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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2007年, 第27卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2007-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    长江三角洲城市群发展展望
    顾朝林, 张敏, 张成, 张晓明, 汪淳, 陈璐
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.1
    摘要   PDF (1047KB)
    长江三角洲城市群是中国最大的城市群,其发展和演变对中国城市发展、中国沿海经济乃至亚太地区的发展均具有举足轻重的地位和作用。改革开放以来,中国经济的迅速增长,经济全球化过程的加速,均为长江三角洲城市群的发展提供难得的机遇与挑战。重点论述长江三角洲城市群发展展望。
    China is facing a large unprecedented social revolution,in which the development of economy and society promotes the rapid urbanization process.The urban agglomeration in the Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta is the largest one in China,whose development and evolvement play an important role in the development of Chinese cities and economy in littoral areas of China,even in the development of Asia-Pacific Region.Since reform and opening-up took place in China,the rapid development of Chinese economy and the accelerating of economic globalization have provided the crucial opportunities and challenge for the development of urban agglomeration in the Changjian River Delta.This paper focus on the prospects of urban agglomeration in the Changjiang River Delta.
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    中国城市经济活力评价
    金延杰
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 9-16.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.9
    摘要   PDF (940KB)
    城市经济活力是指一个城市经济发展中所具有的发展能力与潜力。以经济总量及其增长、企业及其收益、居民收入、财政与社会保障、外贸与外资、技术水平与教育及环境7个方面的若干指标为评价标准,运用因子分析法对全国重要的50个城市进行城市经济活力指数的定量研究。
    Economic competition usually takes place on levels of country,industry and enterprise.With the economic globalization,cities have been the main body of competition.In China,economic total amount and developmental rate play an important role in evaluation of urban economic activity which roots in enterprises(mostly the nongovernmental business),foreign trade and capital.The income level of local residents decides the attraction to labor force which is the endogenetic energy of economic activity.Finance and social security system are perceived as important guarantees for urban development.The level of technology and education is becoming an important source of the increase of economy. Environment which correlates the sustainable development is placed high value on as an external factor of economic development.This paper uses factor analysis method to evaluate 50 cities in China from aspects of economy and its growth,amount and income of enterprises,income of residents,finance and social security,foreign trade and capital,level of technology and education,and environment. Urban benefits and production are main factors of the economic vitality.The 50 cities are classified as five levels by scores.The most developed cities lie in the Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta Area and Zhujiang(Pearl) River Delta.Shanghai and Shenzhen which play the important role in the areas belong to the first level.The gap between coastal cities and inland ones is still large.
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    城市内部居住环境评价的指标体系和方法
    张文忠
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 17-23.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.17
    摘要   PDF (1073KB)
    “宜居城市”已经引起了政府、媒体和学者极大的关注,但主要集中在概念层面上,关于“宜居城市”的倡导或研究不应停留概念的炒作上,应该明确其内涵、量化其评价指标、确定其建设的方向和步骤等。立足于国内外相关研究基础,凸现“以人为本”的城市建设理念,就城市内部居住环境的评价内容、指标体系设计和评价方法等进行探讨。重点对构成居住环境评价的5大指标体系,安全性、环境的健康性、生活的便利性、出行的便捷度、居住的舒适度等具体评价内容、数据获取和方法选择等进行了研究。
    Recently,governments have paid attention to a Livable City as well as researchers and the media in China so that a Livable City has become a new focus in Chinese urban development,but they mostly focus on the concept of a Livable City and few could turn ideas into action.The paper points out that we should make the intrinsic meaning of a Livable City clear and confirm the definitions of Livability and a Livable City and principles of a Livable City,and then establish and quantify its index system.Through the evaluation of a Livable City,we would find the strength and weakness of the city as a Livable City,which would be helpful to confirm its construction orientation and developmental steps in the future.Based on relevant research literatures of theory about a Livable City and practice of urban construction and the concept of "a city for people",the paper systematically does research on evaluative content of a Livable City,index system design and evaluative methods of residential environment in inner cities.Firstly,The paper sets up the evaluative framework of a Livable City focusing on appraising 5 indexes such as convenience,amenity,health,safety and community of a city,which includes two index systems,that is,the index system of objective evaluation including 5 index and 21 sub-indexes and the index system of subjective evaluation including 5 index systems and 31 sub-indexes.Secondly,the paper discusses how to gather data.On the one hand,the objective data should be got from digital map,SPOT data,GIS data and so on.On the other hand,the subjective data should mainly gather resident survey data and fieldwork.Finally,the paper presents three main evaluative method systems such as Economical Value Evaluation,GIS tools and econometric estimation.Economical Value Evaluation,aiming to assess the value of residential environment adjustment and value difference of residential environment,includes Contingent Valuation Method,Direct Expenditure Method,Consumer’s Surplus Method,Travel Cost Method,Hedonic Price Method,Contingent Valuation Method and Computable General Equilibrium.Furthermore,the paper establishes a framework of residential environmental evaluation based on GIS to quantify different spatial levels of residential environment in inner cities and put evaluative results into maps directly, and then it would also analyze effecting factors,spatial differences and spatial structure of a city as a Livable City by multidimensional scaling,factor analysis,cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis.According to the evaluative results,we can prospect the trends in the determinants of livability and spatial trends in livability across areas,and give suggestions for the development of a Livable City such as that of determinants of livability,policy suggestions of infrastructure construction by different population groups and that of regional development in a Livable City.
