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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2006年, 第26卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2006-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    珠江三角洲城市群的城市竞争力时空演变
    许学强, 程玉鸿
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 257-265.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.257
    摘要   PDF (988KB)
    在界定城市竞争力概念的基础上,通过构建城市竞争力评价模型,以珠江三角洲城市群为案例,从城市群的角度进行城市竞争力评价研究。通过建立珠江三角洲城市群城市竞争力评价指标体系,运用主成分分析方法,选择1990年和2001年两个时间断面,对珠江三角洲城市群城市竞争力影响要素及其内部城市竞争力的时空演变规律进行了归纳总结,并对其成因进行了深入剖析。
    Since the 1990s, the modern technology develops very fast and Internet is applied extensively, the trend of economic globalization is more fast and deepen.City, as the main carrier of economy, is more and more important on the economic development whether in countries or regions scale.Simultaneously, the trend of urban competition in a group is arisen.The status of urban cluster is stand out increasingly in international competition.In urban competitiveness study from urban cluster, not only the main factors which urge urban competitiveness and the main support frame of urban competitiveness can be analyzed by comparing urban competitiveness from time-space in urban cluster, but also the theories and methods of urban competitiveness study can be enriched.This paper firstly sets up the Three Factors Concept model of urban competitiveness based on researching the dynamic characteristics of the meaning of urban competition and resolving the concept of competition.On this basis, this paper put the Zhujiang River Delta as a case and the evaluation indexes system of Zhujiang River Delta is designed.At last this paper uses the main factor method to estimate the urban competitiveness of nine cities of PRD from 1990 to 2001.The urban competitiveness and it's influence factors is analyzed and compared from Spatial-temporal change.
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    区域性中心城市辐射力及其评价——以郑州市为例
    冯德显, 贾晶, 乔旭宁
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 266-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.266
    摘要   PDF (1094KB)
    文章以郑州市为例,主要研究了区域性中心城市辐射力指标体系,采用层次分析法对所研究指标进行了赋值。以此为基础,用裂点法对郑州与周边相邻、相关城市的不同城市要素相互作用的范围进行了分析。找出了郑州作为区域性中心城市的影响区域、发展优势和不足,并就提高郑州辐射力的途径、措施进行了研究。
    Taking Zhengzhou as a case, this paper studies index system of radiant ability of regional central city and gives weights to indexes by AHP(analytical hierarchy process) method.Accordingly, the radiant scopes of different factors between Zhengzhou and other cities concerned are analyzed by using the theory of breaking point.As a regional central city, Zhengzhou's influential areas, advantages and disadvantage of developments are studied in this paper.Finally, the author gives the approaches and measures to strengthen the radiant ability of Zhengzhou.The conclusions are: 1) the comprehensive radiant ability of Zhengzhou shows stronger in the direction of SE-NW, and weaker N-S, which means that Zhengzhou is in a strong position in competiting with Hefei and Taiyuan, but in a weak position with Wuhan and Beijing-Tianjin areas.2) Zhengzhou is still a provincial central city, and its radiant ability as well as its influence is rather weak.The attractive ability to cities near the provincial boundary, such as Sanmenxia westwards, Xinyang, Nanyang, and Zhumadian southwards, is insufficient.Efforts should be made to realize the change from provincial central city to regional central city and central city of the big region.3) all factors of urban radiant ability is in the same level except that opening level is lower than provincial cities around Henan Province.The low level of opening not only restrains modulation and optimization of industrial structure and innovation of science and technology, but also influences cultural innovation, radiant ability, and especially, development of economy.4) Urban radiant ability includes other factors, such as politics and culture, besides factors mentioned above.Quantitive analysis and comparison have not been made due to difficulties of quantification of politics and culture.Urban political radiant ability can generally reach city's boundary of administration in current political system.At present, it is difficult to confirm the boundary of cultural radiant ability.This will be the goal of our near future.
