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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2004年, 第24卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2004-05-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    地理学的主要任务与研究方法——从整个科学体系的视角看地理科学的发展
    陈彦光, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 257-263.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.257
    摘要   PDF (1251KB)
    所有科学的主要任务都是建立数学模型,如果地理学想要发展成为一门标准科学——而不是走"例外主义"的道路,根据简单的逻辑法则可以判断,地理学的主要任务也是建立数学模型。现代科学研究的方法包括数学理论、实验室实验和计算机模拟,其中数学方法和模拟实验必将是地理学研究的主要方法;至于实验室实验,可用调查取证进行有限度的补充。未来地理研究的数学规范化和定量分析主要借助后现代数学工具(分形几何学和混沌数学等),而模拟实验则需要倚重仿生数学理论和模型。
    Geography as a scientific branch is reviewed in the whole scientific perspective in this paper, by comparing the discipline with physics and economics, and other related subjects. It is hard to answer what is this thing called science, but we know what science does. As J von Neumann (1961) so cogently observed: "The sciences do not try to explain, they hardly even try to interpret, they mainly make (mathematical) models." As for the function of mathematical models, Marc Kac (1969) once pointed out in Science: "The main role of (mathematical) models is not so much to explain or predict-although these are the main functions of science-as to polarize thinking and to pose sharp questions." Synthesizing the two pieces of logion, we can drawn some conclusions as follows: 1) The main functions of science are to explain or predict. 2) The main task of science is to make models. 3) The main role of models is to explain or predict (the world) and to polarize thinking and to pose sharp questions. Now it is understood that if geography is regarded as a kind of science, which make mathematical models as expected, it is also supposed to make models. Otherwise, if the main task of geography is not to make models, the subject can not be considered to be a kind of science. The traditional scientific methods include the mathematization of world picture and experience and experiment. Nowadays, computer simulations are also an important method, or the third method, used to scientific research. Among the three methods, namely, mathematical theory, experiment, and computer simulation, the first and the third one will be very significant for future geography department. The two main elements of this scientific method are the use of mathematics and measurement to give precise determinations of how a geographical system and its parts work, and the use of observation, and where necessary, computer simulations, to gain understanding of geographical world. However, the mathematics is not the traditional mathematical theories but the postmodern mathematics of fractals and chaos, and the computer simulations are based on the rising ’bionic’ scientific theories such as cellular automata (CA), genetic algorithms (GA), artificial neural nets (ANN), and artificial life (A-life), etc. Among all the so-called bionic scientific theories, CA gives a tool of prominence so that it looks like a paradigm for the 21st century geography.
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    中国自然灾害灾情统计与自组织临界性特征
    朱晓华, 蔡运龙
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 264-269.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.264
    摘要   PDF (749KB)
    基于自组织临界性(SOC)思想,在分析中国自然灾害灾情统计特征的基础上,分析并揭示了中国自然灾害灾情的自组织临界性特征。在此基础上,建构了中国自然灾害灾情(包括松花江等七大流域洪涝灾害受灾县数、洪涝灾害伤亡人数、干旱伤亡人数、各类自然灾害总的伤亡人数等)标度-频度分形关系模型。最后指出,中国自然灾害灾情的自组织临界性特征是客观存在的,而标度-频度的幂律值则是一个相对值。
    Bak P,Tang C and Wiesenfeld K enunciated the concept of Self-organized criticality(SOC)in his paper"Self-organized criticality:an explanation of 1/f noise?"published in "Physical Review Letters" in the 1980s. The SOC concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since such as earthquake,weather and population etc. It has been adopted thousands upon thousands times. SOC is a new method to observe and explain the complexity and mechanism of nature. The negative power is the direct proof of SOC,fractal and disaster are two exterior representations of SOC. A SOC system can be forecasted. China is an agricultural country to some degree. However,natural and social factors result in the frequent natural disaster,which has greatly affected the agriculture and economy of China. Thus,it is useful to study the characters of statistics and SOC of natural disasters of China. In this paper,the characters of statistics and SOC of exposure of natural disasters of China are discussed based on the concept of Self-organized criticality and fractal. Furthermore,the relationships between the scale and frequency of cities covered by flood,died people by drought and flood are constructed. For example,the relationship between the scale and frequency of cities covered by flood is logN=4.0957-0.577logr,that of died people by drought is logN=3.9486-0.5359logr,and that of died people of all disasters is logN=4.8645-0.6526logr. The paper also discriminates the relationship between the negative power and scales,it is found that the character of self-organized criticality of China disaster exposure exists objectivity,but the value of the negative power of relationship between the scale and frequency may change with different scales.