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    中国都市圈中运量型轻轨交通的发展问题研究
    袁家冬, 于宁
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 24-30.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.24
    摘要   PDF (732KB)
    从都市圈的空间结构和交通需求的特点分析入手,讨论了中运量型轻轨交通在都市圈公共交通中的地位与作用。结合中国都市圈建设中有关轻轨公共交通发展的问题,指出发展以中运量型轻轨交通为骨干的城市公共交通是中国都市圈交通建设的重要方向,并对中国都市圈以中运量型轻轨交通为骨干的都市圈综合交通体系的规划建设提出了若干建议。
    With the high-speed development of national economy,China’s urbanization has taken a fast-progessing track.In some relatively highly developed areas,dramatic changes have taken place in the spacial structure of big cities.The most notable characteristic is the transition from the simple form of a single city to a most complicated structure of metropolis,which is based on the core city surrounding by numerous cities and regions.The four metropolitan areas such as SH,BJ,GZ and SY have formed the preliminary shape,meanwhile,in the surrounding areas of those big and medium-sized cities with relatively high development economy and society,some regional metropolises and local metropolises are taking shapes as well.The formation and development of these metropolises has a very important supporting role to the social development of our regional economy.There is a consensus in adopting the metropolitan development strategy with an unbalanced growing pattern so as to promote the social development of our regional economy.However,the buildup of metropolises is confronted with many problems in the area of environment,land resources,transportation,energy and industries.Transportation is the most prominent issue among all these problems.The construction of a modern transportation system in the metropolis is most significant in terms of enhancing the connection of core city and surrounding towns and areas,helping the integration of land use in cities within the metropolis,boosting the joint construction and use of cross-region infrastructure;protecting and utilizing all kinds of resources,improving the living and investing environment and realizing the integration of metropolis.But the construction of the transportation system in the metropolis development strategy is sometimes accompanied by blindness.This article starts with analysis of the spacial structure and transportation requirements in the metropolis and discusses about the role and function of light rail transit with medium freight volume in public transportation.Taking into account of the issues in the development of light rail public transportation,the author makes a point that the development of public transportation with light rail transit with medium freight volume as the backbone is an important approach in the metropolis,provides many suggestions for the planning of comprehensive transportation system based on the light rail transit with medium freight volume in a metropolis.
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    西安城市CBD体系发展演进的特征与趋势
    王慧, 田萍萍, 刘红, 秦泗刚
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 31-39.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.31
    摘要   PDF (2120KB)
    基于土地交易、基本产业单位普查、商务办公楼宇开发、规模以上商场发展等多方面资料,以当代CBD演进基本规律及基本理论为借鉴和索引,并以西安市为实证案例对当代中国城市CBD体系发展演进的一些典型现象、特征及其机制进行了分析。结果表明:传统市中心区正在经历以总功能类型减少而商业服务功能突出强化为基本特征的功能“纯化”;生产者服务业集中的商务中心显著离心漂移、而零售商业中心则相对稳定,因而城市商务与商业中心趋于空间分离化;高新技术产业开发区正崛起成为西安市的中央商务区(主CBD);在整个西安中心城市层面,一个“双极多核”的CBD体系正在发育形成。
    Chinese cities have been experiencing remarkable restructuring in the reform and opening-up.The transformation of the existing urban central areas and the development of urban CBD systems have become a rather important part of the restructuring of Chinese cities since the 1990s with the introduction of the mechanism of land market,the rapid development of the tertiary industry,as well as the change of cities’ master plans.Based on the latest data from a variety of sources,such as the land leasing and transferring,the development of commercial office-buildings and shopping centers,the digital database of ’the 2nd National Census of Basic Economic Units in China’ and so on,using the basic theories on the contemporary CBD development in Western cities for reference,taking the city of Xi’an as a case,the dynamics,characters,tendency,and the relevant mechanisms of the development and evolution of the CBD system in contemporary urban China are analyzed in this paper.The results indicate that: a) the city’ old central area has been experiencing a functional ’purification’ characterized by the reduction of the total contained functions and the intensification of the commercial(especially retail) activities,which are resulted from the out-moving of manufactories,population,administration departments,and some producer services;b) the ’business centers’,i.e.the concentrated area of producer services,have been obviously ’floating’ outwards from the old central area,but the locations of the ’commercial centers’,indicated by the concentrated area of retail,are still relatively steady,as a result,the city’s CBD(central business district) and CRD(central retail district) are spatially separating from each other;c) the city’s new Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone(i.e.the state-level Xi’an HTDZ) has been playing a increasingly significant role in the development of the city’s CBD system and is growing into the actual new CBD of the whole metropolitan area of Xi’an because of the comparatively more favorable conditions in many aspects in it for the clustering and development of the producer business services;d) the city’s CBD system is tending to evolve into a ’bi-pole,multi-core’ pattern,in which the two ’poles’ refer to the separated CRD(still staying in the city’s old central area) and CBD(coming into being in the HTDZ),and the multiple ’cores’ refer to another four existing or upcoming business centers located in the city’s another two new development zones,i.e.Xi’an Economic & Technological Development Zone,and Xi’an Qujiang Tourism & Holiday Resort Zone,as well as the central sector of the city’s ’university belt’,i.e.the most concentrated area of universities and research institutions,respectively.