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    循环经济模式的区域思考
    慈福义, 陈烈
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 273-276.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.273
    摘要   PDF (839KB)
    循环经济是21世纪的新经济, 是以资源环境、经济与社会协调发展为目的的新型发展模式,是推进可持续发展的新模式,地理学应加强对循环经济模式的区域研究。循环经济模式的5 种基本类型包括:①环境效益与经济效益同提高的模式;②环境效益提高,经济效益保持不变的模式;③环境效益提高,经济效益下降但大于零的模式;④环境效益提高,经济效益下降且等于零的模式;⑤环境效益提高,经济效益下降且小于零的模式。认清循环经济不同类型模式的特征,有助于我们深刻理解循环经济的"多赢",正确选择合适的循环经济模式。认为循环经济模式存在空间差异规律包括环境质量"U"字型分布规律和环境质量地区差距的倒"U"字型规律,在近期缩小中国三大经济地带之间环境质量的差距是不现实的,应通过因地制宜地推广循环经济模式减缓三大经济地带环境质量差距扩大的趋势。
    Circular economy is a new economy in 21st century,with the harmonious development of Resources and environment, economy and society as its goal.Mode of circular economy is a new type of mode to promote sustainable development, so the study of regional circular economy mode should be strengthened in the geographical field.This paper discusses the five basic types of circular economy mode and their main characteristics.These five basic types of circular economy mode include mode of rising of both economic and environmental benefits; mode of rising of environmental benefits with economic benefits unchanged; mode of rising of environmental benefits with economic benefits declined and being over zero; mode of rising of environmental benefits with economic benefits declined and being zero, and mode of rising of environmental benefits with economic benefits declined and being under zero.It is pointed out that the reasonable types of circular economy mode among these five basic types of circular economy mode can be chosen if people understand their main characteristics.Only in this way can we have a sound grip of environmental, economic and social benefits of circular economy.It is argued that circular economy mode has spatial rules including the spatial difference rules, the "U" distribution rules of environmental quality and the inverse "U" distribution rules of the regional gap of environmental quality.It is also argued that it is not realistic to reduce the gap of environmental quality between the three economic regions in China in the near future and it is realistic to slow down the tendency of enlarging the gap of environmental quality between these three one in China through making the right choice among the five basic types of circular economy mode in the light of local conditions in the near future.The present study first discusses the types of circular economy mode which are suitable for China, studies how to construct enterprise clusters on apt types of circular economy mode, and proposes the concrete ways.The quantity of enterprise clusters on the apt types of circular economy mode should decline from the east economic region to the west one in China on the whole.This paper also states that enterprise clusters on the mode of rising of both economic and environmental benefits and the mode of rising of environmental benefits with economic benefits unchanged should be popularized, and that enterprise clusters on the mode of rising of environmental benefits with economic benefits declined but being over zero among the industries, which have severe pollution, should also be paid great attention to.Then, this paper analyses the constitution of the industrial system of regional circular economy and argues that environmental industry and retrieving and reusing industry should be developed in a big way, and the circle among industries and different parts of industries to optimize the regional industry structure should be strengthened.Finally, this paper displays the principles to choose leading industries, which should include scale principle, marketing potential principle, and comparative circular economic advantage principle.
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    近50年来松嫩平原西部土地利用变化及驱动力分析
    刘殿伟, 宋开山, 王丹丹, 张树清
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 277-283.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.277
    摘要   PDF (1570KB)
    在遥感和地理信息系统技术支持下,对松嫩平原西部土地利用方式、景观格局的动态变化进行定量研究。结果表明:过去近50年里,松嫩平原西部耕地净增加29.65×104hm2,其中草地与湿地对耕地的增加贡献最大;草地减少70.29×104 hm2,除部分草地转化为耕地外,退化为盐碱地、沙地也是草地大量减少的一个重要原因;松嫩平原西部现有沼泽湿地面积44.88×104 hm2,近50年来减少62.54%。景观破碎化严重,不同土地利用类型间频繁转化,表明各种土地景观间存在不稳定因素,自然和人为因子在景观的转化中有不可忽略的作用,但人为因子的作用更显著。
    Songnen Plain is one of the commercial grain bases of China, which belongs to ecological fragile regions.Based on remote sensing and GIS technologies, the dynamic changes of land-use patterns in western Songnen Plain were analyzed quantitatively.The results show that great change has occurred in spatial pattern of land-use in the past 50 years.The area of cultivated land increased 29.65?104 ha, which mainly converted from grassland and wetland.And 70.29?104 ha of grassland lost in the past 50 years, except for conversion to cultivated land, desertification, salinization and grassland degradation can also account for grassland losing.Wetlands have decreased 62.45% since 1954.The study also indicated that the fragmentation of grassland, forestland, wetland and unused land were severe.The maximal patch area and maximal patch perimeter were all decreased.The conversion ratio of different land-use types were severe in the west part of Songnen Plain, which indicated that different land-use types were unstable, anthropogenic and natural factors both play important roles in this process, while human actives affect the process more severely.
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    东北区农业水资源可持续利用地域分异的因子分析
    黄初龙, 邓伟
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 284-291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.284
    摘要   PDF (1150KB)
    指标体系评价农业水资源可持续利用 (Sustainable Utilization of Agricultural Water Resources,SUAWR),能较好地涵盖SUAWR内涵各方面信息。但指标数过多,易产生指标间信息重叠现象,使问题复杂化;指标数过少,损失过多信息,易产生错误评价结果。因子分析法能用较少的综合主成分提取各指标的有效信息,从各SUAWR空间分异的影响因素中,析出主导因素,简化复杂系统可持续发展能力空间分异的分析。研究表明,东北地区SUAWR大体上表现为由北、东北、东三个方向呈弧形向内由强变弱,其主导因素是水资源丰度、生态环境保育水资源能力、水资源利用效益。这些因素的测度指标中,与本区SUAWR地域分异明显相关的有:耕地均水资源量、耕地均生长季降水量、年蒸发量与年降水量差值等水资源丰度指标,干旱指数、径流系数等生态环境保育基础指标,及水田比例、单方灌溉水水稻产量等指标。分析表明,该区SUAWR的全面改善关键在于SUAWR人为影响因素的调节。
    Agricultural Water Resources system is an intricate socio-economy ecosystem, thus, factors affecting Sustainable Utilization of Agricultural Water Resources (SUAWR) is complicated.Intricate connotation of SUAWR can only be assessed by applying indicators system(IS) properly.Being too many indicators in indicators system to assess SUAWR, it will be complicated due to information overlap of indicators.While, if deleting indicators at random, information reflecting SUAWR will be cut, and evaluation results will be wrong.Factor Analysis is a rather well method in reducing redundance information.The magistral information can be separated from numerous Factors effecting on SUAWR spatial variation by factor Analysis, thereby, analysis of spatial variation of SUAWR will be simplified.Study shows that spatial variation pattern of SUAWR in Northeast China displays as capacity of SUAWR decreasing inwards as an arc from North, Northeast and East on the whole.The dominant factors influencing the spatial variation pattern are water resources, ability of eco-environment reserving and accommodating water resources, and income from water resources use in Northeast China.The indicators reflecting the three dominant factors and being distinctly correlative to the spatial variation pattern are water resources quantity and crop season rainfall per hectare of tilth, gap between average annual rainfall and average annual evaporation, aridity index, runoff coefficient, the proportion of paddy field to tilth, rice yield per stere of irrigation water.According to SUAWR contribution of the 7 principal components retrieved from indicators system by factor analysis, the key of entire improvement of SUAWR of the whole evaluating area depends on adjustment of anthropogenic activities to lessen bad human impact on SUAWR.
