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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1997年, 第17卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1997-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    我国东中西部发展差异原因分析
    陈国阶
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 1-7.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.1
    摘要   PDF (544KB)
    我国东中西部经济发展差异的形成和扩展是历史、自然、社会等综合因素长期演化的结果。现代世界区域经济发展不平衡仍然影响着我国东中西部经济梯度的扩大。我国西部的发展必须实行全方位开放的战略,但重点仍应面向环太平洋地区的我国东中部,并且努力加快连通东西部的交通大动脉的建设。
    The formation and enlarging of economic development gaps between the east, centre and west in China resulted from long time evolution by comprehensive effects consisting of historical, natural and social factors. Contemporary unbalance of regional economic development enlarges the gap of economic grades in the three parts of China. It is a good way for the western China to carry out the strategy of overall opening to outside world, but it should emphasize to connect with the Pacific Area and the eastern and central parts of China. Meantime, it is not negligent for the western part to accelerate the construction of trafic trunk connecting the west with the east.
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    东北亚经济协作与图们江流域发展计划
    Andrew Marton
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 8-17.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.8
    摘要   PDF (1197KB)
    在东北亚区域发展方面论述了经济快速增长、资源转移和区域贸易格局的特点,随后分析了图们江地区开发的国际环境以及图们江发展计划,指出图们江开发的几种可能选择和图们江与东北亚经济协作前景,特别提出加强国与国之间的贸易具有重要意义。
    The Tumen River Area Development Project is a plan for a transport mega-complex at the mouth of the Tumen River on the Sea of Japan. Because the three major stake-holders are the People’s Republic of China, Russia and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea the project raises complex jurisdictional and economic problems. We review the context in which the project was established and then outline the evolution of the various plans for development of the region. Next the conditions for judging the efficacy of the project in both the short run and the long run are presented in the context of regional trade. The Tumen Project may well play a significant role in stimulating the local regional economy, including Mongolia, and help raise the rate of economic growth in that part of Northeast Asia which has so-far lagged behind the rest. There is, however, a danger that if the project is implemented on too large a scale it may simply duplicate facilities in the region with no consequent aggregate benefit. The level of cooperation required among the stakeholders is high for the project to succeed and overcoming this impediment is still the project’s greatest challenge.
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    青藏高原RM孔自生碳酸盐稳定同位素组成及其古气候
    吴敬禄
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 18-23.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.18
    摘要   PDF (731KB)
    对RM孔不同成因碳酸盐(腹足类、介形类,化学成因碳酸盐)同位素进行比较研究,并利用自生碳酸盐碳、氧同位素代用指标,对该区近0.14Ma来的古气候演化进行初步讨论。研究表明:不同成因的湖泊碳酸盐其氧同位素值基本接近,碳同位素差值较大,但相关性较好;该区近0.14Ma来自生碳酸盐碳、氧同位素呈反相关关系,表明氧同位素值波动主要受温度控制,即氧同位素高值段对应气候暖期,并据此重建了该区0.14Ma来气候演化过程。
    The hole RM, the deepest one fully obtained from the core in the Tibetan Plateau, is situated in the depocenter of the Zoie Basin(33°57′N; 102°21′E)in northeastern Tibetan Plateau with a depth of 310.46 m. From 14 C dating and paleomagnetic stratigraphic study, the core RM dated back to 900 ka B.P.. In this paper we analyzed the compositions of 18O and 13C in various carbonates(snail, obstrode, chemical carbonate)in core RM and discussed preferably the paleoclimatic record by the proxies of δ 18O and δ 13C of chemical carbonate(authicarbonate)from core RM in the past 140 ka.. The results show that the values of δ 18O in various carbonates are generally identical, and the values of δ 13C in it are inconsistent while there exists a better relativity. The studies also demonstrate that there is a negative correlation between δ 18O and δ 13C of authicarbonate in core RM in the past 140 ka, showing that the changes of δ 18O values is mainly relative to the water temperature. According to the above, the climatic evolutionary sequence in the past 140 ka in the region is rebuilt.