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    莱州湾南岸咸水入侵区土地利用/覆被变化驱动机理研究
    张祖陆, 王琳
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 40-44.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.40
    摘要   PDF (618KB)
    借助于典型自相关模型分析,将众多变量归纳为少数几个综合变量,并分别就这些综合变量进行系统阐述。影响研究区土地利用变化的社会经济因素可以归纳为:人口增长、产业结构调整、工业发展与城镇化等综合指标,并分别对各不同影响因素进行阐述。在自然因素方面,咸水入侵与土地利用结构特征及其变化方向具有相关性,它是可以综合反映自然驱动因素的代表性因子。
    Being the most seriously infected area by salt water intrusion in China,southern Laizhou Bay has a more complicated land use/coverage change and driving mechanism.In order to extract the main driving factors,the author practiced the classic correlation analysis.So in socioeconomic aspect,population increase,industry structure adjustment,and the development of industry and urbanization are summarized.In natural condition,the salt water intrusion is pinpointed,which has an accordant process with the trend of land use structure change.Each factor is dwelled on separately.
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    北方13省土地利用/覆盖动态变化分析
    李月臣, 刘春霞
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 45-52.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.45
    摘要   PDF (961KB)
    对北方13省1989~1999年的宏观土地利用/覆盖动态变化进行分析。结果表明:研究区草地、水体的退化以及未利用地的不断扩展增加区域生态系统的敏感性和脆弱性,生态环境压力进一步增大;土地利用/覆盖总体破碎度不断增加,土地利用向着多样化和均质化方向发展;10年间,各种土地利用/覆盖类型重心的空间位置均有所变化。水体变化最明显,其次为未利用地、耕地和城建用地;各种土地利用/覆盖类型变化表现出明显的区域差异。
    The eco-environment of the 13 provinces in the northern China is relatively fragile.In order to understand the eco-environment feedback mechanism and seek a way to optimize land use/cover spatial pattern under ecological security,land use/cover dynamic changes in the northern China from 1989 to 1999 was investigated by RS and GIS.The results show that:(1) Grassland,unused land and forestland were the main land use/cover types in the research areas.In the study period,land use/cover change greatly.Although the eco-environment policies of government resulted in some original farmland being returned to grassland and forestland,the excessive reclamation in the region turned more grassland and forestland into farmland simultaneously.(2) Human activities comprehensively affected land use/cover dynamic change in the study area.The heterogeneity of the whole landscape increased.The land use/cover spatial structure tended to be more diversified and even.(3) The center of gravity of all land use/cover types changed.The water body is the most distinct and unused land,farmland and urban land follow.(4) Land use/cover changes show regional district differences.
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    黄土丘陵沟壑区土地利用类型与土地生产力关系模拟研究——以王家沟小流域为例
    李忠武, 蔡强国, 曾光明
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 53-57.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.53
    摘要   PDF (582KB)
    土地利用是人类对自然界影响的最主要方式,而土地利用类型则是影响土地生产力状况的关键因素。利用基于侵蚀条件下的土地生产力模型,研究黄土高原丘陵沟壑区不同土地利用类型与土地生产力之间的关系。结果表明,对于大多数的作物类型而言,土地生产力状况均表现为坝地>梯田>坡耕地>沟坡地。进一步研究了不同作物类型对土地利用的适宜性指数和生产力指数,均表现出相同的趋势。
    The land use type is a pivotal factor affecting land productivity in loess hilly region.Using the land productivity model based on erosion,supported by geographic information system(GIS),the paper researched the relation between different land use types and land productivity of hilly loess region.The result showed,to a majority of crops,land productivity of different land use types has a law,namely,bottomland >terrace >slope land>gully wall.In order to research the mechanism further,the paper discussed adaptability index and productivity index of different kinds of crop for different land use types,which embodied the same trends.
