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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2001年, 第21卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2001-07-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    中尺度流域土地利用/土地覆盖变化评估——以伊洛河中部地区为例
    李小建, 刘钢军, 钱乐祥, Jim Peterson
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 289-296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.289
    摘要   PDF (1096KB)
    将规范分析与实证分析相结合,提出了一个评估区域各点位土地利用/土地覆盖变化的新方法:(1)采用相对原则观察一时段内的变化方向;(2)物理模型与统计模型相结合,基于区域实际情况建立生境适宜性参照基准;(3)用多变量分析方法量度各点位与参照基准的差异。结合GIS和遥感技术,这种方法被应用于伊洛河中部地区的研究中。
    Most of sustainable studies have adopted a normative approach.They attempt to employ common value judgements in assessing human-natural relations and in designing future plans.In practice, however, great regional differentiation precludes the fair use of common principles.This paper, while borrowing some ideas from normative studies, presents a positivist based approach to regional sustainable development assessment:(1) the achievement of sustainability in a region should be judged by the changing direction in a time period concerned; (2) the principle of judgement is whether the changes suit the local environment; (3) in terms of land use and land cover (LULC), a hybrid model that integrates ideas from both the physically and the statistically-based model types, was proposed to develop typical suitable site conditions as benchmarks in determining the suitability of a specific land use type; (4) a multivariate technique was used for measuring the difference between benchmarks and the actual situation.By using this approach, as well as GIS and remote sensing techniques, LULC changes in the Middle Yiluo Basin of the Yellow River were investigated in a fine geographical scale.
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    东北农牧交错区水分条件及其对植被分布的影响
    张军涛, 李哲, 郑度
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 297-300.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.297
    摘要   PDF (595KB)
    水分条件是决定植物生长、分布的主要因子之一,也是生态学和地理学研究所关注的一个基本问题。本文依据最新的数据资料对东北农牧交错区水分条件的基本特征进行了分析,以三维图形表达了湿度指数的空间分布格局;对典型站点的年干燥度以及在年内的变化进行了分析;通过Kira指数、湿度指数和NDVI植被指数说明了农牧交错区植物生长、分布与水分条件的关系。
    Moisture regime, which served as a major factor, determines the plant distribution in transitional areas of farming and pasturing of the northeastern China.It is essential to analyze the relationship between the moisture regime and the plant distribution, in order to adjust measures to local conditions and prevent the desertification.The characteristics of moisture regime in the research areas had been analyzed by using the latest data.The spatial pattern of HI was expressed in three dimensions as well.The result of this research shows that the annual aridity increases from the east to west of the research area, although it is affected by contour microclimates.The aridity in summer and fall is less than that in winter and spring.Using the Kira index, HI, and NDVI vegetation index, the relation was shown more clearly.The seasonal change of NDVI values of different vegetation indicates that the correlation between monthly average of NDVI and precipitation is higher than that between monthly average NDVI and temperature.It is, therefore, obvious that the moisture regime is the principle factor for the land cover change in the research areas.
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    我国东部土壤有机碳的密度及转化的控制因素
    李忠, 孙波, 林心雄
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 301-307.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.301
    摘要   PDF (1886KB)
    根据第二次土壤普查资料,计算了我国东部土壤的有机碳密度和储量,并通过田间和室内试验的结果,分析了影响农田土壤中有机碳转化的因素。结果表明,我国东北地区土壤有机碳密度变幅为2.5~73.3kg C/m2,平均值为10.5kg C/m2;而在东南热带亚热带地区,剖面土壤有机碳密度变幅为3.9~16.7kg C/m2,平均值为9.52kg C/m2。随着木质素含量和土壤粘粒含量的增加,植物物质的分解速率下降;而土壤温度、pH和游离碳酸钙含量的增加促进了植物物质的分解;淹水的水田中植物物质的分解速率通常低于旱地;土壤性质和有机物质组成对植物物质分解的影响可以掩盖气候条件的影响,而土壤游离碳酸钙可以掩盖土壤质地的影响。
    Based on the soil species data from the Second National Soil Survey, the soil organic C (SOC) density and stocks in East China were calculated, and the influnce factors of SOC turnover in cultivated soils were investigated by field and laboratory experiments.The results show that the SOC densities to the profile depth in Northeast China varied from 2.5 to 73.3 kg C/m2 with a mean value of 10.5 kg C/m2.In southeast tropical and subtropical China, the mean SOC densities to the profile depth ranged from 3.9-16.7 kg C/m2 with a mean value of 9.52 kg C/m2.With the increase of lignin content in plant materails and soil clay content, the decompostion rate of plant materails decreased in the cultivated soils.However, the increase of soil temperature, pH and CaCO3 content promoted the decompostion of plant materails.For the same soil, plant materails decomposed faster in upland soils then in waterlogged paddy soils.The effect of climate conditions on the decomposition of plant materials could be sheltered by the comprehensive influnce of the compositon of plant materials and soil pH, and the effect of soil texiture disappeared with the occurrenceof soil free CaCO3.