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    中国土地覆盖动态变化幅度的区域分异规律
    李晓兵, 陈云浩, 王宏, 史培军
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 270-274.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.270
    摘要   PDF (304KB)
    利用1983~1992年逐月的8 km空间分辨率NOAA/AVHRR归一化植被指数(NDVI)数字影象,建立中国土地覆盖动态变化幅度指数(D),研究了中国土地覆盖动态变化的区域分异规律。结果表明:西北内陆及青藏高原变化幅度较小,广大的东南部地区(东南、西南季风区)变化幅度较大。从东南到西北变化幅度呈递减趋势,且有明显地带状分布规律。对中国土地覆盖动态变化进行分区,分出9个一级区域,15个二级区域,表明中国土地覆盖动态变化的区域差异。
    In this study, monthly NOAA/AVHRR-NDVI digital images from 1983 to 1992 with 8km spatial resolution, were used to build an index of land cover change amplitude (D), and to study the regional distribution rule of land cover change in China. It showed that land cover change amplitude in the northwest inland and Tibet Plateau were small, and amplitude of the most southeast region (southeast and southwest monsoon area) was bigger than other regions. From the southeast to the northwest, change amplitude showed a declining trend and it can be found obvious strap regularity. Based on these results, a regional division of land cover change was carried out, and there were nine first class regions, 15 second class regions, indicating further the regional difference of land cover change in China. Nine first class regions included: (1) lesser to larger amplitude area of mountain in the northwest; (2) lesser amplitude area of inland plateau and basin in the northwest, and the west of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; (3) lesser to larger amplitude area in the middle and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; (4) larger amplitude area on the southeast edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the west of the Yunnan-Gui Zhou Plateau; (5) middle to large amplitude area on coastal region in the southeast, and Hainan; (6) large amplitude area of mountain in Taiwan; (7) middle to large amplitude area of mountain and hill in the southern China; (8) middle to larger amplitude area of mountain in Northeast China, and of mountain and plain in North China; (9) lesser amplitude area in the middle of Inner Mongolia Plateau.
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    水沙条件对黄河下游河道输沙功能的影响
    许炯心
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 275-280.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.275
    摘要   PDF (658KB)
    提出河道输沙功能指标Fs为进入某一河道的泥沙总量(干流与支流输入沙量之和)与输出这一河道的泥沙量之比。河道输沙功能与来水量和来沙量有密切关系,若来水减少,来沙增多,则河道输沙功能减弱。来沙中大于0.05 mm粗泥沙含量百分比与河道输沙功能指标成负相关。来沙系数、特别是粗泥沙的来沙系数,是决定黄河下游输沙功能的重要因子;来沙系数越大,则河道输沙功能指标越低。场次洪水的输沙功能指标随场次洪水最大含沙量的增大而降低,历年河道输沙功能指标随各年中高含沙水流频率的增高而降低。小浪底水库修建后,为我们通过调水调沙提高河道输沙功能提供可能。研究表明,场次洪水平均含沙量35 kg/m3,或场次洪水平均来沙系数为(0.015 kg·s)/m6,是在调水调沙中实现河道输沙功能优化的最优含沙量和最优来沙系数,平滩流量则是实现河道输沙功能最大化的最优流量级。
    The sediment transferring function of the lower Yellow River has been studied in this paper by using a geomorphological approach. An index for sediment transferring function (Fs) of a river has been proposed, which is defined as the output of sediment load from a given river reach divided by the input of sediment load to this river reach. The Fs index was found to be closely related with discharge and sediment load conditions. When water discharge decreased and sediment load increased, Fs decreased. The >0.05mm percentage in suspended load was negatively correlated with Fs. The index C/Q, especially the index C>0.05/Q, where C is suspended sediment concentration, C>0.05 is the concentration of the >0.05mm sediment, and Q is water discharge, is a major factor determining sediment transferring function of the lower Yellow River. The higher the C/Q and C>0.05/Q are, the lower the Fs will be. The event-based Fs decreased with both the increasing event maximum suspended concentration and the increasing frequency of hyperconcentrated flows. The construction of Xiaolangdi Reservoir provides some possibility for enhancing the sediment transferring function of the lower Yellow River by means of water discharge and sediment load regulation. This study shows that the event-averaged suspended sediment concentration C=35 kg/m3 and the event-averaged index C/Q=(0.015 kg·s)/m6 are the optimal values for the optimization of Fs, and so is the bankfull water discharge.
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    秦岭-黄淮平原交界带地表径流与其时间变化的关系分析
    管华, 李斌
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 281-285.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.281
    摘要   PDF (642KB)
    根据秦岭-黄淮平原交界带及其邻近地区42个径流站1962~1999年的观测资料,分析了地表径流量及其时间变化(年内分配和年际变化)的空间分布规律,得出二者之间存在正相关关系的结论,并探讨了这种反常现象的成因。
    There is generally an inverse interrelated relationship between surface runoff and its time variations (seasonal and annual variation) in most areas of the world and China, but it is direct interrelated relationship in the joint zone between Qinling mountains and Huanghuai Plain. Based on the 1962-1999 observation data of 42 runoff stations in the joint zone and its adjoining area, we get the following results: the distribution lows of the surface runoff depth is that its value increases progressively from north to south and from plain to mountain, the distribution lows the proportion of winter runoff and annual runoff Rw/R is that its value increases progressively from south to north and from mountain to plain, the distribution lows the proportion of the summer runoff and annual runoff Rs/R and flood season runoff and annual runoff Rf/R are that their values increase progressively from north to south and from plain to mountain, and these results shows that there is a direct interrelated relationship between the surface runoff and its seasonal variation; both the proportion of extreme value of annual runoff Km and the variation coefficient of annual runoff Cv have the distribution lows that their values increase progressively from north to south and from plain to mountain, and these results shows that there is a direct interrelated relationship between the surface runoff and its annual variation too. The main causes of formation of the abnormal phenomenon are that the surface runoff depths of different areas have less differences in winters and wet years, and have much differences in summers and dry years. In other words, the differences of annual runoff of different areas formed mainly in summers and wet years.