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    土地空间分形结构的尺度转换特征
    朱晓华, 李加林, 杨秀春, 蔡运龙
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 58-62.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.58
    摘要   PDF (883KB)
    应用分形理论以及多元相关分析、灰色关联分析方法,分析浙江省慈溪市土地空间分形结构的尺度转换特征。结论为:①慈溪市、贵州省不同尺度分割区域的土地空间分形结构均客观存在,不因尺度不同而变化;②尺度转折点因尺度不同而出现,贵州省(省域尺度)土地利用存在尺度转折点,慈溪市(县域尺度)土地利用不存在尺度转折点;③不同尺度的慈溪市、贵州省土地空间结构的分维不仅主要受到土地类型本身几何属性的影响,而且其所受到的影响跨尺度存在;④尺度的差异造成不同影响因子的影响程度随尺度出现变化;平均图斑形状指数对慈溪市土地空间结构的分维影响最大,图斑数则对贵州省土地空间结构分维的影响最大。
    In this paper,the fractal theory,multivariate regression analysis and grey relational analysis are applied to analyzing the spatial fractal character and its scale character of land use as a case study of Cixi City and Guizhou Province with scale of 1:100 000 and 1:1 000 000 respectively. The perimeter-area relationships of patches of different land types of Cixi City and Guizhou Province under different scales are established;the fractal dimensions of spatial structure of different scale regions of China are calculated.The fractal characters of land use structure in Cixi City and Guizhou Province are analysed,the relationships between fractal dimension of land spatial structure and patch number,average patch area and average patch shape index are established by multivariate regression analysis.It is indicated that patch number,average patch area and average patch shape index mainly influence the fractal dimension of spatial structure of land use,and the spatial fractal character of land use exists over scale.Based on the grey relational analysis,it is further found that patch number is the most important factor that influences the land fractal structure of Guizhou Province,and average patch shape index for Cixi City.Although the land spatial fractal structures of Cixi City and Guizhou Province are mainly influenced by the geometric characteristic of spatial pattern of land use.
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    青藏高原西部地面反射率的日变化以及与若干气象因子的关系
    李国平, 肖杰
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 63-67.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.63
    摘要   PDF (435KB)
    根据1997年10月至1998年11月青藏高原西部改则和狮泉河两个自动气象站连续观测的大气、辐射和土壤资料,在分析高原西部地面反射率冬、夏季日变化特征的基础上,重点研究了地面反射率与土壤和大气若干重要因子(如土壤湿度、土壤温度、空气相对湿度、空气温度)的关系。研究结果有助于改进气候模式和卫星遥感中高原地面反射率的参数化方案。
    By using the continuous observational data of air,radiation and soil from two sites of automatic weather station(AWS) at Gaize and Shiquanhe on the western Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the period from October 1997 to November 1998,the diurnal variations of surface albedo in summer and winter are analyzed.Furthermore,the stress of this paper is put on discussing the relationship between surface albedo and some meteorological factors(such as soil moisture,surface moisture temperature,air relative humidity and air temperature).The results are helpful to improve the parameterization schemes of surface albedo in climate model and satellite remote sensing.
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    大小兴安岭多年冻土的主导成因及分布模式
    孙广友, 于少鹏, 王海霞
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 68-74.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.68
    摘要   PDF (1521KB)
    大小兴安岭海拔高度由北向南增高对纬度偏低带来的温升具有相对补偿功能,从而使冻土分区界线大大南凸。大兴安岭山地为一个连续的整体,不宜仅将南部视为山地多年冻土,而将中、北部划为高纬多年冻土。多年冻土南界应在黄岗梁山南麓通过。小兴安岭的多年冻土南界应在呼兰河源中山的南麓通过。大兴安岭北端断续多年冻土区应将伊勒呼里山平均海拔1000 m的中山部分包括在内;岛状融区多年冻土区南伸至阿尔山附近终结;小兴安岭南端汤旺河与呼兰河的河源区存在岛状融区多年冻土闭合圈。
    Based on other scholars’ research,the paper establishes a new distributing pattern of permafrost in the Da Hinggan Mountains and Xiao Hinggan Mountains.It has made important progress in the formation causes and distribution pattern of the permafrost,but the conclusion that the permafrost was engendered mainly by latitudinal zonality,which was a part of Eurasian permafrost zone,should be discussed.The paper considers vertical zonality the dominant action in the formation of the permafrost. The elevation of the Da Hinggan Mountains and Xiao Hinggan Mountains heighten gradually from north to south.The descending temperature coming from elevation rising compensated the ascending temperature coming from low latitude relatively.The result made the types and subarea borderline protrude to south enormously.Taking the Da Hinggan Mountains as a whole,it was not feasible to take the south as mountain permafrost only.So,the south permafrost borderline of the Da Hinggan Mountains was in the south of Huanggangliang Mount and also 120 km south to Aer Mount.The south permafrost borderline of the Xiao Hinggan Mountains was in the south of middle mount nearby the Hulan River.The sheet permafrost subarea in the north of the Da Hinggan Mountains should include the region with an elevation of about 1000 m of Yilehuli Mount.That was to say,the east borderline of it was 70 km east to Xinlin.The insular thawy region of permafrost subarea in the Da Hinggan Mountains extend from middle chine of Yilehuli Mount to Aer Mount.And there were closed loops of insular thawy permafrost in middle mountains nearby the Wangtang River and the Hulan River in the south of the Xiao Hinggan Mountains.