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    东北集装箱运输网络的建设与优化探讨
    韩增林, 安筱鹏
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 308-314.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.308
    摘要   PDF (773KB)
    作为一种新型的运输方式,集装箱运输不仅实现了运输的高效化、信息化、门对门,而且改变了传统的货源组织方式和运输体系。这种改变不仅体现在集装箱枢纽港和支线港的分化,而且体现在集装箱运输内陆网络体系的建设上。以集装箱港口、运输通道、内陆中转站为主而形成的内陆运输网络正在改变着传统的货源组织方式,集装箱运输网络发展滞后也在一定程度上制约着内陆运输的集装箱化水平和集装箱的运输效率。本文论述了集装箱运输网络形成和发展的一般规律,并在此基础上深入分析了东北集装箱运输网络的发展现状、存在问题及内陆运输的规划。
    Being a new transportation, container transport not only improves the efficiency of transportation, makes the door-to-door come true, but also change the mode of traditional goods organization and system of transportation.It can be reflected not only by the division of container load center and lateral container port but also the construction of network of container transportation.The network, which is made up of container port, channel of transportation and CFS,is changing the the mode of traditional goods organization.The lag of network of container transportation affects the level of containerzation and the efficiency of container transportation.The article discusses the rule of formation and development of the network of container transportation.Base on the theory, the paper deeply analyses the situation and problem of network of container transportation in Northeast China.At the same time, the paper put forword the layout of container transportation in Northeast China.
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    克鲁格曼的多中心城市空间自组织模型评析
    刘安国, 杨开忠
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 315-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.315
    摘要   PDF (1018KB)
    在传统的空间经济格局研究中,以杜能为代表的古典区位论和以克里斯塔勒与廖什为代表的近代区位论将经济活动所表现出来的规则性视为理所当然的,对于为什么会产生这样的规则性,人们却不得而知。1990年代,新经济地理学的主要代表人物克鲁格曼将对自组织系统的跨学科研究所取得的成果运用于经济学研究之中,建立起多中心城市的空间自组织模型。他以对厂商之间的向心力和离心力及其相互作用的分析为基础,向我们清楚地阐明了经由“一只看不见的手”形成大范围内的有规则的经济空间格局的内在机理,即"从不稳定产生秩序"的基本原理。
    In the study of the spatial patterning of economy, there was a long tradition according to which the regularity exhibited in the spatial distribution of economic activities was taken for granted.This tradition was evidenced, for example, in the works of von Thunen and those of Christaller and Losch, which lent little insight on how such regularity was evolved.While von Thunen presupposed the existence of an isolated town around which different farming activities took the pattern of concentric rings, Christaller and Losch argued that a hierarchy of central places turned out the outcome of the interaction between individual economic agents who based their location decisions on the trade-off between economies of scale and transportation costs.Admittedly, Central-Place Theory did give an interesting picture of part of the economic landscape.However, its lack of theoretical strength to explain the observed structure in terms of deeper causes made it fall short of a formal economic model.Consequently, research on agglomeration and spatial patterning of economy has long been neglected by mainstream economists just because that they have regarded it as intractable.In 1990s, by applying concepts developed in an interdisciplinary study of self-organizing systems new perspective was introduced into the study of economics, which was elaborated in The Self-Organizing Economy by Paul Krugman.According to Krugman, there is an interdependence between firms in their making of location decision.The desirability of any place as a business location for a firm depends on where the other firms locate in relation to it.Economic activities tend to move from less desirable to more desirable location as time lapses.Krugman proposes that two basic forces exists in the interaction between firms:centripetal force (competition) and centrifugal force (attraction), which correspond to the positive feedback and negative feedback in the study of self-organising systems.On the basis of an analysis of the centripetal and centrifugal forces between firms as well as their interaction, Krugman presented a model of edge city - city of multi-centers, through which he demonstrated the inherent mechanism of the formation of large-scale patterns of regularity in economic space, that is, the principle of order from instability.The dynamic analysis exhibited in Krugman’s Edge City Model holds great potential in the explanation of "circular and cumulative causation" which intrigues both of urban economists and developmental economists.The evolutionary approach to the study of spatial economy makes itself a valuable compliment to those of von Thunen, Christaller and Losch, which are largely static.The concepts of dynamics, self-organizing etc and the evolutionary approach adopted in the establishment of the model lend important theoretical support to the development of the New Economic Geography, which is winning serious attention from the mainstream economists for its extra insight into some common issues encountered in the study of trade theory, the development theory and economic geography.
