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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2009年, 第29卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2009-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    辽宁沿海地区循环经济发展综合评价
    韩增林;王泽宇;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 147-153.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.147
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    辽宁沿海地区循环经济发展综合评价
    韩增林, 王泽宇
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 147-153.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.147
    摘要   PDF (913KB)
    科学构建循环经济评价指标体系,评价和监测循环经济发展的状态和程度,是循环经济研究的重要内容,是地区实现可持续发展的依据。基于国家规定循环经济评价指标体系,应用层次分析法对辽宁沿海地区循环经济发展进行评价,结果表明:大连是循环经济发展态势较好地区;葫芦岛、丹东是循环经济发展有待加强地区;营口、锦州、盘锦是急需加快循环经济发展的重点地区。并提出今后循环经济发展的重点和方向及加快辽宁沿海地区循环经济发展的对策、建议。
    With a share of the 13.4% of the land area, China's coastal areas create 60% of the GNP and provide 41% of the jobs for whole country. It can be said that the coastal areas’ economic development have made great contribution to the national economy. But with the rapid economic development, the negative effects on the environment and resources are also increasingly apparent: about 70% of the nation's coastal cities in short of water resources, about 60% of the cities experience varying degrees of electricity shortfall, the marine environment pollution is serious and red tide and other disasters occur from time to time. Liaoning coastal areas (Dalian, Dandong, Yingkou, Panjin, Jinzhou, Huludao) have shortage of freshwater resources, electricity and other energy shortages in varying degrees. Inshore fisheries resources decrease progressively. Jinzhou, Yingkou and other places have no fish flood for years, and they had only a small number of Jellyfish production. Within the scope of Liaoning Province, Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea’s environmental quality also have deterioration with varying degrees, and the Bohai Sea’s pollution has drawn the close attention of the whole society. In addition, there are many industries layout in coastal areas of Liaoning, such as petrochemicals, shipbuilding, coal, cement, salt,chemical industries and so on. These industries are consuming large energy resources and making environmental pollution. Therefore, only through the development of recycle economy, the coastal areas can achieve economy, resources and the environment’s sustainable development. Scientific evaluation of the indicator system for recycle economic will, evaluate and monitor the state of economic development and degree which is an important part of recycle economy research and is also the basis for the region sustainable development. Based on Chinese recycle economy evaluation index system, applying AHP to evaluate the recycle economy development of the coastal areas of Liaoning, the evaluation is made in this article. The results showed that Dalian is the better region of recycle economic development; the recycle economies in Dandong and Huludao need to be strengthened; Yingkou, Panjin, Jinzhou are the most urgent areas to accelerate development. The focus and direction of recycle economy is to accelerate the park dimension and social dimension of economic development and build the eco-industrial parks and recycling-oriented society. Dalian should further reduce energy consumption, especially reduce water consumption, further vigorous development of seawater desalination industry and the direct use industry, increase the "reduction" efforts and further strengthen the use of recycled waste. Dandong should reduce energy consumption, enhance waste recycling and strengthen the economic development of the relevant infrastructure construction. Yingkou, Panjin, Jinzhou should comprehensively strengthen energy efficiency, waste recycling and renewable resources industries. Based on the existing industries we should develop high-tech industries, implement cleaner production, optimize the existing industrial structure. Huludao should enhance the overall development of recycle economy then combine the key industries with the "energy saving, emission reduction" efforts to improve energy output rate and reduce energy consumption, and reduce waste emissions.