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    泥石流的分形特征及其意义
    易顺民, 孙云志
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 24-31.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.24
    摘要   PDF (828KB)
    分析了泥石流流体和堆积物粒度分布的分形结构特征,其分维值介于2~3之间,平均值分别为2.71和2.65左右。研究了泥石流沟水系的分形特征及其在不同观察尺度下分维的变化特征。结果表明,分维可作为描述泥石流粒度成分和泥石流沟水系的参数,反映了泥石流活动的形成演化特征。在此基础上,论述了分维的研究意义。
    In this paper, fractal structure of granulometric distribution of fluid and accumulation in debris flow are analysed based on fractal theory. The Fractal dimensions values of fluid and accumulation of debris flow are between 2 to 3, and its average values are about 2.71 and 2.65. Fractal feature of water system of debris flow gully and its variational situation of fractal dimensions in different observation scales are studied. The results show that fractal dimension can be taken as a parameter describing granulometric composition of debris flow and water system of debris flow gully, reflecting the evolutional property of debris flow activity. The significance of fractal dimension is discussed.
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    冰川及其径流对气候变化响应过程的模拟模型——以乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川为例
    叶佰生, 陈克恭, 施雅风
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 32-40.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.32
    摘要   PDF (1106KB)
    用冰川动力模型对乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川东支进行模拟计算结果表明:1号冰川东支在维持目前的气候变化水平下还将继续退缩到约1600m长度;若气温升高1℃,1号冰川将退缩为约只有300m长的悬冰川。随着冰川退缩,冰川冷却作用减弱,冰川区的升温将高于非冰川区。1号冰川目前的冰川径流是处在一个高值期(相对于它的稳定状态),若气候继续变暖,冰川径流还将继续增大,达到一峰值后将迅速减小。
    This paper presents a model that simulates processes on responses of Glacier No.1 in headwaters of the Urumqi River to various future climatic scenarios with a glacier dynamic model. The results indicate that the Glacier No.1 in headwaters of the Urumqi River will continue to retreat if current climatic conditions prevail, until it reaches a steady state of 1600 m in length after 700 to 800 years. If the air temperature were to rise 1℃, the glacier would degenerate and become a hanging glacier with a length of 300 m after 700 to 800 years. Due to glacier degeneration, cooling function of the glacier would decrease so that the increase of the air temperature in glaciated area would be higher than that in non glaciated areas. The current glacier runoff is in higher value in comparison with the runoff in the equilibrium state under the current climatic conditions. If the air temperature would continue to rise, hovewer, the runoff of the glacier would still increase and reach a new peak but after then decrease rapidly.
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    流域水沙变化原因分类定量分析
    包为民
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 41-46.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.41
    摘要   PDF (591KB)
    用中、大流域水沙耦合模拟物理概念模型,对黄河中游两个河段流域产水、产沙变化原因进行定量分析,并将气候和人类活动引起的变化分开定量评估,且用实测资料检验定量评估的合理性。
    In this paper, classified quantitative analysis of changed runoff and sediment yields caused by changing climatic conditions and human activities within a basin was done by making use of physical conceptual model. It has been tested if it is efficient and rational for the flow-sediment coupled simulation model for middle large scale basin introduced in literature to apply to simulate flow-sediment of Jingcun basin and Hekou Longmen interarea, and the results were satisfactory. Quantitative analysis periods were divided according to the effects of changing human activities on basin flow-sediment yields. Methods of classified quantitative analysis were proposed, and quantities of changed flow-sediment yields caused by changing climatic conditions and human activities were analysiszed for various periods.