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    我国经济地理学研究存在的问题及其改造途径
    冯仁国
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 323-326.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.323
    摘要   PDF (626KB)
    在分析中国经济地理学研究存在问题的基础上,对经济地理学今后发展提出了若干建议:开展现代自然过程及其驱动力研究,促进地理学各分支学科的高层次综合,完善并发展地理学基础理论,逐步走向国际科学研究前沿;面向国家宏观决策需要,开展与可持续发展有关的政策性研究;高度重视研究方法、手段的更新,提高经济地理学研究的科学性;引进相关学科人才,促进学科交叉,是经济地理学发展的捷径;面向社会需求,开展区域规划与产业布局研究。
    This paper analyses the problems existing in the research of the Chinese economic geography, and makes some suggestions for the future development as follows:carrying out the research on modern natural process and its driving force; promoting the high-level synthesis of sub-disciplines of geography, perfecting and developing the fundamental theory of geography, gradually advancing on international scientific research; carrying out the policy research related to sustainable development in order to meet the need of national macro-policy-making; paying great attention to the research method and way renewal so as to raise the science nature of geographical research; introducing relevant discipline personnel and promoting discipline intersection are the shortcut of economic geography development; according to the demand of society carrying out the research on regional planning and industrial allocation.
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    我国西北地区地表反照率的遥感研究
    陈云浩, 李晓兵, 谢锋
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 327-333.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.327
    摘要   PDF (1228KB)
    由于地表反照率受地球表面覆盖类型等地表特征的影响,因而利用遥感资料计算大面积区域地表反照率日益受到重视。通过对研究区下垫面类型进行分类(共分雪地、裸土、植被、沙漠和水体等五类),然后针对不同下垫面类型分别建立相应的地表反照率计算方法,对我国西北地表反照率的计算,验证了该方法具有较高的计算精度,适于大面积区域地表反照率的计算。最后对我国西北地区地表反照率的分布特征进行了分析。
    The different land surface features and land cover conditions cause anisotropy surface albedo distribution.It is a powerful tool to derive large area of regional surface albedo using remote sensing technique.Land cover of study area is classified into five types, snow covered, bare soil, vegetation, desert and water, in first step.And then, based on the land cover classification over Northwest China, the different surface albedo calculation methods are presented accounting differential land cover condition.Integrated of the different surface albedo calculation methods, a model for regional surface albedo estimate over the heterogeneous landscape is derived.This approach provided a reliable estimate of surface albedo over Northwest China.The accuracy of the model for regional surface albedo estimation is checked by observed surface albedo data.The results of comparison show that the maximal relative error is 18.75 percent, and the minimal error is 8.82 percent, and the average relative error is about 15 percent.The result shows a high accuracy of surface albedo calculation.The main feature of surface albedo over Northwest China is that the value of regional surface albedo synthetically reflects distribution of conditions of soil moisture and vegetation coverage, and the variability of surface albedo is huge in this region.At last, the relationships between surface albedo and vegetation index and surface temperature over Northwest China are discussed in this paper, and these features can be make the conclusions as fellows:1) The relationship between regional surface albedo and NDVI can be given as a power function:Y=18.74*(x-0.2)-0.456.2) The relationship between regional surface albedo and surface temperature(Ts)can be written as,y=-72.3+6.45x-0.086x2, over Northwest China in July,1995.There are some errors in deriving the surface temperature form NOAA/AVHRR data, and scale transformations are not solved completely in regional scale surface albedo calculating.In addition, the vegetation-soil interaction needs research further.All of those are factors to restrict the precision of the model for regional surface albedo estimation and the objects to be study in the future.