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    南京年纹层石笋δ18O记录的冰期气候事件特征
    吴江滢, 邵晓华, 汪永进
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 75-80.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.75
    摘要   PDF (604KB)
    根据南京葫芦洞一支石笋高精度230Th年龄及纹层计数建立24~21 ka B.P.时段平均分辨率3年的δ18O季风降水序列,精确标定了IS2事件的发生时间。通过与极地冰芯记录对比,发现G ISP2与石笋时标一致,而GR IP和NGR IP时标在相当事件上偏年轻800~2000年。结合洞内另一支不同时段的石笋年纹层记录,证实东亚季风降水与极地气候在反映气候事件特征上有所不同,季风气候在由干向湿的转型期(包括H2、H1)呈现阶梯式增长特征,其持续时间均超过600年,有可能说明除北大西洋温盐环流外,低纬太平洋海-气耦合也是东亚季风气候的重要触发源。
    Greenland ice cores provided the most directly and highly resolved records of glacial climate events during the past 120 000 years,but they presented different time scales for these rapid climate events.As we previously reported,precisely-dated and high-resolution cave δ18O records make it possible to correct the chronologies of Greenland ice cores.Furthermore,annual to decadal-resolved monsoon records would explore a detailed transition pattern for the climate events,providing a crucial test for physical models of abrupt climate events.Here we present such precisely-dated East Asian monsoon record between 24 and 21 ka B.P.,and then discuss a possible forcing mechanism for the climate events during the Last Glacial Maximum.The growth phase for one stalagmite from Hulu Cave,Nanjing,has been precisely dated by thermal ionization mass spectrometry and counting result for continuous annual lamination profile under microscope.A total of 727 sub-samples were scraped off from successive laminations of the polished column and their oxygen isotope composition was measured by MAT-253 mass spectrometry.Based on the 230Th dates and more than 3000-year-long duration of annual banding sequence,an average 3-year resolution stalagmite δ18O time series between 24 and 21 ka B.P.has been established.The high resolution oxygen isotope record well reflects the variation of Asian summer monsoon precipitation during the last glacial period,i.e.the more negative value of stalagmite δ18O,the higher precipitation.The stalagmite δ18O record displays large amplitude from-4.709‰ to-8.709‰ in δ18O value,suggesting that monsoon precipitation changed largely in magnitude even during the Last Glacial Maximum.We recognizes two cycles of wet/dry from this record: one is from 24.0 to 22.1 ka B.P.and the other is from 22.1 to 21.1 ka B.P.Most importantly,shorter-term climatic events are superimposed on the two millennial cycles,coherently linking to the remote climate events,such as Heinrich events in North Atlantic and Dansgaard-Oeschger events in Greenland ice core records. The precisely-dated δ18O record provided a strong support for accuracy of the GISP2 time scale.An IS2 event(or DO 2),well expressed in the Greenland ice core δ18O records,can be unambiguously identified in our record.The timing of IS2 in GISP2 is close to the chronology of the stalagmite records within the uncertainty of U/Th dates.However,GRIP and NGRIP are younger than GISP2 by 800 to 2000 years for the same event.This discrepancy among the three Greenland ice cores would come from a larger uncertainty for the ice cores: age errors up to 1% during the Holocene and the uncertainties become larger as the chronology gets older.If the time scale of GISP2 is accurate before 40 ka B.P.based on ice-layer counting,we suggest that the event was synchronous over the Northern Hemisphere. Our record,in combination with the previously-published record between 17 and 15 ka B.P.also from Hulu Cave,indicated that the monsoon events(H1 and H2),in terms of their structures,are quite different from the cold events in North Atlantic,which were well presented in the Greenland ice core δ18O records. For the both of H1 and H2,the monsoon precipitation records show a rapid transition from dry to wet conditions,followed by a stepwise increasing trend,with a total duration of more than 600 years.In contrast,the Greenland δ18O records display abrupt changes either into or out of the events.This suggests that changes of East Asian monsoon were triggered by not only the North Atlantic themorhaline circulation but also the coupled oceanic-atmospheric circulation from tropical Pacific.