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    阿拉斯加北坡巴罗地区(BARROW)水体的pH值和电导率分析
    侯书贵, 秦大河, 张青松
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 47-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.47
    摘要   PDF (841KB)
    根据1994年8~9月份在阿拉斯加北坡巴罗地区采集的5类水样(大气降水、河水、湖水、海水和地下水)的实测资料,初步探讨了本区水体的pH值和电导率的分布特征及环境意义。
    In this paper, the acidity and conductivity features of five kinds of water samples collected at Point Barrow, Alaska are considered. Results show that the summer precipitation is acidic, while the surface water alkaline. We also notice that the ground ice displays a weak acidic medium, which is much different from the surface water. As proved by the conductivity values, the fresh-water lake doesn’t show chemical enrichment compared to river or precipitation. Unlike other’s work at the Canadian High Arctic, positive relationship between conductivity and acidity of the precipitation samples isn’t found in our work, which means that the chemical features of the summer precipitation should be influenced by local alkiline dust to a certain extent, while the chemical features of the winter precipitation is mainly controlled by acidic sulphate particles.
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    红山水库上游河床及支流调整分析
    师长兴
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 56-62.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.56
    摘要   PDF (622KB)
    以西辽河红山水库修建后上游河道调整为例,说明了除来水来沙等的变化所引起的河流系统调整外,存在由于河流系统可调要素之间的相互联系、相互作用,在水库水位上升后造成的溯源淤积发展中,主、支流河道,上、下游河段冲淤相互影响,槽、滩淤积相互转换,地生态系统调整的影响下,产生的可调要素的复杂多向的调整过程。
    This article deals with the processes and mechanisms of channel adjustments of the main stream and a tributary, the Yangchangzi River, upstream of Hongshan reservoir on the Laoha River, which is located in the northeast of China. The channel adjustments are reflected by changes of channel capacity, ratio of square root of channel width to depth, slope, bed material composition and channel pattern. It was illustrated that, in the processes of channel accretion headward caused by uplifted water level, the feedback couples between main stream and tributaries, between upper and lower reaches, between channel and floodplain and between ecosystem and river system were getting active. Under the influences of the complex feedback mechanisms, the channel capacity of the studied reach had undulated obviously in the general decrease tendency, the channel slope and the median grainsize of bed materials increased after strongly lowered, the geometry of channel was adjusted favorably to sediment transport in long term. The channel pattern of the studied reach has changed from wandering to sinuous under the influences of many factors. The adjustment of the channel of the tributary showed similar characteristics as that of the main channel. The sediment concentration of the tributary decreased after its erosion basis was raised.
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    山岳型旅游地生命周期研究——安徽黄山、九华山实证分析
    陆林
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 63-69.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.63
    摘要   PDF (783KB)
    通过安徽黄山、九华山实证分析,研究了山岳型旅游地生命周期,认为黄山、九华山已经经历了旅游地生命周期的探索阶段、参与阶段,目前正处发展阶段。采取有效的措施,引导黄山、九华山向着生命周期成熟阶段演化是可能和必要的。
    This paper, on the basis of the case study of Huangshan Mountain and Jiuhuashan Mountain, studies the life cycle of mountain resorts and thinks that as for Huangshan Mountain and Jiuhuashan Mountain, the exploration stage and involvement stage have passed by, the development stage comes in. The paper supposes that it is possible and necessary to guide the two mountain resorts going into the maturity stage, by taking effective measures.
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    论景观生态保护区
    郑达贤
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 70-75.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.70
    摘要   PDF (435KB)
    提出景观生态保护区的概念,阐述了景观生态保护区不同于纯自然保护区的性质和特点,根据功能分其为4种类型:阻滞性、连通性、资源性和缓冲性保护区。讨论了天然来源的景观生态保护区和人工建设的景观生态保护区的不同特点和演化趋势,以平潭岛为例提出应把景观生态保护区规划纳入国土规划中进行建设。
    This paper advances a concept on landscape ecological protection area to generalize the special landscape elements which are established in the landscape ecological planning and construction for preserving the stability of all landscape mosaics and the regional continuous development, explans the properties and characters of the area which are different to the pure natural protection regions in common sense. The author classifies these protection areas into 4 types(connection, obstruction, resource and buffer protection areas)according to their functions in landscape, discusses the different characters and evolution tendencies between natural and artificial originated protection areas. Taking Haitan Island in Fujian as a example the author suggests that one showld bring the landscape ecological protection area planning into the planning on territorial management and development.