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    GIS支持的澜沧江下游区泥石流爆发危险性评价
    闫满存, 王光谦, 刘家宏
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 334-338.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.334
    摘要   PDF (881KB)
    澜沧江下游区是我国泥石流灾害相对频发的地区之一。在分析泥石流形成发育影响因素的基础上,指出澜沧江下游区泥石流的爆发主要受沟道坡度、植被覆盖度/土地利用和降水等环境因素影响。据此,构建了泥石流爆发危险性评价数据库、知识库和危险性评价数字环境模型。在ARC/INFO GIS的支持下,提取了坡度、植被盖度和降雨量等主要泥石流危险性评价指标。依据知识库对各类因子进行了分级和赋权,对澜沧江下游区泥石流爆发危险性进行了区划。
    Debris flow hazards are an inherent but dangerous and costly element of mountainous environments in the lower Lancang River watershed.Conventional hazard map provide useful inventories of hazardous sites but provide little insight into the potential area of the hazards, this approach tends to rely heavily on subjective interpretation of the landscape.Assessing and predicting mountainous hazards potential using geographic information systems (GIS) are receiving increasing attention over years.Based on the spatial analysis of driving and triggering factors promoting the occurrence and development of debris flows in the Lancang River watershed a database and repository are constructed for assessing the area susceptible for debris flows in the area.A correlation of the occurrence of debris flows with slope gradient, vegetation cover and rainfall are also presented for providing multivariate statistical data available for assessing risk of the debris flows in the area.Using Arc/Info grid module all data in Arc/Info coverage, including contour, vegetation cover and rainfall are transformed into TIN data and DEM and further into raster gradient, vegetation and rainfall with raster of 100m X 100m .With the repository used for assessing the potential of the occurrence of debris flows, The classification of gradient, vegetation and rainfall with five ranks, in agreement with five risk ranks of debris flows :highest, high, moderate, less and none are implemented on Arc/info platform.A digital environmental model (DEM) to assess the debris flow risk in the lower Lancang river watershed.is employed to implement the processes of spatial algebra overlay.Raster gradient, vegetation and rainfall data with a weight of 0.5, 0.3 and 0.2,respectively are imported into same grid environment with to produce a new map, showing the potential zones of the debris flows with different risk ranks of the lower Lancang river watershed.With the overlay of conventional map of the debris flow hazards in history in the area with assessment result, it can be shown that the highest and high risk zones of assessment results are in agreement with the dense zones of debris flows in history and also indicate that the index selected and methods used for assessing the risk of debris flows in the Lancang river watershed are rational and credible for conducting the debris flow disaster control and mitigation in the area.and for helping mitigate the associated risk.
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    金沙江下游元谋盆地冲沟发育特征和过程分析
    柴宗新, 范建容, 刘淑珍
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 339-343.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.339
    摘要   PDF (217KB)
    金沙江下游元谋盆地广泛分布的下更新统元谋组地层为粘土层与砂土层互层,冲沟发育。冲沟侵蚀蚕食耕地、造成土地劣化,对土地资源危害很大。论述了元谋组地层冲沟具有沟壁直立、溯源侵蚀速度快、沟头组合形态多样等特征,分析了冲沟发育过程和影响因素。
    The Low Pleistocene Series Yuanmon Group alternate sand and mud beds are widely distributed and the gullies are developed in yuanmon Basin.It lies on the south bank of Jinsha River, the upper reaches of Changjiang River(Yangtze R.).Some distribution regions of Pliocene-Pleistocene strata were scoured by running water, and formed thousand of gullies and ravines and some stretches of earth columns in the basin.This landscape is the result of gulling.The gullies erode the farmland, forme the erosion bad land (the earth forsest) and breake the landresources.The gully erosion, as a special erosion shape, received attention only recently.The gully erosion in the Yuanmou Basin is formed under the synthetical influence of local varied conditions, such as stratigraphy, tectonism, climate, soil, vegetation, water dynamic condition, etc.The Yuanmou Basin located in subtropical climate beit is controlled by the south-west monsoon of the Indian Ocean in rainy seasons and by the continental air mass of the tyopics in dry seasons.Its foehn effect was obvious.The climate of the basin is dry and hot, ecpecially in dry seasons with in November-April.The annval average temperature in the basin is 21.8℃, with the maximum of 42℃ and minimum of -1℃.The annual averag rainfall is 615mm, 90 per cent of which is concentrated in the rainy seasons within May-October.The annual vaporization capacity is 3-6 times of precipitation.In rainy seasons the running water carried sand gravel in the gully to make its scouring capacity enhanced and to speed up its incision and headward erosion.The lateral erosion of running water was further enhanced to make some loose sand beds below the gully wall and gully head wall become eroded, and the walls of the gully and gully head became convex-shaped on the top of it, and concav-shaped at the bottom of it, and then the walls of gully and gully head could cause eboulement after a rainstorm, some isolated earth shield and pillars remained.The gully continually stretches to platform at the same time.This article discusses following gully characteristics:(1) the gnlly bank is vertical; (2) the headward erosion is fast; (3) the combination form of gully head is varied.Then the development process and influence factors of gully are analysed.The important influence factors of gully development are folowing:(1) the strata is alternation of sand and mud beds; (2) the vertical joint is development in earth body; (3) the clay particle capacity is larger and the crevice is development in surface soil; (4) the climate is dry and hot and distinct dry season and moist season.