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    江汉平原近3000年来古洪水事件的沉积记录
    谢远云, 李长安, 王秋良, 殷鸿福
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 81-84.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.81
    摘要   PDF (566KB)
    洪水发生规律是洪灾预报的前提,已有的历史洪水记录时间尺度不足以认识和把握洪水的出现规律。因此,利用地质记录延长洪水时间序列,从地质记录中认识洪水的发生规律,显得非常重要和必要。江汉平原江陵地区的洪水地质记录表明,近3000年来,该区共发生了18次特大洪水漫滩事件。这些古洪水的频发与湿冷气候相对应。功率谱分析发现古洪水漫滩事件包含26、31、36、43、52、79、110年这样的周期。分析表明江陵地区古洪水发生的驱动因子可能是太阳活动。
    It is well known that paleoflood predictions must depend on its occurrence rule.However,available historical records do not provide long enough temporal scale for identification of emergence law of flood events.It is very important and necessary to discover and understand floodwater geological records.The pluvial geological records of Jiangling area in Jianghan Plain,show that the area revealed 18 flood events during the last 3000 years.The paleoflood events corresponded to cold and wet climate.With the help of power spectral analysis,it is found that paleoflood events include 26,31,36,43,52,79,110 a cycles.It is indicated that solar activity may be driving factor of paleoflood in Jiangling area.
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    上海中心城区河流水系百年变化及影响因素分析
    程江, 杨凯, 赵军, 袁雯, 吴健平
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 85-91.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.85
    摘要   PDF (487KB)
    分析上海中心城区河流水系1860~2003年变化情况,研究表明:①140余年来中心城区有历史记载河流消失至少310条段,总长超520 km,水面积减少约10.46 km2,水面率下降3.61%。中心城区所在水利片河流水系结构破坏,水系分枝比受河道消亡影响明显降低,水系分维数异常;②中心城区河流水系阶段性集中消亡,消亡驱动力因消亡时期而异;③初步估算,140余年来中心城区河道槽蓄容量减少超过2 029×104m3、单位面积可调蓄容量减少5.06×104m3/km2。河道槽蓄容量较百年前减少超过80%,城市河网调蓄能力明显削弱,且1950~1990年市政雨水泵站累积增加数目与同期区域内河道累积消失数量、长度和槽蓄容量间均呈显著正相关性。
    Based on the data of disappeared rivers from 1860 to 2003 in center district of Shanghai,the variation of river system and its environmental impact were analyzed.The research results showed that:(1) Over 260 rivers,with a length about 470 km disappeared in center district of Shanghai during the past 140 years.The water area and water surface ratio reduced 9.42 km2 and 3.25%,respectively.The structure of river system was destroyed greatly.High-urbanization lessened the branching ratio,which leaded to an abnormal fractal dimension.(2) The rivers in the center district centralizedly disappeared during several phases.The reasons for river disappenring were altered in different times.From 1860 to 1949,the reasons included roads building,natural oblivion,concession expansion and residence zone building.From 1949 to 2003,those were city planning construction and residence zone building.(3) At a rough estimate,from 1860 to 2003,the substantive disappeared rivers caused the total river storage capacity and per area river storage capacity reduce about 20.92?106m3 and 50.6?103m3/km2,respectively.Now,the total river storage capacity reduced near 80% compare with that of 140 years ago,so the ability of storage capacity was greatly weakened in the center district of Shanghai.The number of cumulative built municipal pumping stations was significantly positively related with cumulative number,cumulative length and cumulative storage capacity of disappeared rivers from the 1950s to the 1990s.
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    基于混合光谱理论的太湖水体叶绿素a浓度提取
    闻建光, 肖青, 柳钦火, 周艺
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 92-97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.92
    摘要   PDF (491KB)
    TM图象多波段数据作为遥感监测水体叶绿素a浓度的数据源,已有多种遥感定量模型与之对应,但主要还是以经验模型为主。利用TM数据首先采用特征波段比值方法,建立太湖水体合适的叶绿素a浓度反演的遥感定量模型。由于经验模型的缺陷性,还提出了基于TM数据的水体混合光谱分析模型,同时分析了端元光谱提取方法对模型求解的影响。通过计算叶绿素a浓度模型估算结果与实地测量数据的相关系数和均方根误差(RMSE),可以发现混合光谱分析模型也是水体叶绿素a浓度遥感估算的另一条佳径。
    Thematic Mapper(TM) data can be used to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration of water body and monitor the quality of inland water.There are different models for TM estimating Chlorophyll-a concentration,and the major model is empirical regression model.In this paper we build chlorophyll-a models based on TM data,in which the traditional band ratio approach and mixing spectral analysis model were used.And we also analyzed the method of end-member extraction.The correlation coefficient and rooted mean square errors were calculated,and the results of chlorophyll-a concentration gained from these models and those gained from the analysis in lab were compared,the result shows that the mixing spectral model for estimating Chlorophyll-a concentration is a optimal method.
