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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1986年, 第6卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1986-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    黄河输沙及其对渤海、黄海沉积作用的影响
    任美锷, 史运良
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 1-12,101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.1
    摘要   PDF (1326KB)
    黄河的年输沙量约为11×108吨,占世界21条大河入海泥沙总量的17%.黄河约有90%的泥沙来自中游的黄土高原,其年输沙最的70%发生在7~9月.黄河的泥沙输送对渤海和黄海海岸带地貌及沉积作用有广泛和深远的影响.
    The Yellow River,with annual sediment discharge about 11×108 tons, contributes about 17% of world’s fluvial sediment discharge to ocean.This is because the river,in its middle reaches,flows across the Great Loess Plateau of China.About 70% of its annual sediment discharge comes in July-September and is concentrated in a few strong"spikes"during floods with very high sediment concentration.The amount of its sediment discharge varies greatly during the last 3,000 years. The sediment discharge of the Yellow River has widespread and profound effect on sedimentation of the sea: (1)Remarkable shift of its outlet in 1128-1855 A.D.to the South Yellow sea where it had formed a large subaqueous delta and provided the substrate for an extensive submarine ridge field. (2)Shift of outlet in the modern delta every 10 years is the main reason why with extremely heavy sediment input and a micro-tidal environment,the Yellow River has not succeeded in building a birdfoot delta like the Mississippi. (3)The Yellow River has consistently brought heavy sediment input to sea at least since 0.7my.B.P.Paleochanneils,paleosoils,cheniers and fossils on the sea bottom indicate that the Yellow sea was exposed during late Quaternary glacial low-sea level and the Yllow River had crossed the continental shelf,discharging its sediment to the Okinawa Trough in about 25,000-15,000 years B.C.
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    更新地理信息系统数据库的探讨—关于土地利用和土地复盖数据的更新
    林珲
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 13-21,102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.13
    摘要   PDF (1221KB)
    地理信息系统(GIS)生存的关键之一是其数据库中数据的现势性.土地利用和土地复盖数据是具有代表性的数据.它易受自然条件变化和人类活动影响.航天遥感以其获得综合信息的周期性、复盖范围、速度和经济效益表明它将成为更新 GIS 中土地利用和土地复盖数据的主要手段.更新过程的实质是通过数字图象处理系统实现 GIS 和遥感系统联结.配准和分类精度是图象处理中两个主要问题.地理信息系统可支持更新过程的图象处理.
    One of keys related to the existence of GIS is the up-to-date data in its database.Land use and land cover data are the important kind of data in current GIS.The land use and land cover condition often changes due to it is easily affected by the changes of natural condition and the activities of human being.So,the appropriate ways for the data capturing and analyzing are needed.Spaceborne remote sensing,owing to its periodicity,speed,scanning scope and the economic benefit to gain the synthatie information,is becoming the main data source for updating land use and land cover data in the database of GIS. The crux of the updating procedure is to combine the remote sensing system and the GIS by means of the digital image processing system.The accuracies on locating and classifying are considered as the crucial problems in image processing. Author thinks that remote sensing image is a model of a region,which has been compressed in the spatial dimensions and synthesized with its essential factors on surface.So the information from the images evidently has a regional geographic pattern.The GIS just has the basic data and the analysis software for the registration and analysis of the spatial information from remote sensing and other sources.In this paper,author introduces a tentative model experiment on the Dukou regional environment information system after briefly disscusing some related researches at home and abroad.
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    土壤-植物系统硒传输的研究——Ⅱ.土壤固—液相硒的平衡及植物的摄取
    郑达贤, 李日邦, 谭见安
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 22-33.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.22
    摘要   PDF (680KB)
    通过土壤对硒(Ⅳ)的吸附实验及盆栽条件下土壤固—液相硒的分配和植物摄取的测定,探讨土壤—植物系统中硒的传输.
    The selenium equilibrium in solid-liquid system of soils sampled from different natural zones in China and the Se-uptake of plant in culture experiment are studied, 1.The distribution of selenite-Se in solid-liquid System of soil conforms to the Freundlich equation and to the Langmuir equation in a great extent.The Se-absorption capacity in solid phase of soil(b)relates directly with content of R2O3 in soil and the apparent dissociation constant(Kc)is raised with pH,The distribution of Se effected also by the redox potential (Eh)as a factor influencing the stability or reduction of Fe(OH)3,also as a factor controlling the valence aspects of Se in soil.The lowering of Eh caused by submerged condition may promote the reduction of Fe(OH)3 and the decomposition of Se-R2O3 complex for acid soils,by which Se content in the soil solution is raised,and Se may be reduced for alkaline soils.The result is that Se content in the soil solution is reduced,The effect of organism in soil is complex,but it may be mainly on the proportion of active Self total Se in soil. 2.The significant retationships between Se content in the experimental plant and that in the soil solution,between change of the plant-Se and change of soil solution-Se when culture conditions are changed,which is found in this study,indicate that mass flow is a main way for Se-transport in soil-plant system,but the proportion of Se intercepted by plant roots is raised with quantity of Se uptaked by plant. 3.The uptake of Se reached to roots surface is inhibited by higher pH and indicates that Se-uptake by plant is a initiative procedure depended on the energy metabolism. 4.The culture in submerged condition of soil is advantatgeous to the transport of Se from stems and leaves to grain.