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    基于细胞自动机与多主体系统理论的城市模拟原型模型
    刘妙龙, 陈鹏
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 292-298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.292
    摘要   PDF (978KB)
    文章从城市地理学模拟模型研究发展相对滞后的现实出发,分析了传统城市模型模拟存在的问题与不足,讨论了计算机科学、复杂性研究、地理信息科学与技术、新发展的地学计算方法等作为计算城市模型发展基础的可行性,提出了一个基于细胞自动机与多主体系统理论与方法、包容了多尺度(宏观、中观、微观)层次的综合可计算城市模拟原型模型框架,对以邻里社区为基础的居住区位微观模拟模型作了概念上的讨论,分析了地学计算方法在城市模拟模型研究中的发展前沿。
    Faced upon the fact of relatively lagged development in urban simulation and modeling, the problems and inadequacies consisted in traditional urban simulation have been analyzed in this paper.This paper discussed the possibility using a lot of theories and methods originated from computational science, complex researches, geographic information science and geocomputation developed recently as the foundation of computational urban models.A prototype of computational urban simulation model, which integrated the activities on the macro-, meso- and micro-level scales, has been put forward based on the theories and methodologies of cellular automata and multi-agent system.The formation method and structure of a residential location choice model on the neighborhood scale, which as a base of the prototype, have been discussed conceptually.At last, the paper analyses the future development in the field of urban simulation and modeling.
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    过去50年吉林省玉米带玉米种植面积时空变化及其成因分析
    王宗明, 于磊, 张柏, 宋开山
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 299-305.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.299
    摘要   PDF (879KB)
    吉林省中部的玉米带现已成为中国重要的商品粮基地。建国以来,玉米种植面积的时空分布发生了很大变化。过去50年间,吉林省中部玉米带的玉米种植面积占呈波动增加趋势,并在1996年达到最高值,1997年后又开始下降;1980年以后,即吉林省中部玉米带大规模产业化发展以后,玉米种植重心向东移动。对于玉米种植面积变化的原因分析表明,政策引导、农业科技和以及其与其它作物的经济收益比较优势是非常重要的驱动因素。另外,近些年吉林省玉米带年平均气温明显增加,冬季和春季增温较多,玉米带的玉米种植面积呈现出随气温增加而线性增加的趋势。
    Maize belt of Jilin Province now is one of important bases for commodity food in China.The spatial and temporal distribution of maize-sowing have changed greatly in this area after the foundation of P.R.China in 1949.This paper studied the evolution process and the related driving factors of the changes to provide references for adjusting regional agricultural structure.The study showed that, the sown area of maize in maize belt of Jilin Province increased fluctuantly.It got the culmination in 1996, and descended from 1997.Our analysis showed that after the large-scale agricultural industry development in 1980, the gravity of sown area of maize moved eastwards.Among the driving forces, the policy induction, agricultural technology and comparative superiority over other crops were important driving forces.In addition, in recent years, it got warmer and this phenomena was more obvious in winter and spring.The sown area of maize in maize belt of Jilin Province took on the increasing trend along with the increased air temperature.
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    地学信息图谱的基础理论探讨
    陈燕, 齐清文, 杨桂山
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 306-310.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.306
    摘要   PDF (760KB)
    文章在分析地学信息图谱的发展现状的基础上,从基本概念与特点、研究内容与目标、研究意义等几方面来阐述地学信息图谱的基本理论,最后对地学信息图谱的发展前景进行了展望。
    Geo-Info-TUPU was put forward firstly by a Chinese scientist during the 1990s.Based on plenty of materials, we concluded that Geo-Info-TUPU is resulted from the developments of the subjects and technologies including cartography, geo-info sciences and "3S", synchronously influenced by the combination of the imagination and the abstract thinking in the geography science.Based on the analysis of the Geo-Info-TUPU’s development process, we expatiated on the theories of the Geo-Info-TUPU, including the basic conception and character, research contents and objects, and the significance of the Geo-Info-TUPU, finally the prospects of the Geo-Info-TUPU was discussed.