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    中国热带第四纪板块构造的地貌效应
    黄镇国, 张伟强
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 286-291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.286
    摘要   PDF (701KB)
    青藏高原上新世以来强烈隆起,反映印度板块与欧亚板块的碰撞。台湾岛中央山地也是上新世开始隆起,反映弧陆碰撞。这是中国热带第四纪构造地貌的东、西两个力源,其地貌效应表现在台湾岛的崛起、南海海盆的持续沉降、三个巨大弧形山系的发展、第四系厚度的区域差异、中更新世以来河流阶地的普遍发育、岩溶地貌类型的区域差异、板缘和板内火山活动、近期地壳形变的分布。多种现象表明,东、西构造力源的交接地带为110°E左右。
    The eastern and westwern fronts of plate movement in Taiwan Island and Tibetan Plateau respectively are the sources of tectonic force for a series of tectonism and morphogenesis in China's tropics. Seven examples of geomorphological effects of plate movement are enumerated to discuss the differentiation of tectonic landforms in space and time during Quaternary.The dynamic source western front is stronger than that of eastern, for example the length of collision zone in western reachs 2 000km but only 200km in eastern and the width of seismic zone is 800~1 800km in western but only 350km in eastern. The more near by sources of tectonic force is, the more obvious will be the geomorphological effects of plate movement. For example the Yushan Mountain of Taiwan Island has the highest peak in the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. The emergence rate of central mountains in Taiwan occupies the first place in the world. The shape of Taiwan Island became curved to continent rather than to ocean as a unique example in island arc system of western Pacific Ocean. In western tropics the deep fracture valleys of Hengduan Mountain are very famous. There are 1 000 or more fault basins with thickness of 100-600m of the Quaternary in Yunnan Plateau. The tectonic movement tends to be more active since the Middle Pleistocene. For example the gravel layers were deposited extensively at that time. The river terraces with multi-level are mostly formed since the Middle Pleistocene. The most active stage of volcanism also occurred during Middle Pleistocene. The zone neat by 110癊 can be regarded as the juncture of western and eastern tectonic force. Because here the common apex of three ranges of arc-shape mountains curved southwards,the most extensive distribution of the Quaternary basalts in China,and the transform zone of crustal deformation can be seen.
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    山西南部1.2 Ma B.P.的地貌转型事件
    李有利, 史兴民, 傅建利, 杨景春
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 292-297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.292
    摘要   PDF (664KB)
    研究山西南部柴庄剖面和杨范剖面上部的黄土地层的磁化率、古地磁、黄土古土壤序列,发现这两个剖面记录了发生于120×104 a B.P.的由河流湖泊环境转变为黄土环境的转型事件。分析沉积环境和构造背景,认为这次事件是山西地堑系盆地间横向隆起发生强烈构造抬升的结果,可能与青藏高原的隆起对本地区的影响有关。
    Based on the studies of magnetic susceptibility, paleomagnetism and loess-paleosol sequence of the Chaizhuang and Yangfan sections in the southern Shanxi Province, it is suggested that these sections documented a geomorphic transformation from fluvial environment to the loess environment around 1.2 Ma B. P. Combining with the analyses of the sedimentary environment and tectonic background, we proposed that this event is likely the result of the uplift of the transverse horsts, the Chaizhuang horst between the Linfen and Houma basins, the Emeitai horst between the Houma and Yuncheng basins, in the Shanxi graben system which probably linked with the tectonic movement in the Tibet Plateau.
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    安徽南部盆地紫色岩系上土壤的发生特性
    顾也萍, 刘付程
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 298-304.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.298
    摘要   PDF (718KB)
    在安徽南部采集不同地质年代、不同层位紫色沉积岩发育的6个土壤剖面,研究其发生特性和成土特点。结果显示,紫色沉积岩发育的土壤,在一定程度上继承了母岩的特点,化学风化作用微弱。大多数土壤的粉粒/粘粒比值都在1.3以上,土壤B层粘粒硅铝率均大于3.7,游离铁含量(16~29)g/kg,土壤发育程度明显低于同地区的花岗岩风化物发育的湿润淋溶土。大多数土壤盐基饱和度>50%,2个土壤剖面盐基饱和度<30%,而且铝饱和度较高为60%~90%。
    This paper deals mainly with soil-forming characters and genetic properties in the southern Anhui. The results show that the soils have, in varying degree inherited some properties of purple sedimentary rocks for their very weak chemical weathering. The slit/clay ratios of most soils are above 1.3, silica-alumina ratios (SiO2/Al2O3) of the B or major genetic horizons are above 3.7, and the content of free iron oxide ranges from 16-29 g/kg, much lower than that of the Udic Argosols derived from granite in the same area. Most of the soils studied are eutrophic with base saturation (BS) above 50%, and two soil profiles have high aluminum saturation (AS) from 60% to 90%, with the BS lower than 30% or even 20%.