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    SOTER支持下ALES模型对海南省热带作物适宜性评价研究
    张学雷, 张甘霖, 龚子同
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 344-349.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.344
    摘要   PDF (251KB)
    在海南省1:25万SOTER数据库的支持下,根据联合国土地评价框架的有关原则和概念,选取海南省4种热带作物建立了8种评价模型,运行ALES评价系统,得出不同气候条件下、不同土地利用状况下SOTER单元上作物适宜性评价指数,将此评价指数与GIS相连,可根据用户的要求输出评价成果。
    A SOTER-based, automatic procedure for qualitative land evaluation is developed.This procedure was created in the Automated Land Evaluation System.The objective was to design a procedure that allows for a quick separation of potentially suitable from non-suitable SOTER units for the intended land use,indicating constraints to different kinds of land use.Different kinds of land are unequal1y suited to various uses,Land eva1uation is the assessment of the suitability of a tract of land for a specified kind of land use.1n practice this implicates the comparison(matching)between the requirements of a specified land use and the properties of the land.Land evaluation concepts and definitions are treated in the paper.The ALES is a computer program that allows land evaluators to build their own knowledge-based system with which they can compute the physical and economical suitability of map units in accordance with FAO Framework for Land Evaluation.The ALES program works with so called decision trees,being hierarchical multiway keys in which the leaves are results(e.g.severity levels of land qualities),and the interior nodes of the tree are decision criteria(e.g.1and characteristic values).These trees are traversed by the program to compute an evaluation using actual land data for each map unit.SOTAL is a SOTER-based,qualitative model developed in ALES for physical land evaluation in which presently two land utilization types (LUTs)are distinguished,cultivated banana and mango both under different input and technology conditions.These LUTs are characterized by 11 landuse requirements and evaluated by matching the land use requirements with the corresponding land qualities.The paper elaborates on the criteria used in SOTAL for land quality assessment and how a final suitability rating is achieved on the basis of the rated land qualities.Results are visualized through G1S-generated maps as products in response to the specific information and data needs of decision and policy makers.