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    江汉平原湿地水系统综合评价与水资源管理探讨
    王学雷, 吕宪国, 任宪友
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 311-315.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.311
    摘要   PDF (602KB)
    江汉平原分布着由河流湖泊-沼泽-沼泽型水稻土-潜育型水稻土组成的湿地系统。江汉平原湿地在蓄水滞洪、调节气候、水质净化、维持生物多样性和改善生态环境方面有着十分重要的作用。在探讨江汉平原湿地水系统结构和功能的基础上,提出了合理利用湿地水资源和实施科学水管理的途径,首先要对水资源和水环境进行积极的保护;其次积极实施退田还湖,增强江汉平原湿地的调蓄洪水能力,减轻洪涝灾害损失;其三是建立江汉平原水环境安全调控体系;最后将江汉平原湿地水系统管理纳入整个长江中游及长江流域的统一管理与规划之中,进行总体协调与管理。
    Water is the key factor to form the wetland ecosystem and also the most sensitive component in the wetland ecosystem and it plays an important role in the process of wetland.Wetland is an important ecosystem in the Jianghan Plain, in which water factor affects its structure and function.The Jianghan Plain is the typical region of subtropical wetland ecosystems of China, where there are many lakes and waterways, and the micro-physiognomy is very complex.The alluvial plain is a honeycomb of waterways bordered by natural levees, and the depressional areas encompassed by these waterways are dish-shaped in cross-section, distributing the wetland systems composed of river, lake, marsh, gleyed paddy soils and swamp paddy soils.And the hydrology relationship of the Yangtze River and lakes and rivers is complex and the water system includes water inputting and outputting system of wetland besides the wetland water system.The water resources are abundant in the Jianghan Plain, but precipitation is not even in spatial-temperal distribution and traveler-water volume is instability, which often the collection of water that cause flood and waterlog or the lack of water that cause drought.Wetlands in the Jianghan Plain play an important role in floodwater storage, water quality improvement, climate changes, biological diversity protection and eco-environment improvement.As a storage space for surface water, lakes reduce the risks from flood and waterlog.In generally, Jianghan lake group can accommodate more than 150?108m3 water volume in the year abundant in rain.Honghu Lake is a main lake of storage water in the Jianghan Plain, and acts as the function storing floodwater and irrigating cropland in the middle-low Four Lakes district in the Jianghan Plain.According to some simulation results, the largest storage water volume of Honghu Lake is about 21?108m3.As having a strong self-decontamination capacity, most lakes in the Jianghan Plain are moderate eutrophication.Based on probing into the structure and function of wetland water system in the Jianghan Plain, the approaches and strategies about water resources' reasonably utility and scientific water management are made.Firstly, water resources and environment should be protected actively.Secondly, lakes should be restored from impoldering in order to enhance the storage floodwater capacity of wetland in Jianghan Plain, and to reduce the loss resulted by flood and waterlog.The third, water environment security system should be set up.At last, wetland water management system in the Jianghan Plain should be included in the management and plan of the middle reaches or even the whole of Yangtze River drainage basin.
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    初论流域水空间研究
    杨波, 邓伟
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 316-320.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.316
    摘要   PDF (557KB)
    流域水空间是与径流密切相关、直接受洪水波及的地表以及此范围内地下含水层系统所共同占据的空间。恢复和保护土地水文功能,实现流域水和土的联合管理已成为流域管理的重要内容。在水空间研究的基础上,结合流域特征,提出流域水空间概念,对流域水空间内涵、分类、边界、度量、结构和特征进行探讨,并建立流域水空间研究框架,包括流域水空间功能识别、流域水空间特征分析、流域水空间安全预警、流域水空间规划以及流域水空间维护和管理等内容。
    The catchment space for water, used as an expedient to apply water space theory at catchment scale, is one kind of space that encompasses river and its branches, linked lakes, wetlands and other kinds of water bodies, floodplains and partial slops that directly affected by flood, as well as the corresponding aquifer systems within these areas.Modification of catchment areas by human activity has led to dramatic changes in the flow of water.The overuse of land has destroyed lateral and vertical pathways taken by water draining to a stream, and disturbed runoff process and redistribution of rainfall, which has lowered water readjustment ability of lands within the catchment areas.As a result of human impact, hydrological function of water storage, water detention and groundwater recharge through lands within catchment area have been decreased, but meanwhile flood and drought disasters have been increased.These problems have been paid much more attention by hydrologists and ecologists recently.How to restore and protect hydrological functions of lands along river has become one of important aims in catchment management.Space for water, provided as one of solutions to achieve sustainable water resource use, puts emphasis on these spaces like wetlands, forests, lakes and floodplains and their important hydrological role of water cycle and their influence on sustainable utility of water resource.Through these analyses, the concept of the catchment space for water is provided, based on the concept of space for water, and the connotation, classification, boundary, measurement, structure and characteristics of catchment space for water are discussed.Framework of the study is then proposed, aiming at setting up theory frame of catchment space for water and providing theoretical instruction and technical support for integrated water and land management at catchment scale.