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    苏州与上海孪生城市模式的形成机理及其区域效应
    陆玉麒, 董平, 俞勇军
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 305-313.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.305
    摘要   PDF (1070KB)
    在对美国进行大量实证分析的基础上,艾伦从理论上推导出的孪生城市模式丰富和发展了区域空间结构理论。1990年代以后,苏州在跨国公司投资作用下的快速崛起,已与上海初步构成了一种功能上互补的共生关系,即孪生城市模式。这一模式的形成主要导源于以下两方面的原因。从行政原因上看,苏州与上海由于分属两个省级行政单元,经营成本、产业政策自1980年代以来一直有着较为明显的差异;从经济原因上看,苏州与上海仅距不到90 km、位居上海都市圈的内圈层,且离虹桥机场约50 km。苏州的快速崛起以至于苏沪孪生城市的形成,产生了多方面的区域效应。苏州与无锡本是一对水平相当、产业性质类似的城市,现已出现了明显的差异化发展态势,从而为在此基础上城市合理分工的形成奠定了基础;苏州位居省级行政单元的交界,因此苏州与作为省会城市的南京构成了广义上的双核结构模式;上述因素的综合作用,使得我们可以构建起沪宁沿线城市合理分工的多重空间组合模式。
    Allen theoretically derived model of Twin City and developed theory of regional spatial structure, basing on a large quantity of experimental analysis on America. Suzhou, which rises rapidly impulsed by the oversea investments after 1990, has constructed the paragenetic relation on function with Shanghai, i.e. Twin City model. The formation of the model is derived from two reasons. One is the administration reason that the management costs and industrial policies of Suzhou and Shanghai have obvious differences since 1980, because they belong to different provinces. The other is economic reason that Suzhou is located in the inner circle of Shanghai municipal circles that radius is 100 km and about 50 km away from Hongqiao airport. The formation of Suzhou-Shanghai Twin Cities by the rising of Suzhou generates versatile regional effects. Suzhou and Wuxi, with the same development level and industrial property originally, now have different tendency of development. This gives them the basis on the reasonable division of function. Suzhou, which is located on the boundary of two provinces, and Nanjing, which is the capital of Jiangsu Province construct the generalized dual-nuclei structure model. We build the multiple spatial composite model of reasonable division of function of cities along Shanghai-Nanjing railway, by the comprehensive action of above-said factors. We generalize the formative condition of Suzhou-Shanghai Twin City model and analyze the formative condition and possibility of Twin Cities at others area in China as Hong Kong and Beijing.The rising of Suzhou drives scholars to discuss the ideal spatial structure form of cities along the Shanghai-Nanjing railway in Jiangsu province, observed by theoretical level. In definition the dual-nuclei structure is composed of the regional center city and port city. The connotation and application range are expended widely by inducing the definition of margin effect. Although border cities are not near large river, they have the dominance of margin effect, because they have difference on economic, management mechanism and ethnical culture. The combination of regional center city and border city also is one of the representations of the dual-nuclei structure model. The border city is referred to not only the city between two countries that is named borderer city, but also the city between two provinces that is named boundary city. The border city and boundary city are called margin city together. The combination of regional center city and port city is the primary form of dual-nuclei structure model; the combination of regional center city and margin city is the secondary form of dual-nuclei structure model. The evolution of spatial structure in Yangtze delta is effected deeply by the rising of Suzhou and the relocation of cities near Suzhou. In fact, the cities near Suzhou all take some corresponding strategies in recent years, as 173 planning of Shanghai and exploitation planning of Hangzhou bay. How to accept challenge is the main task of Suzhou to be relocated in Yangtze delta.
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    改革开放以来东北区城市化与产业结构变动关系研究
    杨青山, 李红英, 梅林
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 314-319.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.314
    摘要   PDF (826KB)
    总结了改革开放以来东北区城市化发展特点与产业结构变动特点。运用城市化与工业化互动规律、产业结构演变规律和城市化发展规律对东北区城市化与产业结构变动关系进行分析,并探讨了其形成原因。在此基础上,提出了东北区城市化与产业结构协调发展策略:①优化产业结构,加速城市化发展。②以合理的城镇体系结构为载体,促进非农产业的发展。③加强基础设施建设,促进城市化与产业结构的协调发展。
    This article summarizes the characteristics of urbanization development and the changes of industrial structure in Northeast China, analyzes the relation of urbanization and the changes of industrial structure in Northeast China by applying the mutually prompt law of urbanization and industrialize, the law of the changes of industrial structure and the law of urbanization development, and discusses the reasons of forming this relation. Finally, this article puts forward harmonious strategy on the relation of urbanization and the changes of industrial structure in Northeast China. that is, promoting harmonious development of urbanization and industrial structure by optimining industrial structure, building the reasonable urban system and improving the level of infroastructure.