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    用遥感资料建立分块产流模型
    王腊春, 熊江波
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 76-80.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.76
    摘要   PDF (557KB)
    用遥感资料建立的分块产流模型,充分考虑了降雨的空间分布不均匀性,解决了以往分块产流计算中产流参数难以分块选择的缺陷,提高了产流计算的精度。利用遥感资料提取产流参数,可以从参数与流域自然地理特征关系进行分析,使之更符合水文现象的一般规律,并可用于无资料地区。
    This model, which is built using remote sensing data, has been fully considered the bad distribution of precipitation in area, and has solved the problem that yield runoff parameters can’t separate selection in other scatter model. It improves the calculation precision of runoff yield. Using remote sensing data can extract yield runoff parameters effected by natural geographical factors, and the parameters will conform to the general regulaity of hydrology. It can be used in the areas without data available.
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    河流颗粒物重金属污染评价方法比较研究
    霍文毅, 黄风茹, 陈静生, 贾振邦
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 81-86.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.81
    摘要   PDF (988KB)
    对评价河流颗粒物重金属污染水平的4种方法进行了比较研究;提出了适用于Igeo法和SEF法评价我国河流颗粒物重金属污染水平的评价参比标准值;并应用这些方法对我国部分河流颗粒物重金属的污染水平进行了评价。
    Assessment of particulate quality clearly reveals its prominent role in heavy metal cycling. For this reason, two new methods(RSP and PEF)are put forward. Combined with preceding literature, four methods are compared. Based on assessment results of main rivers of out country, the paper proves that most of rivers are not seriously contaminated by heavy metal due to their strong buffer capacity. The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical reference for further studies and to provide appropriate selection for particulate quality assessment under different situations.
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    美国湿地研究进展
    孙广友
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 87-90.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.87
    摘要   PDF (672KB)
    美国是世界上湿地分布相当广泛的国家,也是当今世界湿地研究较先进的国家。美国湿地研究始于9世纪末叶,当时H. C. Cowles(1899)和E. N. Transeau(1903)等少数人研究了北部的淡水湿地和泥炭地,且介绍了欧洲和苏联的沼泽与泥炭研究成就。说明当时美国湿地研究还较落后,但毕竟开始了初创代。
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    评介《城市生态环境学》
    张学林
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 91-92.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.91
    摘要   PDF (211KB)
    华南师范大学杨士弘教授的专著城市生态环境学于1996年5月由科学出版社正式出版。这是作者多年来悉心研究和辛勤耕耘的结晶,也是我国第一部具有开创性有关城市生态环境学的专著,具有重要的基础理论意义,它的问世必将促进我国城市生态环境学及有关学科的深入发展。
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    三江平原沼泽地CH4排放规律及估算
    崔保山
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (1): 93-95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.01.93
    摘要   PDF (643KB)
    样地位于中国科学院洪河沼泽生态试验站观测场中央区。野外观测采样分别在1995年6月~9月、1996年5月进行。沼泽类型以毛果苔草(Carex lasiocarpa)沼泽为主,并且对5个主要沼泽类型进行对比观测,它们是:毛果苔草沼泽,甜茅-苔草(Glyceria spiculosa-Carex)沼泽,塔头苔草(Carex schmidtii)沼泽,苔草(Carex.sp.)-小叶樟(Calamagrostis angustifolia)沼泽,芦苇(Phragmites communis)-小叶樟沼泽。样地是用方形木框架选取的,并固定水平且淹水,方框内是在自然状态下生长的植物。在采样点周围建立栈桥。采用常用的静态箱技术。采集方法为通用的玻璃针筒取样装真空瓶法,CH4浓度采用气相色谱仪(SQ-208型)测定。
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