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    “泥炭气候成因说”的探讨
    殷书柏, 吕宪国
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 321-327.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.321
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    文章从沼泽有机质积累的本质和泥炭的定义出发,通过对地带性气候与沼泽小气候、泥炭的现状分布与自然分布、"没有泥炭分布"地区与"不能形成泥炭"地区、地区差异与地带性分异规律等几对矛盾在泥炭形成与分布中的作用和地位的详细剖析,认为:各种地带性气候条件下都能因为地表积水而形成湿地小气候,不同地带内湿地小气候都具有湿润的特征;泥炭沼泽的形成与分布主要是与湿地小气候及积水厌氧环境有关,用与泥炭形成没有直接联系的地带性气候指标来研究泥炭形成与分布的规律性是不合逻辑的;地带性的水热条件主要对泥炭在不同地带的分布面积起到一定的控制作用;泥炭现状分布因为人类活动的影响已不是自然规律的表现,从不能反映泥炭形成与分布自然状况的泥炭现状分布来分析泥炭形成与分布的自然规律,显然也不能得出正确的结论;"没有泥炭分布"的地区并不是因为这里的水热条件组合不能形成泥炭,各自然地带内都可形成泥炭且所有地带内的泥炭特征都是相似的,没有必要将它们区别对待,这些事实说明"泥炭气候成因说"对泥炭形成与分布的规律性的解释是不合逻辑的,泥炭的分布不具有地带性的规律。
    Having specified the main viewpoints of "the theory on climate cause of peat forming", and based on the analysis on the peat definition and the essence of organism accumulation in mire, the paper dissertated detailedly the role of zonal climate on peatland formation and distribution, and suggested that the formation and distribution rule of peatlands are not controlled by zonal climate condition.The peatland distribution does not follow the zonal variation law.Having analyzed the role and status of several contradictions connected with the formation and distribution of peatlands, which included the oppositions of zonal climate and mire microclimate, the status quo of peat distribution and peat natural distribution, the regions of no peat distribution and the regions where peat can not form, and region difference and the zonal variation law, the conclusion suggested that the explanation for the formation and distribution rule supported by "the theory on climate cause of peat forming" is illogic.Mire microclimate can form in different climate zones, and they all have the characteristics of wetness.The formation and distribution of peatlands are mainly related with microclimate and anaerobic condition resulting from inundation.Because of the redistribution of surface water inundation is not controlled by precipitation, and some regions where precipitation is little can also be inundated, which resulted in the formation of peatlands.Zonal air temperature and precipitation may affect the area of peatlands in different zones, but under the zonal climate condition, zonal natural complex should be developed, which illuminated that the zonal climate condition is not the cause of peat formation.It is illogical to analyze the rule of peat formation and distribution based on the index of zonal climate.Because of anthropogenic affection on the progress of peat formation and distribution, the natural distribution pattern of peatlands has been changed greatly, and the status quo of peat distribution is not the reflection of natural rule.If some conclusions on the formation and distribution rule of peatlands were coincided with the status quo of peatland distribution, it must not be the reflection of the natural distribution rule of peatlands.It is obviously that a correct conclusion can not be drawn to analyze the natural distribution rule of peatland based on the status quo of peat distribution.Zonal climate condition is not the causes why peat can not form somewhere.The facts that peat can be found in all natural zones, whose characteristics are similar, and it is unnecessary to make a difference among them, illuminated that peatlands are a kind of azonal complex.Although zonal air temperature and precipitation may play an important role on the area of peatland in different natural zone, zonal variation law is not a kind of statistic law rather a law on spatial change and "have and haven't" of natural complex.There are some differences among the peatlands in different regions, but the comparability among peatlands is their main characteristics.The differences and comparabilities of peatlands among difference regions both need to be taken into account.As a kind of azonal complex, the distribution rule of peatlands does not follow zonal variation law.
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    南京江北地区晚更新世末期以来泥炭层δ13C记录的古气候变化
    郑朝贵, 朱诚, 高华中, 申洪源, 马春梅
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 328-334.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.328
    摘要   PDF (1193KB)
    对南京江北地区林峰桥剖面晚更新世末期以来的两个泥炭层有机碳同位素测定结果表明,上部泥炭层和下部泥炭层δ13C值皆较低(≤-23.79‰),部泥炭层的δ13C值明显高于下部泥炭层。结合其它研究可知,该区全新世大暖期稳定暖湿鼎盛阶段的校正年代约在8.2~7.0 ka B.P.,在此阶段前后,表现为持续时间相对较短的低温气候环境。12.8~12.1 cal.ka B.P. 该区气温高低波动频繁期。12.8~12.7 cal.ka B.P.和12.6~12.2 ka B.P.两时段气温较低;2.7~12.6 cal.ka B.P. 阶段气温较高。12.2~12.1 cal.ka B.P. 表现为Younger Dryas之后气候的迅速增暖,可视为该区全新世开始的标志。
    Based on the analysis on the characteristics of the organic carbon isotope of the peat stratum in Linfengqiao profile on the north bank of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River in Nanjing since the last stage of the Late Pleistocene, it is shown that the δ13C values of both in the upper and lower peat stratum in Linfengqiao profile are lower than -23.79‰, and their organic matter is from C3 plants.The δ13C values of the upper peat stratum are higher than that of the lower.The result of 14C dating indicates that the upper peat stratum was mainly formed in the Holocene Megathermal and the lower peat stratum was mainly formed in the period of Younger Dryas.So it can be seen that the formation of peat does not absolutely lie on the climate changes.Combined with other research conclusions, it is confirmed that Holocene Megathermal Maximum was about between 8.2 cal.ka B.P.and 7.0 cal.ka B.P.in this area, before and after this period, the temperature had been down for a shorter time.During 12.8-12.1 cal.ka B.P., the temperature fluctuated frequently in this area.The temperature was lower in the two periods of 12.8-12.7 cal.ka B.P.and 12.6-12.2 cal.ka B.P., and they could contrast with the events of Older Dryas and Younger Dryas respectively.The temperature during 12.7-12.6 cal.ka B.P.was higher and it could contrast with the event of Allerod.In the period of 12.2-12.1 cal.ka B.P., it shows that after the event of Younger Dryas, the climate became warmer rapidly, so it could be regarded as the beginning of the Holocene.