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    东北地区城乡一体化进程评估
    修春亮, 许大明, 祝翔凌
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 320-325.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.320
    摘要   PDF (832KB)
    对东北区内部的沿海大城市地区、中部大城市地区和西部中等城市地区,分别选取大连、长春和白城作为调查对象,分析各典型城市地区的城乡一体化进程。主要以现状行政区划的市区代表城市地域,市区外围的县(县级市)和个别远郊区代表乡村地域,以乡镇为研究单元,采用综合指数法评价城乡一体化的进程。城乡一体化综合指数由经济发展水平、农村非农化水平、社会公平和福利、交通及日常联系等方面的相对指标构成,通过乡村各微观地域(乡镇、县)各项指标与中心城市的比值加权求和而得。综合指数计算并结合实地考察的初步结论是:各地区城乡联系逐步加强并趋于多样化,围绕中心城市的外围地域已经形成了包括高度一体化地域(一级)、中度一体化地域(二级)、初级一体化地域(三级)、传统农村地域(四级)在内的空间序列,其中大连地区4个级别的一体化地域序列完整,高度一体化地域已经形成并逐步扩大,城乡关系趋于逐步融合;长春地区缺失第一级,白城地区只有第三、四级,城乡二元结构仍然明显。
    The urban-rural relationship is an important social connection and spatial connection not only at present but also a fairly long time of future in China, however the urban-rural integration is the basic trend of the urban-rural relationship development. The urban-rural relationship and integration course of Northeast China compared with other regions has universality and individuality as well. The paper selects Dalian, Changchun and Baicheng respectively as investigation objects on coastal large cities, large cities in the middle part of Northeast China and western medium-sized cities, then makes relatively deep positive research and comparison analysis on the urban-rural integration of the typical cities. The research mainly substitutes downtown area of the current administration division for city proper. The peripheral counties and a few distant suburbs are taken as rural regions. The villages and towns are selected as research units in order to describe the space-time difference of urban-rural integration inside the counties. The synthetical index method is adopted so as to evaluate the urban-rural integration course. The synthetical index of urban-rural integration is composed of the development level of economy, the non-agriculture level of village, social fairness and welfare, traffic and daily connection etc., which is between 0 and 100 and is obtained by ratio between each index of village microcosmic region(village and town, county) and each index of central city weighted sum. The conclusion by the synthetical index method and observation is that the urban-rural connection is strengthened gradually and is tending to diversify, the peripheral regions around the central cities has engendered spatial sequences of four classes, including advanced integration region (the first class), medium integration region(the second class), primary integration region(the third class), and the traditional village region(the fourth class). The integration region sequences of four classes in Dalian is complete. In addition the advanced integration region has come into being and is expanding, the urban-rural relationship tends to integrate, Changchun region lacks the first class, Baicheng has the third class and the fourth class only, the urban-rural dual structure is still obvious. The first and second class integration region can be looked upon as functional urban area (the metropolitan area). The urban-rural integration course is positively related to per capita GDP—the representative of the development level of economy. The paper aims to advance the research of this kind of question in science by quantitative investigation on the space-time course of the urban-rural integration of each city proper. The mentioned above three types can represent the whole condition and space difference of the course in northeast region. The conclusion can be taken as a basis while all kinds of specific questions, such as the Northeast regional urbanization, the urban-rural relationship, the delimitation of functional urban region, and the urban-rural development strategy are researched.
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    江西红壤区农业产业政策改革的农户行为响应与水土保持效果分析——以江西省上饶县村庄及农户调查为例
    王鹏, 黃贤金, 张兆干, 杨肇卫, 杨达源
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 326-332.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.326
    摘要   PDF (950KB)
    在江西红壤山丘典型区2001年三个样本村111个农户的抽样调查资料基础上,建立了区域农地水土保持效果分析的数量经济模型,分析了农业产业政策改革背景下农户行为对农地水土保持效果的影响。研究表明,当前上饶县农业产业结构调整过程中农地水土流失状况受到农户行为直接影响,农业劳动力的转移、农业生产资料价格、农户受教育水平以及农户土地规模经营的程度等是其影响的主要因素。作者认为,这种状况目前在江西红壤区具有普遍性,因此必须先调整农业政策,增加科技资金投入,保护农业土地利用;其次,优化农户土地长期投入所需要的外部环境,减少长期投资的风险性和不确定性;加大经济刺激力度,增加农户投资获利能力,促进其加大土地长期投入;调整用地结构,优化农业用地组合,发展规模农业,防止水土流失。
    With the introduction of the "household responsibility system" (HRS) in the large rural area in China since the 1980s, farm-households' land use decision-makings affect sustainable land use. This effect has already been shown after the first run land contract, such as the bare mountainous region and the aggravating soil erosion area which are caused by farm-households' felling forest in volume, and the degradative cultivated land quality which is caused by the fact that the farm households attach importance to chemical fertilizer and pesticide while ignore soil miscellaneous fertilizers and organic fertilizer. In order to test the effects of response of farm-households' behavior to regional agricultural industrial policy reform on effect of soil and water conservation in red soil area of Jiangxi Province, three sample villages in Shangrao County were selected as a case study of massif red soil region in Jiangxi Province, and the field work of questionnaires of 111 farm-households' behavior had been held in the villages. Based on the feedback of the questionnaires, a model was established to analyze effect of agriculatural industrial policy reform of soil and water conservation. It showed that, status of soil and water loss of rural land is affected directly by households' behaviors in course of agricultural industrial structure adjustment in Shangrao County at present, and that its main influence factors include the transformation of agricultural labor, the price of agricultural production means, educated level of farm-households, and the degrees of land scale operation, etc. The authors think that this state is in the universality in red soil area of Jiangxi Province at present. According to these results, some suggestions of sustainable land use are proposed.