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    西安高陵人工林土壤干层与含水量季节变化研究
    杜娟, 赵景波
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 98-103.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.98
    摘要   PDF (256KB)
    通过野外调查和室内测定,利用烘干称重法对高陵地区丰水年前后不同人工林下0~6 m土壤含水量及土壤水分的季节变化进行研究。结果表明,2002年高陵田家村中国梧桐林和杨树林下160~400 cm范围内均已发育了土壤干层。经过2003年丰水年充沛的降水补给,2004年高陵团庄槐树林、杏树林0~6 m土层均未出现土壤干层,说明水分在丰水年得到很好恢复。丰水年后梨、杏、槐三种人工林160~400、410~600 cm层位土壤含水量均显示春季最高,夏季次之,秋季降到最低或略微上升。
    Through field investigation and indoor determination,by the method of drying and weighing,the soil moisture content in the layer of 06m and seasonal change of soil moisture content in artificial forest before and after abundant water year in Gaoling of Xi’an were studied in this paper.The results show that there were all dried soil layers in the 160400cm layer below Chinese parasol trees and poplar trees in 2002.In 2004,from 0 to 6m the dried soil layer has not appeared below the apricot and Chinese scholartrees,which proved that the soil moisture has resumed completely in abundant water year of 2003.After the abundant water year soil moisture content in 160-400cm and 410-600cm below pear,the apricot,Chinese scholartrees all are highest in spring,next is in summer,it is lowest or rises slightly in autunm.
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    民勤绿洲边缘带灌丛沙丘防风作用研究
    王升堂, 邹学勇, 张春来, 程宏
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 104-108.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.104
    摘要   PDF (698KB)
    对民勤天然绿洲边缘带的固定、半固定及半流动风速灌丛沙丘实地观测表明,气流通过单个固定灌丛沙丘时,近地面平均风速降低4.4%,在965 m观测样线内降低57%,且风是连续降低的,愈靠近内侧降低得愈多,到绿洲内部农田边缘处时,平均风速仅有对照点的21%。深入了解灌丛沙丘对绿洲的防护机理,对于合理保护和恢复绿洲边缘带灌丛沙丘,避免绿洲遭受风沙侵袭具有重要意义。
    The belt of oasis border is usually called as ecotone of desert and oasis,which is mainly composed of shrub dunes.These shrub dunes can be divided into stable dune,semi-stable dune,semi-shift dune and shift dune by coverage of vegetation.A lot of studies have indicated that these shrub dunes are nature roughness unit and they have significant roles on airflow near land surface.They can change airflow structure and interchange of air torrent at boundary layer near land surface.They can also increase resistance of land surface to moving airflow by enhancing aerodynamic roughness length.When airflow blow passed shrub dunes,wind speed will be decreased remarkably because the dunes resist wind.So,shrub dunes in ecotone are very important defending barrier to nature oasis.This research selected a sample line(965m) mainly composed of stable dune,semi-stable dune and semi-shift dune in ecotone of Minqing oasis and one of stable shrub dune as study object.Field observation results indicate that mean wind speed at layers near land surface decrease 4.4% through the sample stable shrub dune and decrease 57% through the sample line.The mean wind velocity is reduced continuously along the sample line.At the edge of cropland inner of oasis,the wind velocity is only 21% referring to reference observation point. But shrub dunes in ecotone of oasis are one kind of the most vulnerable and unstable ecosystem and they are easily vulnerable to become degeneration ecosystem so as to threaten the sustainable development of oasis.The evolutions of shrub dunes are mainly influenced by human activities and climate changes.If they degenerate to be shift dunes,they will change from shelter barrier to be dust bowl.So,attention should be paid not only to the inner but also to the outer of oasis about its protection.Shrub and grass belts should be built in the surroundings while windbreak grid built in the inner and base windbreak built at the edge of oasis.Water is the most important factor to the stableness of the ecotone.It is significant for the sustainable development of oasis to supply sufficient ecological water utilized to realize the stableness of the belts of oasis border,at the same time,all kinds of human destruction activities should be forbidden.
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    地貌形态分类的数量化研究
    高玄彧
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 109-114.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.109
    摘要   PDF (806KB)
    用数量分析法进行地貌分类时会遇到数据怎么量取、样本的基本单位怎么选择、样本基本单位的界线怎么定、样本选择多少为宜等问题,文章就这些问题的解决做了探索。最后分析并讨论了用数量分析法得出的分类结果,得出用数量法进行地貌分类时以细致、定量、综合、三性优于传统分类法的结论。
    For decades,people have studied geomorphological classification in different ways and from different perspectives,and much progress has been made and each scheme has played a role in the development of geomorphology.In recent years,a statistical method has used to study geomorphology widely.This study empirically shows that it is also possible to classify geomorphological forms using mathematic method.It is different from the traditional method of classification.The main principle of quantitative analysis is to consider all factors synthetically,contrast all the data of each sample and make a classification grade according to the degree of similarity.The most similar and smallest geomorphological unit is taken into the first degree,the next most similar and small geomorphologic unit into next degree,the more different and bigger geomorphologic units into next and next degrees.We continue to proceed in this manner until we can classify the whole area’s geomorphological forms. This paper considers computer based quantitative analysis as a means to classify the geomorphological forms of Liangcheng County.It discusses a quantitative method of classifying geomorphological forms.As with the introduction of any new method to a subject,there are a number of technical challenges to be solved. Here we make a thorough investigation of problems such as how to measure and obtain data,how to select the basic sample units,how to determine the sample boundary lines,the optimum number of samples to take,etc.using quantitativeing analysis to classify geomorphologic forms,which has advantages over traditional classification in three aspects: detail,quantification and synthesis.