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    广交会与2010年亚运会对广州酒店空间格局的影响
    彭青;张骁鸣;曾国军;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 154-160.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.154
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    广交会与2010年亚运会对广州酒店空间格局的影响
    彭青, 张骁鸣, 曾国军
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 154-160.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.154
    摘要   PDF (882KB)
    2010年亚运会落户广州,有关这一重大事件对城市酒店业发展的影响的研究已提上日程。对广州来说,已具有50余年历史的广交会(中国进出口商品交易会)是这个城市常年举办的一项大型活动。在广州酒店形成5个主要集群区的过程中,广交会作为主要的社会经济推动力量之一,发挥着重要的影响。结合对多年统计数据的整理以及对亚运会实际需求的分析预测,指出广交会作为一种周期性事件(periodic event),对于广州酒店业的长期稳定发展具有更重要的战略意义。
    Guangzhou's bid for the 2010 Asian Games initiates the discussion on the impact of this event on the city's hotels. However, Guangzhou has hosted a periodical event for more than 50 years: the Canton Fair (China Import & Export Fair). This event, as well as other socioeconomic factors, has shown its impact on the spatial aggregation pattern which results in five cluster areas of hotels in the central city of Guangzhou. This research conducts a geographical and descriptively statistical comparison of the demands between the 2010 Asian Games and the Canton Fair. The main findings includes: 1) The spatial distribution of Guangzhou's hotels clearly demonstrates the impact of the Canton Fair. Hotels tend to aggregate around the exhibition centers of the Canton Fair or along the roads that have convenient communication with those centers; 2) However, the dynamics that results in the cluster areas should not only attribute to the Canton Fair, whilst some other factors like the attraction of the central business district (CBD) or the government's policy of land use also plays a important role; 3) The 2010 Asian Games brings with the restructuring of hotels, the diversity of operation modes, and the service quality enhancement, but it will not remarkably change the spatial aggregation pattern of Guangzhou's hotels mainly because it is a one-time event and the estimating tourists can be easily accommodated by existent rooms after some pointed improvement. What should be emphasized here is that the more appropriate strategy for Guangzhou's hotel development is to match the supply with the demand increment of periodic event like the Canton Fair but not with the seemingly attractive opportunity brought by the one-time event.
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    东北三省资源环境基础的比较分析
    段海燕;陈英姿;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 161-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.161
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    东北三省资源环境基础的比较分析
    段海燕, 陈英姿
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 161-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.161
    摘要   PDF (385KB)
    东北地区的自然资源禀赋条件较好,森林、水、土地、能源和矿产5大类资源均有相当基础,以这5类资源作为评估指标,比较分析东北三省的资源环境基础保障程度。计算结果显示,黑龙江省资源环境基础保障程度最高、吉林省次之、辽宁省最低;三省资源环境基础整体均呈下降趋势,尤其是辽宁省的环境安全已达临界,应尽快采取措施加以保障。东北三省5种资源要素基础保障程度系数纵向排序各有不同,这与各省的资源禀赋、人口和经济发展等因素紧密相关。分析显示,增强东北地区的资源环境基础保障程度应提高资源利用效率、开发利用替代能源、贯彻执行国家政策分配节能减排指标,把东北地区建设成为"资源节约、环境友好"型地区。
    Northeast China has a better natural resources conditions. Five kinds of resourses which include water, forest, cultivated land, energy and minerals in Northeast China have considerable foundation. Make the five resourses as the evaluation index to compare the Resources and Environment Foundation Degree (REFD) of three Northeast Provinces. The results show that the REFD of Jilin province is higher than Liaoning province, and the REFD of Heilongjiang province is the highest. the REFD in Northeast China has a downward trend. The Environmental safety of Liaoning province has reach a Critical Point, it must take measures to guarantee environmental safety.The Resources and Environment Safety Index (PRESI) of five resourses elements in three provinces have different longitudinal sort, which are closely related to the factors such as natural resources, population and economic development of the provinces. Analysis shows that in order to enhance the REFD in Northeast China we should improve resources utilization,develop and use of alternative energy sources, implement the national policies to allocate the compulsory energy-saving emissions targets. All of these will be significance to make Northeast China to be a resource-saving, environment-friendly society.