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    绥化市可持续发展状况的生态足迹分析
    周嘉, 尚金城
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 333-338.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.333
    摘要   PDF (671KB)
    可持续发展定量测度的核心内容是确定人类是否生存于生态系统的承载力范围之内。本文应用Wackernagel等提出的生态足迹概念和方法对绥化市的生态足迹进行了计算和分析,并进行了生态足迹的多样性和发展能力的测算。绥化市2001年人均生态赤字为0.42 hm2,较1998和1999年赤字的幅度有所下降,同时通过万元GDP的生态足迹分析表明,其资源的利用效益在不断提高。建议通过增加生态足迹的多样性提高资源的利用效益,降低生态足迹,使绥化市进入可持续发展的模式。
    The main content of estimation of sustainable development is to ensure human load stay within global carrying capacity. Because humans consume the products and services of nature, every one of us has an impact on the earth.The ecological footprint concept has been designed to answer this question and estimate man's inpact on nature. The ecological footprint of any defined population(from a single individual to a whole city or country)is the total area of ecologically productive land and water occupied exclusively to produce all the resources consumed and to assimilate all the wastes generated by population.The ecological footprint method presents a simple framework for national natural capital accounting. In the paper,we introduced the concept of ecological footprint and its calculation method.And the article calculates and analyses the ecological footprint of Suihua City over recent 10 years. And, we surveyed diversity of ecological footprint and development ability. The ecological footprint ledger is composed of two main sections. The first ledger is basic biotic resources comsumption including its byproducts,the second is energy comsumption.Based on the ecological footprint concept and analysis framework,human consumption can be compared with regional-level natural capital production using existing data.The results showed that the ecological footprints deficit of Suihua City was 0.421ha per capita in 2001 which is declined by 1998 and 1999. And results demonstrated that utilization benefit of resource increased.The method of improving sustainable development of Suihua City is increasing ecological footprint's diversity and reducing footprints.
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    孢粉分析定量重建燕山地区5 000年来的气候变化
    许清海, 阳小兰, 杨振京, 梁文栋, 孙黎明
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 339-345.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.339
    摘要   PDF (1154KB)
    利用燕山地区几个主要植物的花粉-气候响应面模型,定量恢复了燕山南部5 000 a B.P.来的气候变化。5 000 a B.P.以来,燕山南部的气候曾发生过两次明显的降温事件,一次发生在4 500~3 600 a B.P.,7月份平均气温比今低2.0℃左右;一次发生在2 750~1 750 a B.P.,7月份平均气温比今低3.7℃左右;2 000 a B.P.以来年均降水量一直呈下降趋势,年均降水量比2 000 a B.P.前减少50~100 mm。孢粉分析表明,燕山南部人工栽培板栗的历史可以追索到1 600 a B.P.,种植水稻的历史可以追索到700 a B.P.。
    Climatic changes of Yanshan Mountain area since 5000 a B. P. had been reconstruted using several major pollen-climate response surface models. Two serious climate decline events took place during the past 5000 years. One was in the period of 4500-3600 a B. P. with mean July temperature 2.0℃ lower than that at present. Another was in the period of 2750-1750 a B. P. with mean July temperature 3.7℃ lower than that at present. Since 2000 a B. P., the mean annual precipitation reduced gradually. The present mean annual precipitation is about 50-100mm lower than that 2000 a ago. Pollen analysis shows that Castanea trees had been cultivated about 1600 years, and Oryza had been planted for 700 years in the southern part of Yanshan Mountain.
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    安固里淖沉积物记录的气候环境变迁
    姜加明, 吴敬禄, 沈吉
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 346-351.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.346
    摘要   PDF (759KB)
    根据对河北坝上地区安固里淖湖泊沉积物粒度、碳酸盐与TOC含量的分析,探讨了安固里淖近400年来的气候与环境变迁。研究结果表明,安固里淖地区近400年来的气候大致经历了凉干-冷湿-暖干三个气候变化阶段:1634 ~1801年间的气候凉干期、1801~1889年间的冷湿期以及1889年至今的暖干期,表现为暖干与冷湿相交替的气候演替类型,近百年来干暖化趋势明显。
    Angulinao Lake is the biggest lake in the Bashang area, Hebei Province. It lies in the southeast edge of Inner Mongolia Plateau, belonging to arid, semi-arid climate areas. And this enables its deposits to record the climatic and environmental changes sensitively. A multi-proxy investigation of a sediment core from Angulinao Lake reflects climatic and environmental evolution of the catchment over the past 400 years. On the basis of the analysis of grain size, carbonate content and total organic(TOC)content, Three environmental stages are identified. From 1634 to 1801 A.D., detrital grains and the high carbonate contents in sediments suggests the lake became shallower as a result of the dry climate. From 1801 to 1889 A.D., evidenced by thinner grain size and lower contents of TOC and carbonate, the climate became colder and moister and the lake area expanded, which is interpreted as the last fluctuation of the Little Ice age. From 1889 A.D., sediments become coarser with the rapid increase of TOC and carbonate contents, indicating a time when the climate was getting drier and drier, warmer and warmer. In all, the envirmonmental evolution in the Angulinao area over the past 400 years is charactered by the alternating of the warm-dry and the cold-humid climate. Also, the clear warm-dry trend of the lake area can be seen over the last 100 years.