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    地下水资源评价中降水量的时间序列-马尔可夫模型
    钱家忠, 朱学愚, 吴剑锋
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 350-353.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.350
    摘要   PDF (666KB)
    降水量的预报精度对以其为直接或间接补给源的地下水资源评价具有重要的影响。将时间序列方法与随机过程离散状态的马尔可夫链理论相结合,提出了时间序列马尔可夫模型以预报大气降水量。模型根据降水序列的特征,采用一维非平稳时间序列模型进行预测,预测结果总体效果较好,但峰值点处误差较大。为了提高模型对波动性较大随机变量的预报精度,利用随机过程马尔可夫概率状态转移矩阵预报方法对其预测值进行二次拟合。实例计算表明:时间序列-马尔可夫模型预报效果良好,预报精度明显高于单一的时间序列模型精度。该结果拓宽了时间序列预报模型的应用范围,且对以大气降水为最终补给源的地下水资源评价具有重要的实用价值及理论意义。
    Prediction accuracy of precipitation has an important influence on evaluation of groundwater resources that is recharged directly or indirectly by the precipitation.In former literature, many authors usually adopted the frequency of precipitation in the past to predict the precipitation in the future, and brought it into the models which evaluated the quantity and/or quality of groundwater.But this method is rather conservative.In this paper, we combine time series method with the dispersed Markov Chains theory of stochastic process, and present a Markov Model based the time series analysis for predicting the precipitation.In the course of modeling, first we select one-dimension nonstationary time series model to predict the precipitation in light of characteristics of the precipitation series.The result shows that the time series prediction is feasible as a whole, but there exists bigger errors when predicting the variables on the tops of the curves.In order to improve the prediction accuracy of the model, especially to the data with stronger fluctuation, we use the method of Markov’s state change probability matrix to fit them again.Then we attain the fitting values.To test the time series-Markov model, we apply it to predict the precipitation in the section of Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province as an example.Results show that the time series-Markov Model is efficient, and it has higher accuracy than that of the single model of time series.It enlarges applied scope of the time series model, and it is of important practical values and theoretical magnificence to the evaluation of groundwater resources that is finally recharged by the precipitation.
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    大城市环城游憩带(ReBAM)研究——以上海市为例
    吴必虎
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 354-359.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.354
    摘要   PDF (729KB)
    定义了环城游憩带(Recreational Belt Around Metropolis,ReBAM)的概念,并以中国最大城市上海为案例,对影响ReBAM的形成的基本要素、土地利用特征和空间结构进行了研究。研究发现,旅游成本与土地租金的相互作用是决定ReBAM区位的主要力量,而游憩需求、投资偏好和政策导向是影响ReBAM的形成与发展的主要因素;ReBAM的土地利用特征根据游客进入成本的不同可以区分为高、中、低3种不同等级;ReBAM的空间特征可由可达性、等游线和活动密度等指标来描述。
    This study is the first one among current studies investigating the near distance and suburban tourism in China, which resulted in the conceptual framework of Recreational Belt Around Metropolis, abbreviated thereafter as ReBAM.Taking Shanghai city, the largest metropolis of China, as a case, the study analyzes the location mechanism, formation process, land use patterns, accessibility, tourist behavior and spatial structure of ReBAM.The study reveals that travel cost to tourists and land price to investors determine simultaneously the location of ReBAM, where tourism planners find their favorite sites for city tourism development.Specifically, this study used Shanghai as a case to described the formation of ReBAM and examined the factors that affect such formation.These factors include demand on weekend recreation, investment preferences of developer, and regional development policy of local government.Three types of recreational land use were identified according to the entrance fee structures.These include 1) low-price section:public recreational facilities sanctioned by government, 2) medium-price section:joint ventures between government and private sector, and 3) high-price section:recreational facilities developed and operated by private sector.The results showed that the ReBAM exhibited three unique and elementary spatial features.They are 1) weak linkage network, 2) distance decay of travel behavior, and 3) activity density diffusion.The significance of the study’s findings goes beyond the proposal of ReBAM.It presents practical implications for tourism planning and development.Based on the principles of ReBAM, the author proposed a three ring-shaped spatial structure for tourism development in Beijing, the capital city of China:central, urban fringe and rural outskirts.
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    建造环境供给结构的转型与都市景观的演化——以南京为例
    吴启焰, 甄峰, 张京祥, 杨庆
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 360-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.360
    摘要   PDF (926KB)
    在综合国外新古典经济学和土地经济学、激进马克思主义学派及制度分析中有关建筑环境保障结构理论的基础上,确定建造环境保障结构转型对都市景观演变的三个基本作用要素,并针对中国都市区,揭示由特定的政治经济关系转型;城市内各行业、部门的发展和土地发展的组织过程和干预手段对都市景观发展过程的影响,或城市规划功能转化这三方面共同构成的都市景观变化内涵。
    In this paper, the authors firstly review relevant articles and works of Neo-economy, Land economy, Neo-Marxism schools and Institutional Analysis which developed the theory of provision structure of built environment.The authors utilize the theoretical framework to study the metropolis of China in order to find the relation between the transition of provision structure of built environment and the transformation landscape.Within analyzing the above relation, the authors show that the properties of landscape of Chinese metropolis under the impact of change of provision structure of built environment are composed by :(1) Special political-economic transformation; (2) the organizational process of sectors within metropolitan area and the land use organization method; (3) the impact of mediation on developing process or the Transformation of urban planning function.Moreover during different time of development, those above relations differentiate to each other.Particularly after the Reformation since 1978, the new provision structure of built environment contribute to the transformation of landscape through:(1) the increase of localization and increase of self-raised found; (2) the property of foreign Investment its impact on urban process; (3) the re-organizational method of land use and urban process; (4) the transformation of urban planning System as the response to the other dynamic factors.At last, the authors choose metropolitan Nanjing as an example to do some research.