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    基于社会属性的北京城市居民居住环境安全性评价
    余建辉;张文忠;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 167-173.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.167
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    基于社会属性的北京城市居民居住环境安全性评价
    余建辉, 张文忠
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 167-173.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.167
    摘要   PDF (1056KB)
    以北京市城八区和外城五个有代表性的地区为调查研究对象,以2005年的大规模调查问卷为基础数据,运用数理统计和GIS分析手段对北京城市居民自身居住环境安全性的评价做出分析。结果显示,北京市居民对自身居住环境安全性总体较为满意,但不同类型人群对居住环境安全性的评价差别明显,其中高知青年和富裕人群的满意度最高,而贫困老年人群满意度最差。从空间差异来看,内城和城北是安全性评价较好的地区,外城和城南地区评价较差,城市东西方向上的评价值无明显空间差别。
    On the background of continued expansion and population growth of Beijing, the living environment safety is becoming more and more important and get increased emphasis by researchers. Based on the large-scale survey in 2005, this study used the method of qualitative interviews and the survey data analysis to give the evaluation of residents’ living environment safety in eight districts and the suburbs of five representative region including a total of 134 communities. Through analyzing the four indicators which can indicate the residents’ living environment safety, the article made on evaluation of breakdown and overall rating of living environment safety. Then, the article compared the result of the evaluation and residents’ social attribute, and discussed the attribute’s effects on the evaluation. At last, it concluded the spatial distribution of evaluation of the residents’ living environment safety through a GIS analysis. The conclusion shows that the residents evaluate that living environment safety in Beijing is in a general level. Among the four indicators, the evaluation scores of the security situation and traffic safety situation are much higher than that of the government safety management and the situation of Emergency Evacuation Sites(EES). This difference indicates that the government have done well in the traditional field of living safety, but the soft environment of management and the site building for emergency are not as good as the former. Using the ways of principle component analysis and cluster analysis, the thesis tries to integrate all the residents’ characteristics into two main integrated factors, which are the level of education of and the level of richness. Then, according to the result of trying to divide all the residents into five groups with those two different integrated attributes, the paper reveals that the poor old man has the lowest evaluation among the five groups, and the high-educated youth and rich people have the highest one. This result is highly correlated with their social characteristics. On the view from space, the inner city evaluation higher than the other regions because of the long-term traditional development difference. The north part of the city marks a higher score than the south part because of the same reason above. There is no obvious difference between the east part and the west part of the city. The areas around Sijiqing, Xinjiekou and northeast part of suburb of Chaoyang District have the highest scores of the evaluation. The regions which have the lowest scores are the southeast part of Beijing, Tiantongyuan, Huilongguan and Sujiatuo.
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    北京居住与就业的空间错位研究
    徐涛;宋金平;方琳娜;张宁;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 174-180.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.174
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    北京居住与就业的空间错位研究
    徐涛, 宋金平, 方琳娜, 张宁
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 174-180.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.174
    摘要   PDF (771KB)
    宏观上将北京作为一个整体,借助于空间错位指数,研究1982、1990和2000年不同地域范围的空间错位情况;微观上,利用调查问卷数据分析边缘区居民通勤的时间、距离、方式及费用。研究发现,宏观上,北京市不同地域范围的空间错位指数及其变化是不同的,北京市20世纪90年代之前空间错位不明显,1982和1990年的空间错位指数(SMI)分别是3.13和1.98,此后以年均增长1.48个点的速度达到2000年的16.81;中心城区三年的SMI非常低且随时间缓慢增长,2000年时仍小于1;城八区的SMI在20年来不断增大且加速发展;同时就业远离居民、居民追逐就业,空间错位的强度取决于两者作用的强弱。微观研究发现,居民就地或就近就业的比例较低,超过50%的通勤者通勤距离在10~40km之间且每天通勤时间超过1h,通勤方式以公交、地铁和私家车为主,通勤距离和时间的增长并没有带来费用的相应增长,50%的通勤者每月通勤费用在100元以下。居住与就业的空间错位,导致通勤给居民带来的经济上的压力很小,长时间通勤带来的时间消耗及由此引起的精神消耗才是最主要的。
    researchers of America have been studying the spatial mismatch between housing and employment for more than thirty years. However, it is just begining in China. Along with the urbanization and suburbanization of China, the spatial mismatch has already appeared in some big cities in China, such as Beijing and Shanghai. Although the essential of the spatial mismatch is uniform, the reason, the form and the exhibition of the spatial mismatch are different compared to overseas research. This paper makes both a macroscopical and a microcosmic analysis on the spatial mismatch between housing and employment in Beijing. On the macroscopical level, this paper makes Beijing as a whole and analyses the spatial mismatch in different area in virtue of spatial mismatch index(SMI) in 1982, 1990 and 2000; On the microcosmic level, this paper uses questionnaire to study the time, distance, manner and cost of commute of urban fringe inhabitant. It was found that, on the macroscopical level, the SMIs of different regions in Beijing are different, and so are their changes. The phenomenon is not evident before 1990, the SMIs of 1982 and 1990 are respectively 3.13 and 1.98, from then on it grows faster to 16.81 in 2000 by the rate of 1.48 point every year. The SMIs of the center of the city are low, also grow smoothly and slowly still less than 1 in 2000. The SMIs of the eight regions grow faster in the twenty years, and the rate of the 1990s is about eight times as many as of the 1980s. Meanwhile, a trend was found that the employment keeps away from the resident, while the resident runs for the employment, and the intensity of the spatial mismatch lies on which is much stronger. If the action of the employment is much stronger, then the employment runs away from the residential area, and the spatial mismatch will be strengthened. Otherwise, if the action of population movement is much stronger, people runs for the employment, and the spatial mismatch will be lightened. On the microcosmic level, the research found that the proportion of commuter works locally and handly is very low. While more than half of the commuters travel from 10 to 40 km everyday, it cost more than one hour, and the manners of traffic are mostly bus, subway and private car. The growth of distance and time does not accordingly bring the growth of the cost, the cost of about half of the commuters is less than100 yuan (RMB). The spatial mismatch brings little economic pressure, however, it brings long-time cost and spirit-consume along that. The spatial mismatch between housing and employment in Beijing has brought forth a series of problems, except for what we mentioned. Hereinbefore, there still exists a lot questions, such as seeing a doctor and children’s education, they are also segregated from information and employment chances away from the center of the city. Community polarization already exists, community space polarization appears, so it is very important to study the mismatch problem in this background.