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    土壤偏振反射特性研究
    宋开山, 张柏, 赵云升
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 352-357.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.352
    摘要   PDF (1036KB)
    应用二向反射光度计实测了部分典型土壤在干燥与一定含水量状态下的偏振反射数据,并从探测方位角、光线入射天顶角、探测天顶角、偏振角、波段等几个方面对上述两种状态各类土壤的偏振反射特征进行了初步研究,对土壤遥感新方式做出了尝试。
    Polarized reflectance data of dry soils and soils containing 18% of water are collected with bi-directional reflectance detection instrument. The specialties of this instrument lies in its ability to measure the polarized reflectance of targets at various zenith viewing angles, incidence light zenith angles and azimuth angles with band A (630-690nm) and band B (760-1100nm). So analysis according those characteristics listed above is done. It is found that soils reflectance characteristics have direct relation with soil type, soil property and sensor's viewing geometry. This study on polarized reflectance of soils can not only help to find a new way for soil remotely detection but also provide the theoretical basis for further researches on the remote sensing of polarized light.
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    小波变换在相对海平面变化研究中的应用
    欧素英, 陈子燊
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 358-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.358
    摘要   PDF (322KB)
    根据广东沿岸14个验潮站的月均序列,应用小波分析方法将其进行时域-频域分解,分析了近40多年来月平均潮位序列的多层次尺度结构,进而研究相对海平面的周期变化和趋势变化。结果表明,用小波变换研究相对海平面在时域-频域中的周期分布及变化时,能较好地揭示周期变化的局部特征;广东沿岸相对海平面变化包含着0.5年、1年、2~4年、10~11年及18~20年左右等周期变化,且周期变化在时间域中具有明显的局部化特征;据实测资料计算,周期变化对海平面的趋势变化影响明显,未消除周期变化的趋势分析结果偏大,用小波变换有效地消除周期变化后得出粤西及珠江口地区沿岸相对海平面变化率,一般而言,广东沿岸海平面呈上升趋势,上升幅度约为0.36~1.2 mm/a。
    This study is concerned with wavelet transform for relative sea level research. The abnormalities of monthly mean sea level of 14 stations in Guangdong coastland for the last 40 years are analyzed by the Morlet wavelet transformation to study the periodic variances and the variances of relative sea level variation with time domain. The results show that the periodic variances of relative sea level comprise half year period, one year period, 2-4 years period, 10-11 years and 18-20 years long term variances and are localized in time domain. The periodic variances has a significant effect on the trends of relative sea level change. Yet before removing periods in the records, the trend change of relative sea level is overestimated, and after eliminating the effects of periodic components significantly determined by wavelet transform, the variances of relative sea level vary with time domain and rise in 0.36-1.2 mm/a at all in Guangdong coastland.
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    改革开放以来中国城市旅游目的地地位变化及因素分析
    保继刚, 甘萌雨
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 365-371.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.365
    摘要   PDF (782KB)
    采用1982~2001年间中国28座重点旅游城市统计资料,并参照1989~2001年中国旅游统计资料,对改革开放以来中国城市旅游目的地的发展演变进行了研究,从总量、个案、时空等角度探讨了中国城市旅游目的地的变化规律,得出中国城市旅游目的地地理集中指数变化趋缓的结论,并从城市旅游驱动力变化、城市功能和地位变化、城市旅游目的地竞争等方面进行地位变化的因素分析。最后,还讨论了中国城市旅游目的地的发展趋势。
    As the most important element in urban tourism, urban destinations have played key roles in tourism development in China since the Reform Era. This paper uses the data of 28 major cities in China from 1982 to 2001, with reference to China Tourism Statistics from 1989 to 2001, to analyze the status change and the factors for the change in Chinese urban destinations. The change is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Among the top ten urban attractions with the most tourist arrivals in 1982,1989 and 2001, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou continue to be the most important destinations in China. On the other hand, tourism in Dalian, Kunming and Xiamen have developed very rapidly in the past 20 years. Zhuhai is a special case because the number of tourists hardly changed during this period. It is argued that most tourists to Zhuhai are from Hong Kong and Macao, where the tourists are stable and up to re-visit Zhuhai. This paper also discusses the impacts of the changing driving forces from urban tourism. Firstly, the driving mechanism of tourism exerts some influences on urban destinations, such as tourist behavior, urban attractions and port policies. Secondly, the change in urban destinations is related to the changes in urban functions and status. It seems that urban destinations in eastern China have developed better than those in the western China, in response to the pattern in economic development. Lastly, the competition between new urban destinations and traditional urban destinations also plays a part in the development of urban destinations. Xiamen and Dalian represent those in the eastern China while Kunming is an example of those in the western China. Both such new urban attractions have increased rapidly since 1989. Urban destinations of the same type are compared to build some models on the time-space scale. The spatial concentration index (SCI) of tourist arrivals of 28 major tourist cities indicates a drop of 41.8% from 55.0 in 1982 to 32.1 in 2001, which means that during the last 20 years, the number of urban tourists has increased, and the spatial structure of urban destinations has become more stable especially after 1989. In addition, Shenzhen is an important urban destination in its change of status and represents a model for urban areas with little tourist resource. With changing patterns of tourist behavior, the lack cultural interpretations for attractions, and environmental pollution, most traditional urban destinations lost their shares in the tourist market to different extent. This paper also discusses the trends for development in urban destinations in China.