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    近半个世纪长江口九段沙湿地的冲淤演变
    杨世伦, 杜景龙, 郜昂, 李鹏, 李明, 赵华云
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 335-339.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.335
    摘要   PDF (618KB)
    根据1958~2004年的系列地形图,在地理信息系统软件ArcGis8.2的支持下,探讨近半个世纪九段沙湿地演变过程。研究表明:九段沙在长期的自然淤积过程中既具有趋势性的渐变,又存在非趋势性的突变,北槽深水航道工程改变了九段沙的自然冲淤模式,使九段沙顶端至江亚南沙大片区域显著淤积,工程后期,淤积速率回落,九段沙形态稳定。
    Based on the topographic maps dated from 1958 to 2004, supported by the GIS software ArcGis8.2, the paper mainly deals with the evolution of the Jiuduansha tidal island.The result shows that there have been tow basic types of change during the long course of natural siltation and erosion: continuous change and periodic change.The former includes broadness of the island area, down stream migration of the head of tidal island and continuous siltation of the tail of tidal island.The latter includes the tidal island swaying south.On the other hand, the deep-water channel project at north passage of the Changjiang River changed the natural sultation pattern of Jiuduansha tidal island.A very large area from the head of Jiuduansha to Jiangyanan tidal island was silted greatly.The speed of accumulation declined and the shape of Jiuduansha tidal island leveled off after the project.
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    沼泽湿地垦殖对土壤碳动态的影响
    张金波, 宋长春, 杨文燕
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 340-344.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.340
    摘要   PDF (624KB)
    在中国科学院三江平原湿地生态试验站选取相邻的、土壤类型相同的小叶章沼泽化草甸以及不同开垦殖年限的已垦湿地农田,综合运用多种微生物指标,全面地评价沼泽湿地垦殖后土壤有机碳的动态。结果表明,沼泽湿地垦殖初期(1~3年),土壤微生物量碳(MBC)、微生物商以及基础呼吸(BR)都迅速降低,而代谢商(qCO2)、PR/BR和PR/MBC比值却不断升高。表明湿地垦殖后,有机碳的可利用性下降,微生物对碳源的利用效率降低,造成土壤有机碳的大量损失。各种微生物指标之间有密切的相关关系,综合这些微生物指标能够全面地、准确地评价沼泽湿地垦殖后土壤有机碳的动态。
    We selected adjacent Deyeuxia angustifolia meadow and farmland cultivated 1,3,5,9,15,25 and 35 years, to study cultivation effects on soil biological properties and organic matter dynamics in the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China.The results showed that cultivation resulted in decrease in the microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial quotient(MQ), and basal respiration (BR).While, metabolized quotient (qCO2), potential respiration/basal respiration(PR/BR), and PR/MBC ratios obviously increased with cultivation.Converting wetland soil into agriculture soil resulted in significant decline in carbon availability and efficiency of microbial populations in conserving C.There are clear relationships between soil microbial properties.The method evaluating more parameters simultaneously can provide complete and true information about the soil microorganisms and carbon dynamics.
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    全球升温对中国区域温度纬向梯度的影响
    卢爱刚, 庞德谦, 何元庆, 庞洪喜, 院玲玲
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 345-350.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.345
    摘要   PDF (913KB)
    利用中国气象中心160站点的实际观察资料,对中国半个世纪的气温变化分时间段进行了计算分析。用各个站点52年的气温序列斜率与纬度和海拔分别做了相关分析,发现气温变化幅度和纬度有着很好的相关性,特别是在冬季;但气温变化和海拔没有相关性。另外,通过对不同季节的温度变化情况进行计算和纬向分析,发现随着全球气温的持续上升,气温的纬向梯度在变小,变化的幅度是冬季大、夏季小,高纬度地区大、低纬度地区小。最后指出造成气温纬度梯度减小的主要原因是大陆度随纬度的不同分布。
    Global warming or any climate change may cause changes in other geographical elements, including changes in sea level, amount and pattern of precipitation, climate patterns and various other forms of climate change.Such changes can trigger various detrimental effects by causing flood, drought, heat wave, reduction of agricultural yield or in extreme circumstances, and cause mass extinction.The temperature variation in China is so complicated that even the temperature trends are completely different in the same period, with temperature increase trend in some areas but with temperature decrease trend in some other areas.So it is very significant to discover the global warming impacts in China and find the regional response laws to global warming.In this paper, the data set of 160 National Meteorological Observatory stations with long-term monthly temperature data for China has been analyzed to discover the warming pattern in China, i.e.finding the variation of temperature gradients in the past half century.By calculation and analysis, it is found that, with the global warming in the past half-century, the latitudinal temperature gradient became smaller and smaller, with a bigger magnitude in winter than in summer and a larger quantum in higher latitude than in lower latitude.The variation of the latitudinal temperature gradients in China is due to the different continentalities of the areas with different latitudes.And the stronger the continentality, the larger amplitude the temperature change will be.Also, it is found that the temperature changes of different seasons are asynchronous.Although human activities are contributing more and more to climate change, landforms and latitude effects seemed to be dominating factors influencing the spatial distribution of climate change of China in the 20th century.
