植被和土地利用方式,以及土壤水分盈余量等多种要素对酸雨的敏感性.
    This paper describes the application of GIS technology in analyzing ecosystem’s relative sensitivity to acid deposition. East part of China is selected as the research area. Four factor layers, which are base rock, soil type, vegetation and humidity, are used in the process. The sensitivity appraising system and the appraising model are also discussed. Five grades are separated in this research.
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    三江平原沼泽地碳循环初探
    马学慧, 吕宪国, 杨青, 阎敏华
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 323-330.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.323
    摘要   PDF (2702KB)
    在三江平原多年考察与研究的基础上,通过典型沼泽的定位观测,估算了三江平原沼泽土壤中的碳储量,探讨了沼泽植物对大气CO2的固定,碳素自沼泽土壤向大气的转移,沼泽近地气层CO2流,以及沼泽植物-土壤-大气之间的碳素流动.
    The biogeochemical cycle of carbon means carbon flux or exchange among living things, soil and atmosphere. The total marsh area is 1.12×104km2 in the Sanjiang Plain. The organic carbide is formed through the photosynthesis of green plants in a marsh ecosystem. The annual primary production of above-ground is estimated at about 471.85×104 t and the annual car-bon contribution is 188.74t. The annual primary production of below-ground is estimated at about 638.07×104t and the an-nual carbon contribution is 0. 78×104 t. The organic matter containing carbon is transformed into soil system through decom-position by consumer in the form of CO2, return into atmosphere. Carbon released from marsh soil return into atmosphere is 3.95 million t/a.The research shows that in marsh ecosystem of the Sanjiang Plain the accumulation amount(including under-ground part of plants)of carbon of organic dry matter on the marsh surf ace is more than releasing amount of organic matter in soil(or de-composed amount). So peat is accumulat in some marsh surfaces,at the same time, there is the organic matter accumulation in the marsh surface without peat. So marshes become the carbon sink of the Sanjiang Plain. In this area there are 265.30 mil-lion tons of organic carbon accumulated in the marsh land. When the hydrathermal condition of marshes is quite stable, peat in marshes doesn’t join the atmospheric CO2 cycle. That is to say, peat accumulation is helpful to reducing the process of atmo-spheric CO2 concentration increase caused by burning mineral fuel and human activities in territorial ecosystem.
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    江南方言分布与环境的关系
    张立, 吴健平
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 331-336.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.331
    摘要   PDF (2427KB)
    江南方言分布有一定规律性,其中东西区差异较明显.从自然环境和社会环境角度分析了江南方言分布和变异的原因,并探讨了它的发展趋势.
    The distribution of Jiangnan(a region in the lower changjiang valley, inclading southern Jiangsu and Anhui and northern zhejiang)dialect has certain regularity, and the difference between east part and west part is more obvious. This paper analy-ses the distribution of Jiangnan dialect and the causes of variation at the angle of natural environment and social environment and discusses its developing trend.
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    大小兴安岭高位泥炭孢粉纪录及泥炭发育和演替过程研究
    夏玉梅
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 337-344.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.337
    摘要   PDF (2799KB)
    根据3个高位泥炭剖面孢粉分析和14C测年数据,以及植物残体、微量元素与营养元素等分析相互印证,揭示大小兴安岭分别5000a B.P.和2700a B.P.以来孢粉组合特征和植物群与气候演变过程.分析表明大小兴安岭高位泥炭形成经历了低、中和高位发育阶段的演变,大兴安岭高位泥炭形成晚于小兴安岭.1300a B.P.大小兴安岭普遍发育高位泥炭.该区图强和汤北(94—A)高位泥炭剖面分别是大小兴安岭高位泥炭标准剖面.