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    辽中城市群范围界定与规模结构分形研究
    黄建毅;张平宇;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 181-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.181
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    辽中城市群范围界定与规模结构分形研究
    黄建毅, 张平宇
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 181-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.181
    摘要   PDF (865KB)
    辽中城市群作为东北老工业基地的核心地域,目前正处于经济转型的关键阶段。基于引力模型,结合城市群的城市交通流分析,首先对辽中城市群范围进行了界定。在此基础上,采用分形理论与方法对辽中城市群的人口、经济规模结构的分维值进行了测算,结果表明辽中城市群的人口规模分维值大于1,而经济规模分维值小于1,人口经济空间分布不均衡、分布错位,地区间经济发展水平差距较大,这与该地区的产业结构特点和开发历史有着密切关系。运用灰色关联度分析方法进一步研究了辽中城市群的分维值影响因素,发现科学支出与固定资产投资完成总额的影响显著。
    Central Liaoning urban agglomeration as the core region of Northeast Old Industrial Base, is on the critical stage of economic transformation process presently. The size structure of the population and economy in the Central Liaoning urban agglomeration is analyzed by fractal method in this paper on the background of revitalizing the Northeast Old Industrial Base, new type industrialization and new type urbanization. There are many arguments on the delimitation of Central Liaoning urban agglomeration area, so this paper tries to make a definition of the confines of the central Liaoning urban agglomeration in two aspects, namely the city gravitational value, and the traffic flow analysis. Compared to the other cities, the gravitational values between Shengyang and Yingkou are smallest, and the socio-economic links of the two cities are weakest. Central Liaoning agglomeration should include Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi, Liaoyang, Fushun and Tieling. Then this paper calculates the fractal dimensions of the population size and economy size. The fractal dimensions of the population and the economy size show that the distribution of population in Central Liaoning agglomeration is uniform, conversely, the distribution of the economy is convergent. The spatial distribution of the economy and population is inconsistent, so the regional economic gap is distinctive. It has a close relationship with the industrial structure and development history of this region. The regional economy is almost capital-intensive industry, it is unable to absorb large number of labor force as labor-intensive industry, so the more developed cities have high economic density but low population density. In order to probe into the fractal mechanism of the population and economy size, this paper uses the grey relational analysis method to analyze the main factors of the fractal dimension. The results indicate that the science expenditure and completion of the total investment in fixed assets are the main effective factors.