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    珠江口SX97孔7000a B.P.的气候环境变化及流域响应
    周厚云, 余素华, 郭国章
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 368-372.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.368
    摘要   PDF (560KB)
    综合考虑矿物、元素地球化学和孢粉等多方面的资料,对珠江口北岸SX97孔揭示的7000a B.P.以来的气候环境演化提出了一种5阶段划分方案,这种阶段性在SX97孔的各项指标上均有很好的对应,也与华南地区基于海岸沙丘、海滩岩和海相沉积地层等的早期研究成果能较好地对应。在此基础上,初步探讨了气候环境变化中的流域响应,发现SX97孔揭示出气候环境变化中有很好的流域响应。如当气候环境偏湿偏热时,流域风化作用更加强烈,有更多的铁元素流失,同时流域植被更发育,对降水有更好的缓冲作用,导致河口沉积物中含有更多的铁元素(包括二价铁和三价铁)、更少石英矿物和更多粘土矿物。当气候环境偏干偏凉时则相反。
    Based on a multi-proxies study (including mineralogy, elemental geochemistry and pollen analyses) on Core SX97, which lies on the north flank of the Pearl River estuary, the authors suggest that the climatic and environmental evolution since 7000 a B.P.over the Pearl River Delta area could be divided into five stages.These stages between different climatic and environmental proxies, such as mineralogy, elemental geochemistry and pollen data, correlate very well with each other as well as with the climatic and environmental information over the coastal zone of South China that was recovered previously from the coastal dunes, beach-rocks and marine deposits.Then, the drainage response of the Pearl River to local climatic and environmental variations is explored.Core SX97 shows that the Pearl River drainage response sensitively to local climatic and environmental changes.When the climate over the Pearl River drainage was relatively warm and humid, weathering was relatively strong, relatively more iron was lost from the weathering profile, and better vegetation was developed over the drainage.All these would result in more FeO and Fe2O3, less herbal relative content, less quartz and more clay mineral (such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite) mass fractions in the estuary sediments.Contrary to this was the situation when the climate was relatively cold and arid.
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    利用树木年轮资料重建祁连山中段春季降水的变化
    王亚军, 陈发虎, 勾晓华
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 373-377.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.373
    摘要   PDF (684KB)
    春季降水是祁连山中段树木生长的主要限制因子。利用树木年轮宽度指标重建了祁连山中段230年的春季降水序列,发现祁连山中段230年来经历了大幅度长阶段的干湿变化,干湿时段与西北实际的旱涝情况比较吻合,而且与横断山区、华山的研究结果一致。说明祁连山中段春季降水,特别是异常的干湿变化,具有较大范围的代表性,至少记录了西北地区的干湿变化历史,从另一个侧面证实了重建序列的可靠。另外,20世纪初期到40年代的少雨以及20世纪40年代中期到60年代的多雨与我国东部地区降水量的变化趋势比较一致,说明祁连山中段的春季降水可能和北半球或更大范围的气候背景有密切的关系。奇异谱分析结果表明,祁连山中段230年来的春季降水具有明显的69年长周期和21年短周期。
    Using tree-ring width Chronology of Picea Crassifolia of the middle region of the Qilian Mountains, we studied the relationship between tree-ring and climate factors, and reconstructed spring precipitation of the middle region of the Qilian Mountains since A.D.1770.Well replicated tree-ring increment cores for Picea Crassifolia were sampled from the middle region of the Qilian Mountains.After carefully cross-dating and measurement of each core, standard chronology was developed according to chronology building procedure.The correlation between the tree-ring index and the mean precipitation and mean air temperature of Sunan station, Qilian station and Yeniugou station was analyzed.The results indicate that there is positive correlation between tree-ring index and spring precipitation.The correlation coefficient R is 0.505.The tree-ring width is limited by spring precipitation, which is beneficial to tree growth.A reasonable interpretation is that when the rainy season has not arrived yet and precipitation is deficient in spring, the soil water becomes the limiting factor to tree-ring growth.Narrow tree-rings are produced when the limited precipitation leads to shortage of soil water.The spring precipitation benefits the tree growth.Associating the study research in Daqingshan Mountain by Liu Yu, et al., we take a conclusion that the tree growth in arid and hemi-arid region is limited by spring precipitation.According to the tree-ring data, we reconstruct spring