    The author revealed the associate features of spore-pollen and successive process of vegetation and climate in Da Hinggan and Xiao Hinggan mountains since 5000 a and 2700 a B. P. based on data analysis of spore-pollen in 3 profiles of high moor peat. It was divided into 2 periods, one is the period(5000-3000 a B. P.)of the broad-leaved forest with predominate Betula of the temperate climate, the other is the period 3000 a B. P.-updata of conifer and broad-leaved forest with predominate Pi-nus koroiensis, Picea and Abies of cool temperate climate in the north part Xiao Hinggan mountains. Then climate developed from temperate and slight dry to cool and moist.Since 2700 a B. P. there had been the mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with predominate Pinus sylvcsteris. Pinus pumlia and a few Betula and Corylus in 2300-1800 a B. P., and conifer forest of cool temperate climate consisted of Larix, Picea, Abies and Pinus sylvestris and so on in 1800 a B. P.-update, in the north part of Da Hinggan Mountains. The period was controlled by cool and moist climate, in which the period of 1800-1300 a B. P. was lowest time in the temperature and permafrost frozen soil was distributed to the south.It shows that development of the high noor peat in Da Higgan and Xiao Hinggan mountains passed 3 periods from the low moor pent, middle moor peat to high moor peat. It has greatly and continuously been formed and developed in Sphagnum leat since 1300 a in Da and Xiao Hinggan mountains, through confirmation of fossil record of spore-pollen and vertical change of plant residues from peat profiles.
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    贵州红枫湖纹理沉积物中近代气温记录
    吴丰昌, 万国江, 黄荣贵
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 345-350.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.345
    摘要   PDF (2529KB)
    本文通过红枫湖纹理沉积物柱芯碳酸盐特征剖面与流域气温资料对比、沉积纹理年代校正以及早期成岩化学过程对碳酸盐沉积记录的改造作用等方面的研究,表明湖泊碳酸盐沉积记录基本不受早期成岩作用的影响,碳酸钙含量和CaO/MgO·Al2O3比值可作为湖泊沉积物中具高分辨率、短时间尺度的气温变化的代用指标.
    Lake sedimentation is a large pool for past global change. Carbonate geochemistry as an index has interested many scien-tists, and can provide a variety of high-solution information on short-or long-term climatic or environmental changes.Through detail comparison of profile of carbonate concentration and CaO/MgO·Al2O3 ratio in the core which is calibrated according to mass-depth from varve-counting dating with recent annual average temperature data we find that the agreement between the two cuvyes is astonishingly good, meanwhile, average molal ratio of CaO and CO2 in the sediments is nearly 1:1, this suggests that almost all carbonate minerals are calcite, which contains many climatic and hydro chemical information. They probably refect the relationship between calcite precipitation and climate change.According to calcite phychemical equibrium of pore water at the sediment-water interface during early diagensis process, we calcuate the Fd(carborate loss flux due to dissolution and upward diffusion at the interface)and Fs(calcite sedimentary flux). We define r as carborate perturbative extent at the interface:
    r= Fd/Fs(1)
    r is about 17%, we, therefore, can conclude that calcite unsaturated dissolution and perturbative process at the sediment-wa-ter interface is very small, much smaller than we imagine before.The paper finally suggests that carbonate concentration and CaO/MgO·Al2O3 ratio can be used as a high-solution temper-ature index in recent lake sediments.
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    全新世中期以来黄土高原中部生物多样性研究
    朱志诚
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 351-358.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.351
    摘要   PDF (2657KB)
    根据孢粉分析、古文献记载、生物地名考证以及对现今生物种群多样性筹方面的研究资料,结合气候变迁,论述了全新世以来,在自然和人为因素影响下,黄土高原中部地区景观和生物多样性的演变过程及其恢复和保护措施.
    The present paper deals with evolution, recovery and protective measures of landscape and biodiversity under the influence of natural factor and mankind in central region of the Loess Plateau since mid-Holocene. The climate was warm and moist in mid-Holocene, biological species were abundant, they had north sub tropic distinguishing characteristic; the climate was get-ting dry and cool in late-Holocene, subtropic species withdraw from this place; as mankind have not reasonably used them in later years, forests were destroyed, a part of forest animal completely disappeared. We ought to take model by original land-scape and ecosystem, create fit ecotope so as to recover and protect existence and multiplication of biodiversity.
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    乌鲁木齐河流冰椎及其利用研究
    张志忠, 刘宗香
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 359-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.359
    摘要   PDF (2510KB)
    通过对河冰椎多年系统观测,对比分析其形成和发育,大致经过冰椎形成、发育、稳定、融化-冻结和消亡5个阶段.冰椎与稳定负温期的积温∑—t℃、土石冻(融)、空气相对湿度及水源补给形式有较高的相关性,为人工调蓄利用冰椎提供了科学依据.