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    中国海涂资源的开发利用问题
    朱大奎
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 34-40.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.34
    摘要   PDF (427KB)
    本文把淤泥质海岸潮间浅滩定义为海涂,在中国,主要有平原型与港湾型两类.文中以江苏为例,根据海涂的特征与发育阶段,把平原型海涂划分为四类,并分述了各类型的特点及其利用方向,对中国海涂的开发利用提出了战略目标与政策.
    Most of 2000 km of intertidal mudflat on the chinese coastline is developed in the mesotidal Bohai sea and Yellow sea,along the great plain of north China and to the north of Hangzhou Bay. The coast slopes are very gentle with gradients of 1:1000 to 1:5000, thus,tidal currents play a major role in shapping the coast.The sediment consists of silt and clay to form extensive intertidal mudflats with the width normally 4 to 6 km,and the mudflats are up to 20km wide at the delta, The mudflats of Jiangsu are divided into four zones.(1)Supratidal zone (grass flats).It is marsh and the location is over the spring high tidal level. The sediment is very thin laimina mud-fine silt and marsh deposit.(2)Mudflat.which is located between spring high tidal level and mean high tidal level,and consists of lamina and thin alternating laimina of silt and mud. (3)Mud-Sand fiats.They are located between mean high tidal level and middle tidal level,and consist of mudium laimina with cross-bedding.They are many.(4)Silt-Sand flats with the wave ripples surface acted by wave action. The mudflats are potential resources of farm land,especially for east part of China where over heavy population is.However,they are also good for developing salt fields,coastal lashing,other aquatic resources,and even there are many locations to be suitable for building harbor.For most part of inner two zone of mudflat,i.e.above mean HTL,and land-ward to the salt marsh can be reclaimated for developing agriculture,the lower two zones of mudflat are ideal ground for accumulating Shell fish such as Meretrix,Cyolina Sinensis etc..It has greater economic value than reclamation. The mudflat coast represents a dynamic balance between wave erosion and deposition of unconsolidated sediment supplied principally by larger river,shch as Yellow River and Yangtze River.Thus,any engineering project related to the coast or river mouth there will cause a series of problems.We do need more regional planning and marine legislation to strengthen the coast management.
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    我国降水场的谐波分析
    王庭梧, 何震亚, 吴聆益
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 41-47.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.41
    摘要   PDF (394KB)
    水文对我国近200个站点1956~1980年的月平均雨量进行了谐波分析,揭露了前三波相对方差初相的地理分布特征及其与大气环流的某些联系.这一方法有助于定量地分析降水的季节变化特征.
    Using the data of mean monthly precipitation for 1959—1980 close to 200 stations,a harmonic analysis of the precipitation field in China has been made.The characteristics of geographical distribution of relative variance and phase angles of the first three waves and some relationships between these characteristics and general circulation are studied.This analysis is helpful to describe seasonal variation of the precipitation quantitatively.
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    西北地区河川径流年内分配的初步研究
    汤奇成
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 48-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.48
    摘要   PDF (414KB)
    本文采用新指标:峰型度α值,年丰枯率β值和γ值研究西北干早地区径流的年内分配.并在此基础上结合河川径流其他特性对我国西北干早地区河流类型作了划分.
    According to feature of hydrology in northwest region of China,three paramers α,β and γ can be used to study river runoff distribution,α= W4-8/W7-9 here W4-8—total runoff volume from April to June,W7-9—total runoff volume from July to Sept..α can be explained as a ratio of volume of season snow melt to glacial melt at high mountains and rain volume in total annual runoff.
    β=W4-8/W10-3
    here W4-9—total runoff volume from April to Sept.,W10-3—total run off volume from Oct.to next March..β can be explained as a ratio of flood runoff volume to non flood runoff volume,also a ratio of supply of ground water tototal annual runoff volume. The parameter γ,can be estimated by
    γ=(α-α)/σα
    here α—long term average annual αα—mean square error of α. The paper used the three parameters to make preliminary an approach to the classification of rivers in northwest region of China.