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    大连国际航运中心建设SEA的系统动力学研究
    徐凌, 陈冲, 尚金城
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 351-357.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.351
    摘要   PDF (320KB)
    国际航运中心建设是一项复杂的综合性系统工程,系统内存在着错综复杂的关系,可以采用解决非线性问题的系统动力学方法对其进行仿真模拟。针对目前战略环境评价技术方法的不完善,采用系统动力学方法,在分析国际航运中心系统的主要影响因素及其因果关系的基础上,建立了包括人口、经济、交通、能源和环境子系统的系统动力学模型,并利用大连市相关统计数据对模型进行了仿真模拟和验证。通过对仿真结果的分析和预测,符合实际情况,为规划的实施提供科学的决策依据。
    The construction of international ship center is a complicated and comprehensive engineering system, and relation in the system are reticular.The system dynamic method is applied to simulating the system.Considering the faults of technique of Strategic Environmental Assessment, a method, System Dynamics, is introduced into Strategic Environmental Assessment for the construction of international ship center.Based on analyzing impact factors and effect of system of international ship center, model on system dynamics is established including population, economy, transport, energy and environment subsystem, and the model is simulated and tested with some statistic data in Dalian.It is concluded that emulational results is in accord with practice.Therefore, system dynamics is well applied in the SEA, and can provide basis on plan with scientific decision.
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    基于高分辨率遥感影象的城市泥石流灾害损失评估
    唐川, 张军, 万石云, 周春花
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 358-363.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.358
    摘要   PDF (883KB)
    文章探讨了城市泥石流灾害损失评估的系统方法,该方法包括了泥石流堆积泛滥区危险区划、城市土地覆盖类型遥感解译、损失评估模型构建和价值核算4个主要内容。以美国高分辨率的"快鸟"卫星影象为数据源完成了研究区的土地覆盖类型遥感解译,根据泥石流危险程度和土地覆盖类型特征,构建了城市泥石流灾害的损失评估模型。最后,应用GIS提供的分析工具完成了研究区不同土地覆盖类型的泥石流灾害损失计算和评价。
    This paper approached an integrated methodology for urban debris flow loss estimation.Procedure of the methodology involved debris flow hazard zonation, image interpretation of urban land cover, model establishment for loss estimation, and property value calculation.Debris flow hazard zonation on the alluvial fan of the study area are created by overlaying distributed flow depth and velocity maps, which are produced through the numerical simulation.The possible loss estimation model is formulated based on stage-damage relationships between different debris flow hazard level and land-use features.Nowadays, earth observation techniques can contribute toward more accurate urban debris flow hazard modelling and they can be used to assess damage to residential properties, infrastructure and agricultural crops.For this study, detailed land cover information was derived by using the Quickbird high spatial resolution satellite imagery.Based on detail interpretation for the Quickbird image, the land cover of the study city was classified into 5 first level types, 10 second level types and 16 third level types.We calculated and evaluated the economic loss to different land-use features based on a GIS statistical tool.
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    长春市强冰雪冻害天气系统及物理量特征
    汪秀清, 杨雪艳, 陈长胜, 吴宪军
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 364-368.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.364
    摘要   PDF (367KB)
    应用1971~2000年长春气象站10月至次年3月的逐日降水量、气温资料以及相应的NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,通过对资料的统计分析,给出了确定长春市发生强冰雪冻害天气的标准;根据对36个历史个例的高低空环流形势的分析,建立了4 种强冰雪冻害的天气概念模型:冷涡型、深槽型、浅槽型、锋区平直型;进一步分析了长春市冰雪冻害天气的物理量场、要素场的特征。
    By the analysis on the daily precipitation and temperature of Changchun station during October to next march from 1971 to 2000,and respondedly NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the standard of the great weather process with ice-snow and cool disaster is proposed.Based on studying the upper and lower air circulation of 36 weather processes, four synoptic models are given.In addition, the physical parameter fields and normal parameter fields of those processes are researched.