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    旅游者践踏对生态旅游景区土壤影响定量研究——以香格里拉碧塔海生态旅游景区为例
    陈飙, 杨桂华
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 372-376.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.372
    摘要   PDF (626KB)
    文章通过对云南省香格里拉县碧塔海生态旅游景区土壤、植被野外调查,实验室数据分析,构建景区旅游者对土壤践踏影响强度指标体系,建立旅游者沿游径横截面方向的正态分布模型,探寻景区旅游者分布与土壤践踏之间的规律并提出土壤践踏基础容量指标,以此反映自然状态下,生态旅游景区土壤因子对旅游者践踏的适应能力。研究结果将为景区的生态旅游环境管理提供理论依据。
    The study of impacts of tourists trampling on soil is an important part of the environmental carrying capacity in an ecotourism scenic region. By the results of experimental analysis of the data gathering in field investigations of soil in Bita Lake, an intensive index of the impact of tourist trampling was built as well as a model of norm distribution of the tourists' numbers in transverse section of tourists' path. This was an indication of the law between the tourists' distribution and the intensive index of tourist trampling on soil. As a result of this study, basic carrying capacity illuminated the adaptability of the Bita Lake Ecotourism Scenic Region to the tourists trampling on soil. And this index will be propitious to the environmental management in an ecotourism scenic region.
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    综述
    利用封闭湖泊流域进行古降水量重建的历史、现状及未来
    贾玉连, 马春梅, 朱诚, 魏灵, 王朋岭
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 376-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.376
    摘要   PDF (992KB)
    回顾了利用封闭湖泊流域进行古降水量重建的简单历史,重点论述了其理论与方法的特点及发展源流;在此基础上,结合作者近几年在青藏高原开展的这方面的研究工作,对季风区进行此项研究的可能方法、理论依据及其初步应用进行了分析,重点阐述了其存在的缺点与不足及未来的改进方式。
    This paper reviewed the research situation of estimates of paleoprecipitation in closed lake basin,and on the basis of recent works carried out in the Tibetan Plateau,analysed the method,principle and preliminary results,and gave some advices on the research work in the future. It was Lettau(1969) who first estimated the precipitation of closed lake basin based on the combined hydrological and energy balances of Palae-catchment. Then, Kutzbach(1980) developed two versions of the model:the first version is one in which precipitation and lake area are linearly related,and the second one is the relationship of the precipitation and lake area is nonlinear because the runoff ratio and Bowen ratio of the basin are made functions of precipitation. These studies provide the theoretical framework for estimates of paleoprecipitation from water budget and surface energy budget considerations. Many researchers,such as,Hastenrath et al.(1983,1985), Swain et al.(1983), Benson(1985), Adams et al.(1985),Winkler(1986),Fang(1989), Wu(1993), Qin(1993,1997),Guo(2000) followed this approach to study many paleolakes worldwide. However,the authors do not think it is appropriate to follow the above researches to ensure the parameters. Thus,a lot of works had been carried out in closed catchments of Asian Monsoon area in the last three years,the authors firsly applied the method of searching-for similar area in present atlas to ensure some parameters,such as,fractional cloud cover,surface albedo,surface vapor pressure,and so on, based on the considerations of water budget and surface energy budget of the whole catchment. In the end,the authors give some advices on improvements of this method. For example,we think it is the combined effect of humidity and temperature of paleoclimate,shown Rb/Sr sediment and salinity of paleolake,that is the best parameters to search for the appropriately similar area.
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    书评
    坚持学科交叉的方向,发展地理学的区域经济研究——评《区域经济学》教材
    陈才
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (3): 384-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.03.384
    摘要   PDF (181KB)
    中国改革开放之所以取得巨大的成就 ,地方政府主导下区域经济的发展被认为是其中的最关键因素之一。而中国地理科学和经济科学几乎同时开始关注中国的区域经济现象 ,努力发掘其中的理论内涵 ,并都在使自己紧紧地贴近实践 ,为各个地方经济的发展做出贡献。从地理科学体系中成长起来的中国区域经济学研究 ,经过十几年的摸索 ,基本上形成了与中国经济生活相符合的理论和思想 ,区域经济学成为国内发展最快的学科之一。
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