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    渤海和北黄海地区泥炭的形成与晚玉木冰期以来海面升降的关系
    高凤岐
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 56-63.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.56
    摘要   PDF (482KB)
    渤海北黄海地区泥炭的形成主要决定于沿海区的水文条件.受海水直接和间接控制的滨海带和海缘带,在泥炭成矿类型(即泥炭赋存的地貌类型)上有重要的差别;由于晚玉木冰期以来海面升降的发展,导致泥炭赋存状况复杂化,由海向陆,大体可分为:大陆架浅海带、滨海-海缘带、古海缘带.
    In areas of the Bohai sea and the north Yellow sea,usually the peat in seashore-perimarine sea zone formed in bay,lagoon and submerged valley at the seaside with mountain and hill during the Middle-Late Holocene.The altitude was almost between five and ten metres.Peat was buried mostly in the underground about ten metres in the marginal plain.The peat of paleo-perimafine sea zone formed mainly in the flood plain and gully-valley out of paleocoast line during the period of high sea level,the altitude was almost between ten and thirty metres.The peat of shallow-sea zone was mainly basal peat following the ingression after the late W黵m-glaciation.It spreads in depth-48--56m of shallow plain of the Yellow sea of getting shallower and shallower toward the seashore.The distributional law of peat in these areas, which can be compared with that of Japan sea,indicated that the fluctuations of sea level in the two areas have been synchronism since the W黵mglaciation.
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    徐霞客《溯江纪源》在地理科学上的贡献与影响
    孙仲明
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 64-69.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.64
    摘要   PDF (394KB)
    为纪念我国杰出地理学家和旅行家徐霞客诞生400周年,本文分析了《溯江纪源》这篇名著,指出徐霞客在《溯江纪源》一文中贡献与影响:1.弄清了金沙江、岷江、大渡河三者的水系脉络;2.首次提出金沙江是长江源.对后人关于长江起源问题有深远影响.
    For comemorating the 400th anniversary of birthday of Xu Xiake,a great geographer and well known traveller,the paper expounds the contribution of his famous work-"Travel Note for Tracing to River Source" to geography.That is that: (1)the work made a systematic exposition for three river systems, Jin shajiang,Minjiang and Daduhe,and their thread. (2)the work first point out that the Jinshajiang River is a upper reach of the Changiiang River. All of those judgements have exerted a tremendous effect on studing origin of the Changjiang River for successors.
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    问题讨论
    吉林省中部地区主要旱田作物种植结构的探讨
    王书裕
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 70-75.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.70
    摘要   PDF (322KB)
    根据吉林省中部地区的气候条件和土壤肥力状况,为改善种植结构,建立新的生态平衡,考虑到用地与养地结合及种植习惯,以高产、稳产、高产值为目标,运用线性规划的方法,提出了主要旱田作物(玉米、高梁、谷子、大豆)的最佳种植结构.如按照规划的比例种植,总产量将提高3.5%,总产值增加11.0%.
    Based on the climatic condition and level of soil fertility in the Middle region of Jilin and the purpose of high-yield,stableyield,high income,through applying the method of linear programming,the author suggests the best planting structure of main field crop in this paper,inclusive of corn,grain, soybean and sorghum.The best proportion is 65.4 percent for corn,sorghum 0 percent,grain 15.0 percent,and soybean 19.6 percent.The total yield will be increased by 3.53 percent,and the income will be increased by 11.03 percent if according to the this structure. For considering the planting habit,the author suggests also to adopt following proportion,i.e.sorghum 5 percent,corn 59.12 percent,grain 15 percent and soybean 20.84 percent.In this way,the income will be increased by 9,60 percent.
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    研究报道
    彩色晕渲法地貌制图的新尝试
    西宁幅地貌制图研究组
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 76-82.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.76
    摘要   PDF (466KB)
    本文是用彩色晕渲编制1:1,000.000西宁幅地貌图的制图方法小结.从三方面论述:1.该图采用相互迭置的两层平面表示,第一层面以彩色晕渲表示地貌图上的基本形态成因类型,第二层面以彩色符号加绘彩色晕渲表示不同地貌形态与结构,可以使地貌图更加形象、生动;2.分别介绍平原、台地、丘陵、山地及其内部的个体地貌类型的晕渲塑造方法;3.讨论了电子分色机制版技术复制彩色晕渲图并套印线划版的整个工艺过程.