    Multi-year observation on the ice cone in the Urmqi River basin indicates that the ice cone usually undergoes five stages; formation, growth, steadiness, melting-freezing and decay. It is found that the ice cone is closely correlated with the steady negative accumulated temperature, seasonal ground freezing process, relative humidity of air and water source type. The result may be useful for artificial regulation and utilization of the ice cone in the basin.
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    研究报道
    陇西盆地最老的风成黄土沉积——兰州烟洞沟剖面
    朱俊杰, 钟巍, 李吉均, 曹继秀, 王建民, 王建力
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 365-369.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.365
    摘要   PDF (2520KB)
    沉积于兰州黄河北岸山足面之上的烟洞沟风成黄土,剖面厚约120m,据磁性地层学研究,该剖面包括B/M界线、后贾拉米洛、贾拉米洛、考伯、奥尔都维、吉尔萨等事件,结合沉积速率推算,剖面底界的年代约为1.7MaB.P.
    The Yandonggou eolian loess profile, with the thickness of 120 m located on the north bank of Huanghe river in Lanzhou,deposited on a typical piedmont surface(i. e. the Gansu period piedment surface). Geomagnetic study on this profile shows that the B/M boundary is placed at the depth of 30 m descendingly; the post-Jaramillo and Jaramillo events are situated at the depth interval of 34.5-35.5 m and 41.5-53.5 m respectively, and the Cobb. Mnt event which was discovered in succession recently lies at the depth of 72 m in this profile. The stable positive polarity features of the lowest three samples reflect that they have stepped into the olduvai event period. Estimated combining with deposition-rate, this loess profile deposition began at about 1.7 Ma B. P. This is the oldest eolian loess profile obtained upto now in Longxi basin.
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    地理信息系统图例库的研究
    党安荣, 乔彦友
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 370-376.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.370
    摘要   PDF (2443KB)
    图例库是地理信息系统(GIS)的有机组成部分,开发灵活实用的图例库是研制GIS软件的重要内容之一,关系到GIS成果图形表达的科学性.借鉴INTERGRAPH/IGDS的图例库设计思想,引人“符号集合”及“操作函数”的概念,从图例库的基本内涵、实体内容及主要操作等几方面论述了作者对图例库的研究成果.
    Symbol library is one organic component of Geographic Information System(GIS). Development of flexible and applicable symbol library is one important task to programming GIS software. The accuracy of output map of GIS is related to the symbol library. How to develop scientific symbol library is the domain of this artical. The basic concept and hierarchical structure and main function of symbol library are discussed at first. Then the classification system of map symbols is set up according to characteristic of symbols and handling manner of symbol library. While the "Symbol Set" term is used to discusse the creation of symbol library contents, many kinds of operations of symbol library are studied by use of "Operation Function". Finally, the authors take the National Symbol Library of Coal Field Geology and Symbol Library of Coal Mine Geoglogy and Survey as examples to introduce the development and application of symbol library.
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    北方农牧林交错带土地利用区的分析与评价——以科尔沁右翼前旗为例
    宝音, 包玉海, 海山, 银山
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 377-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.377
    摘要   PDF (2862KB)
    采用聚类分析法,对北方农牧林交错带上的科尔沁右翼前旗的土地利用类型进行了分类,在此基础上,对各土地利用区的土地利用类型及结构特点进行了分析与评价,并对今后合理利用土地资源提出了意见.
    Using the metheod of clustering analysis, the authors makes a classification to the land-use area of Horqin Right Wing Front Banner which is in the farming, animal husbandry and forestry zone of north China. On the basis of the classification, the authors analyse and evaluate the land-use area and structures. Finally, the paper indicates some ideas on how to use the land resources reasonably and efficiently.
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    学术活动
    国际湿地第五届大会在佩斯召开
    赵魁义
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (4): 384-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.04.384
    摘要   PDF (2168KB)
    国际生态协会湿地专业委员会组织的国际湿地第五届大会,1996年9月22~28日在澳大利亚西部大城市佩斯市举行,出席会议的有36个国家和地区的代表共400余人.会议由姆达恩大学校长Artthur J.Mccomb博士主持,在澳大利亚大学隆重召开.这次会议的主题是“湿地的未来”.从4个方面(湿地环境效益;物理、化学和生物学过程;应用研究和湿地管理政策与规划)论述了世界湿地的重要意义.
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