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    两种统计分析模型在CVM应用中的比较研究
    李华生, 徐慧, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 115-120.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.115
    摘要   PDF (743KB)
    学术界普遍认为条件价值法(CVM)是生物多样性非使用价值评估的唯一方法,但其中存在许多问题需进一步完善。针对条件价值法评估结果的准确性和有效性问题,以安徽省鹞落坪国家级自然保护区为例,通过将以往一贯采用的单纯随机抽样评估模型与分层随机抽样评估模型结果的分析比较,认为分层抽样评估模型可在一定程度上提高评估结果准确性和有效性。
    Although the Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) is considered as an only method to evaluate the non-use value of biodiversity and other environmental resources by scholars abroad and at home,there still exist some undefinite factors such as the accuracy and availability of the valuing outcome and various error etc.To improve the accuracy and availability of the outcome of the method,the authors raise another statistical model,i.e.,stratified random sampling model,and compare it with simple random sampling model which is usually used.The case study was chosen in Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve which preserves plants and animals of sub-tropical zone in China.On the basis of the statistic data of questionaire in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces,the two statistical models are applied and compared in this paper.The mean WTP(willingness to pay) of Anhui and Jiangsu procince is 14.2 yuan(RMB) and 42 yuan acoording to the outcome of the questionaire.The mean WTP of the simple random sampling method is 47.8 yuan per person while that of stratified random sampling method is 28.6 yuan per person,so the total WTP of the two methods is 331 335?106 yuan/a and 198 039 million yuan/a respectively.The result indicates that the outcome of the stratified random sampling method is 60% of that of the simple random sampling method,and the former can improve the accuracy and availability of the outcome comparing with that of simple random sampling method to some degree.The authors show that the stratified random sampling method is an alternative approach though it has some deficiencies initiated from CVM method itself.
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    多层次灰色评价方法在旅游者感知研究中的应用
    汪侠, 顾朝林, 梅虎
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 121-126.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.121
    摘要   PDF (799KB)
    旅游者感知是旅游者通过感官获得的对旅游地的旅游对象、旅游环境条件等信息的心理过程。旅游者感知评价涉及的因素很多,评价信息的不完备性和不确切性,决定了感知评价的灰色性,针对这一特点,将层次分析法和灰色理论相结合进行旅游者感知的综合评价。首先分析了影响旅游者感知的关键因素,并在此基础上构建了旅游者感知评价指标体系;然后运用层次分析法确定各评价指标的权重;最后依据评价模型以大桂林旅游圈的五个主要旅游地为例,对旅游者感知进行了综合评价。实证研究表明,旅游者感知的多层次灰色评价所得结果客观、可信,能够为旅游地的规划、管理和营销提供决策的依据。
    Tourist perception is a psychological process through which tourist obtains information on travel target,environment of tourist destination.The evaluation of tourist perception involves a lot of factors,and the appraising information is not complete and exact entirely,which determines the gray nature of the evaluation system.Direct to this characteristic,this article makes the comprehensive evaluation of tourist perception by way of combining the AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) and Grey Theory.First,key factors that influence tourist perception are analyzed and the evaluation index system of tourist perception is then set up.Second,the weights of each index are obtained through AHP method.Finally,taking the five main tourism destinations in the Mega-Guilin Tourism Circle for examples,this article applies the method into the evaluation process.The empirical study shows that the result of the multilevel grey evaluation of tourist perception is objective and reliable.It can offer reference for the decision-making of planning,management and marketing of tourist destination.
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    松嫩平原重要湿地恢复研究进展
    佟守正, 吕宪国
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (1): 127-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.01.127
    摘要   PDF (339KB)
    松嫩平原位于中国东北北部,属半湿润半干旱气候区,主要由松花江、嫩江冲积而成,湿地分布广泛。在平原西部分布有扎龙、向海、科尔沁、莫莫格等多个重要的国家级湿地自然保护区,这些湿地在均化洪水、调节区域气候、净化水质、提供珍稀物种栖息地等方面发挥着重要作用。近年来,湿地生态系统结构受到不同程度的破坏,湿地退化,生态功能趋于下降。
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