precipitation for the period A.D.1770 to 1995.Cross-verification testing of the reconstruction produces highly significant sign test and product mean and high positive reduction of error statistics.These prove that reconstruction is reliable.The reconstructed spring precipitation shows four humid and dry periods in the low frequency variations of 11 years moving average since A.D.1770.Humid periods are 1776-1795 A.D., 1819-1857 A.D., 1888-1906 A.D., 1943-1991 A.D..Dry periods are 1796-1818 A.D., 1858-1887 A.D., 1907-1942 A.D., 1992-1995 A.D..The reconstructed spring precipitation indicateds that the middle region of Qilian Mountains was mainly in a humid state since A.D.1770.Seen from the large scale for the last 230 years, there is no obvious humid or dry tendency for spring precipitation, but take on an alternative form.After analyzing periodic characteristics, we find spring precipitation since A.D.1770 has 69 years periods and 21 years periods.Contrasting to the climate change of neighboring area, we find that reconstructed dry periods correspond well with those of the Hengduan Mountains and Huashan Region.They also correspond with the drought disasters occurred in northwest of China.Suggesting that the spring precipitation, especially the abnormal dry change has large region representative, at least records dry humid change of north-west of China and it also indicates that the reconstruction is reliable.The period of the 1900s-1940s which shows low value for spring precipitation are corresponds well with the period of the east region of China and HuaBei Region and HuaiHe River.The period of the 1940s-1960s with high value is similar with that in the change tendency in most of the regions of China.So we take a conclusion that the spring precipitation probably has a closely relationship with the climate change of North Hemisphere or larger scale.
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    研究报道
    神农架北坡表土常见花粉的R值研究
    刘会平, 唐晓春, 王开发, 潘安定
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 378-380.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.378
    摘要   PDF (373KB)
    根据表土孢粉分析和植被样方调查的比较研究,获得了神农架北坡表土常见花粉的R值。常绿阔叶树花粉一般具有较低代表性,R值变化于0.70左右。绝大部分落叶阔叶树花粉也具有较低代表性,R值变化于0.68~0.88之间,但桦、桤木和槭却表现异常。针叶树有气囊花粉具有明显的超代表性,R值变化在1.35~2.44之间,松表现最为强烈。草本植物花粉的R值变化较大,代表性较差。影响R值的因素很多,植物的生态特性、花粉特征、花粉源距离、花粉产量、地形等作用尤为明显。
    The representation of common pollens in soils on the northern slope of Shennongjia mountains area is studied in the light of sporo-pollen analysis and plantation sample investigation.Most of broadleaved-tree pollens such as Quercus, Ilex, Fagus, Juglans,Castanea, Carpinus, Corylus, Ulmus, Tilia and Salix, have a under-representation except Betula and Alnus which have a suitable representation.Some main conifer-tree pollens such as Pinus, Abies and Picea, have a over-representation except Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae which have a under-represeatation.The research shows that the representation of pollen is influenced from pollen character, external pollens, pollen output, distance from pollen sources and landform.
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    梅州生态环境的历史变迁与经济可持续发展对策
    梁锦梅
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (4): 381-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.04.381
    摘要   PDF (150KB)
    通过分析梅州生态环境的历史变迁,提出人口、资源和环境的矛盾及由此导致生态环境的破坏是造成梅州经济发展缓慢的主要因素。加强植树造林来改善生态环境,控制人口增长、调整产业结构等措施保障区域经济的可持续发展。
    This paper analyses the historical changes of eco-environment of Meizhou City.It believes that the conflicts among population, resources, and environment, which resulted in the damage to ecological balance are the main factors to slow down the development in economy of Meizhou.The paper proposed that afforestation should be expanded to improve the ecological environment and the population control and industrial structure adjustment should be made to guarantee the regional economy’s sustainable development.
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