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    综述
    土壤盐渍化遥感应用研究进展
    翁永玲, 宫鹏
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 369-375.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.369
    摘要   PDF (628KB)
    文章从地面数据的调查、盐渍土影象的目视判读特征、光谱特征和土壤盐渍化区域的植被特征以及多光谱、高光谱遥感技术等方面综述国内外应用遥感数据探测土壤盐渍化程度及其制图的研究。利用数字图象并结合野外调查数据进行目视解译和计算机自动解译、图象变换提取盐渍土信息;结合GIS方法在分类中加入非遥感数据来提高分类精度;在研究盐渍土的光谱特征的基础上应用高光谱技术定量或半定量地提取盐渍土信息。这都是制定综合治理措施、决定土地利用方向的关键,也是进行区域土壤盐渍化动态预报的重要依据。
    Soil salinity is one of the major problems that affect crop growth and yield,and often lead to degradation of cultivated land.Recent advance in mapping and monitoring salt-affected soils by means of remote sensing has shown that this technology holds great promise in generating accurate results at enhanced speed and reduced cost.This paper first summarizes the role of ground data in detecting salt-affected soils,such as electrical conductivity of soils,underground water table,degree of mineralization,field-derived spectra of saline soils,and vegetation.In situ collected and laboratory data are very important in mapping and detecting salinity based on remote sensing technique.This paper then discusses the spectral properties of salt-affected soils,visual interpretation of saline features from remote sensing images,and use of vegetation as an indirect indicator.Key issues in and approaches of identification and mapping of salt-affected areas based on remote sensing technique are reviewed next.This review reveals that a multiplicity of remotely sensed data has been employed widely to investigate,identify,and monitor the surface salinity status of soils and its spatial distribution.The obtained results have demonstrated the value of spectral reflectance data for the calibration of remotely sensed data,ascertained the optimal bands in detecting salt-affected soils using spectra unmixing,established training range selection and mapping methods based on hyperspectral data for the validation of the quantitative information extracted from satellite data.These studies have used digital image interpretation,image transformation,hyperspectroscopy techniques in combination with GIS in order to map the distribution of salt-affected soils.Some studies have shown that hyperspectral remote sensing data have been applied to study soil salinity at an increasing pace.This technology carries great promise in producing more detailed and accurate soil salt information.
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    中国中世纪暖期气候研究综述
    高建慧, 刘健, 王苏民
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (3): 376-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.03.376
    摘要   PDF (1018KB)
    中世纪暖期是2000年来全球最重要的气候事件之一,关于中世纪暖期的研究,主要是通过各种代用资料重建气候序列。从目前的研究来看,能敏感响应环境变化的高分辨率的信息载体主要有冰芯、树轮、历史文献、湖泊沉积及石笋等。随着代用资料的开发,对于中世纪暖期的研究已经取得了丰硕的成果,但在中世纪暖期是否具有全球性,不同区域的起讫时间、增温幅度、内部波动以及成因机制等问题上还存在一定争议。主要原因是受重建资料敏感性与地域性限制,加上不同代用指标对气候变化敏感性的差异以及不同代用资料的方法、气候与环境意义等存在差异,定年存在误差。在中国,从对重建资料的整理分析来看,对于"中国是否存在中世纪暖期"这个问题,各研究者们没有达成一致的看法;对于中国中世纪暖期冷暖变化的研究,由于区域差异,东部重建资料以历史文献为主,而西部关于历史气候环境的相关记载很少,所以重建资料以冰芯、湖芯、树轮等为主。大多数的研究结果认为,西部的冷暖变化与东部有着明显的差异,其中最主要的是东部在900~1300 A. D.存在明显的温暖期,而西部则暖期不如东部明显。今后为了更加全面深入的了解中世纪暖期气候特征,应加强各种代用指标高分辨率序列的积累和定量化研究、各种代用指标和重建序列的综合集成研究及其与古气候模拟结果的比较研究,以期从动力学角度加深理解中世纪暖期的区域响应差异。
    The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) is one of the most important climate events happened in the last two millennia.The research work has been carried out mainly by using various proxy records to reconstruct climate.Now the high-resolution proxy records that can reveal environment change are ice core,tree-ring,historical documents,lake sediment and stalagmite,etc.With the development of proxy data, many achievements have been obtained on the MWP climate reconstruction.However, some questions, such as whether the MWP is a global phenomenon, what are the temperature anomalies and the climatic characteristics in the MWP, what are the causes of the MWP, and so on, still have some arguments because of the regional restriction of the reconstructed datasets, different sensitivities of proxies to climate change and different climatic and environmental significances.Moreover, there are errors in dating of reconstruction.In China, based on the results of analyzing reconstruction data, we find the opinions of researchers on "is there MWP in china?"are not consistent.And on the question of the changes of temperature in the MWP, we find the proxy records in the eastern China mainly are historical documents,while the proxy records in the western China mainly are ice core, tree-ring,etc., because of the absence of records on historical climate records in the western China.Most researchers agree that there are distinct differences of temperature change between the eastern and western China.The most importance is that there was a distinct warm period in the eastern China during 900-1300AD, and the warm record in the western China was not obvious in same episode.For the future, in order to fully understand the characteristic of the MWP climate from viewpoint of dynamics, we should strengthen the research on accumulation and ration of high-resolution proxy records, integration of various proxy records and reconstruction sequences, and comparison study between paleoclimate simulation and reconstructed results.
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