    Through mapping of Xining sheet of 1:1,000,000 chinese geomorphic map,three points on the landform coloration can be summarized as follows. 1)A multi-map type,suited by many levels is adapted to explaine a current geomorphic map,because of showing much more geomorphic contents in general.In the Xining sheet of chinese geomorphic map,the two levels are accepted.The first one is that basic form-genetic types in the geomorphic map is explained by landform coloration instead of the technipue of area solid colour.Using different colours present the difference between edogenetic and exogenetic forces in geomorphie formation of the mapping area. As colours are chosen in practic,characters of exogenetie forces are explained by fully using colour pictographs and habits,and then differences between geomorphie types in quantity and degree are shown by different colour steps.When drawing with landform coloration,according to assuming beam light direction a certain colur tone in a certain geomorphic part occurs with dark and bright varying,to show stereo-sense of geomorphology.The second level is that different forms and textures are represented by colour symbols with landform coloration.When drawing the relationships between the two forms and sites should be noted.Comparing with the geomorphic map,expressed by solid colour method,the geomorphic map drawn by landform coloration is much more pitographic and active. 2)Based on what described above,geomorphic analysis about basic types such as,plains,plateforms,hills,low mountain,middle mountain and high mountain,and individual geomorphic subtypes have been executed.Stereo-form drawing method in geomorphic types of all has been also discussed in detail. 3)The print plate with colour-line symbols of landform coloration geomorphic map is drawn by using general mapping techniques and is divided into different printing subplates based upon design requirement.In the mean time,using a more advance electrie color scanner,a geomorphie map by landform coloration is duplicated and a print plate of landform coloration map is completed.Finally,combination of l.ne-drawing plate with landform coloration plate is printed in a suited way,and thus a landform coloration geomorphic map is produced.
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    彩色晕渲法地貌制图的新尝试
    王宗义, 张学林, 任淑芬, 吴敦虎
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 83-89.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.83
    摘要   PDF (532KB)
    本文探讨了微量元素钼在吉林省原生环境各要素中(包括土壤、粮食、饮水)的分布规律.发现从吉林省西部向东部天然水中和粮食中铝含量逐渐减少,土壤中全钼和有效铝含量低于正常值,土壤水溶性钼含量东部山地低于西部台地平原.从生物地球化学角度,编制了钼的分区图,将吉林省原生环境中钼的分布划分为两个"钼区"和五个"钼亚区".
    According to field investigation and data measured by elect-chemistry methods,the paper studies the distribution regularity of different factors in native environments,such as soil,food and drinking water,in Jilin province of China.The results show that Mo content in food and water progressively is reduced from the west part to the east part of this province,and whole Mo and effective Mo contents in soil in the eastern mountains are higher than that in the western plain and terraice area,even then the effective Mo content in soil in a great of area is lower than normal content, therefore it can’t well satisfy growing need of grain crops.In the east mountains the content of Mo in aqueous solution in soil is lower than that in the west part.The paper expounds the regional division of biogeochemistry for microelement of native environment,and gives the regional division map for Mo.Based on Mo content absorbed by human body,Mo contribution in native environment can be divided into two areas,the western plainterraince area with higher Mo content in water and food and the eastern mountaineous area with lowet Mo content in water and food,and 5 subareas.This division is significant for studing environment and health,and factors causing local desease,and for developing agricultural production and environmental protection.
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    书评
    评辛普尔《地理环境的影响》
    尹以明
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 90-94.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.90
    摘要   PDF (370KB)
    爱伦·丘吉尔·辛普尔(Ellen Churchill Semple)是上世纪末、本世纪初一位杰出的地理学家,在整个地理学思想史上占有重要的地位,是地理学界所公认的"地理环境决定论"的突出代表.而《地理环境的影响》(《Influence of Geographic Environment》N.Y.Holt,1911.)一书则是他的代表之作.本文仅就这部著作对辛普尔的"决定论"思想作一粗浅分析.
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    学位论文摘登
    三江平原沼泽生态系统的化学结构
    金泰龙
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 95-98.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.95
    摘要   PDF (269KB)
    生态系统的化学结构是反映和制约生态系统各主要组成要素中化学元素,主要是生命元素的含量、形态和分布特征以及这些元素在各组成要素中和各要素之间迁移和转化的功能性结构,体现了生态系统物质流的基本特征.
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    学术活动
    德意志联邦共和国国土整治与区域规划
    于振汉, 郝凌云, 范正一
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (1): 99-100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.01.99
    摘要   PDF (136KB)
    1985年夏,中国科学院长春地理研究所赴西德国土整治与区域规划考察组对西德国土整治与区域规划进行了为期一个月的考察,现将考察所见见所闻作一简要介绍.德意志联邦共和国(简称西德)面积24.8万平方公里,位于欧洲中部,北部濒临北海和波罗的海,陆上与九个国家为邻.是一个发达的资本主义国家,有高度发达的工业和稠密的交通运输网络,城市化水平较高,农牧业发展也具有一定水平.许多重要的国际交通线路都通过这里,因此成为欧洲陆路和空中交通的要道,地理位置十分重要.
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