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    基于元分维模型的江苏城镇体系空间均衡特征分析
    崔世林;龙毅;周侗;王丽琴;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 188-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.188
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    基于元分维模型的江苏城镇体系空间均衡特征分析
    崔世林, 龙毅, 周侗, 王丽琴
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 188-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.188
    摘要   PDF (473KB)
    基于滑动窗口的局部分维分析方法——元分维模型,采用2005年江苏省城镇基础数据,对江苏省1850个城镇及街道办的空间均衡程度进行定量测度,结果表明:①江苏城镇体系空间均衡程度差异明显,自南向北存在一定程度的空间梯度递减,其中江苏南部城镇分布最为密集且较为均衡,江苏中部次之,而江苏北部除徐州市区外,均衡程度较低;②江苏城镇分布上东部比西部均衡;③江苏城镇轴线集中发展的分布特征突出,沿长江分布的无锡、常州、苏州、镇江、扬州、泰州、南通、南京8个地区城镇分布密集,且均衡程度较高;④城镇体系的空间均衡程度与城市化水平基本一致。实验证明,元分维模型可以用于定量分析特定尺度下的城镇局部空间均衡程度的差异。
    The spatial pattern of urban system in the result of the location selection is formed mainly through the economic activities and the population migration in history. It is an important part of the study of the urban system taking towns in Jiangsu Province as a point in a geographical space in order to discover the spatial distribution of the towns and to analyze the formation of the internal mechanism of this type. There are four methods of the urban system’s spatial structure research widely used currently. They are nearest neighbor point index, neighboring point’s average, variation coefficient of the Voronoi area and counting numbers of the individual goals in a grid using Keermagefu-Shimiernuofu formula and Lorenz curve. The methods above cannot describe the local spatial distribution of the point group. This paper uses a Meta Fractal Dimension Model (MFDM) that can be applied to describe the variation of local shape of map objects to measure the spatial structure of 1850 towns and blocks quantitatively using Jiangsu foundational data in 2005. The result shows that: ①Difference of the spatial distribution characteristic is significant and the evenness degree decreases from south to north. Towns in the South of Jiangsu Province distribute intensively and evenly, relatively slight in the middle region and not even in the north except downtown of Xuzhou; ②East region in Jiangsu Province is more even than the west; ③It is obvious that the distribution characteristic of towns, like Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, Zhenjiang, Yangzhou, Taizhou, Nantong and Nanjing developing along the axis of the Yangtze River, is intensive; ④Evenness degree of the urban system is basically consistent with the urbanization level in Jiangsu Province. It is proved that the MFDM is effective to discover the variation of the local spatial distribution characteristic on a certain scale.
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    中国农村居民旅游消费水平及区域差异研究
    刁宗广
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 195-199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.195
    摘要   PDF (664KB)
    依据2005年中国农村居民人均纯收入和2005年《中国国内旅游抽样调查资料》的相关数据,建立统计模型进行统计分析。结果表明:中国农村居民旅游消费水平有其复杂性,经济收入的高低,对游客人均花费和旅游购买力有一定影响,对出游率影响不大。依据各地农村居民人均纯收入,把中国28个省、自治区、直辖市农村居民旅游消费水平划分为三个等级,加权平均求得各地农村居民出游率、游客人均花费、旅游购买力的平均值。各地分布特征显示,三个层次农村居民出游率无显著差别;旅游中消费和旅游低消费地区三项旅游消费指标均无显著差别;旅游高消费地区与其它两个地区在游客人均花费、旅游购买力方面有显著差别。
    Based on China's per capita net income of rural residents in 2004 and relevant data in "China's domestic tourism sampling survey information" this article establishes a statistical model for statistical analysis. The results show that is the tourist consumption of China’s rural residents is complicated i.e. the level of economic income has a certain impact on the per capita tourist spending and tourism purchasing power, but little impact on the excursion rate. According to the per capita net income of rural residents, tourism consumption level of rural residents, 28 Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities, were divided into three grades, and the author obtained average excursion rate, per capita tourist spending, and the tourism purchasing power of every region through the weighed average method. The distribution features of every region show that excursion rate of rural residents in the high, medium and low tourist consumption regions have no significant difference; The medium and low tourist consumption region were no significant difference in average excursion rate, per capita tourist spending, the tourist purchasing powerand; The high tourist consumption region and the other two regions were significant differences in per capita tourist spending and tourism purchasing power.
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    中国农村居民旅游消费水平及区域差异研究
    刁宗广;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 195-199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.195
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    中非旅游合作的现状和未来
    骆高远;陆林;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 200-205.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.200
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    中非旅游合作的现状和未来
    骆高远, 陆林
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 200-205.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.200
    摘要   PDF (884KB)
    中非合作论坛北京峰会的成功召开表明,中国愿意与非洲国家共同努力,尽快摆脱贫困,共享发展成果,走向共同富裕。从非洲概况和非洲旅游资源的优势、特征及旅游市场的现状和未来着手,针对非洲旅游市场存在的问题,提出中非旅游合作的思路和对策。对当代非洲旅游开展全方位的研究,就是为开展全方位中非旅游合作作准备;为尽快摆脱贫困,共享发展成果,走向共同富裕献计献策。
    The harmonious developments of Africa and China-Africa relation are essential to the world’s development. Beijing Summit of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation makes it known that China would like to make great efforts to help African people shake off poverty, share the achievements and walk toward the common prosperity. Proceeding from the general situation and major tourism resources of Africa, and combining with the actuality and the future relationship of China and Africa, this paper points out that expanding tourism is one of the best choice to the social and economic development of Africa. The article emphasizes the comprehensive study of African tourism is to prepare for the China-Africa tour cooperation, to offer numerous proposals and suggestions for helping African people shake off poverty, share the achievements and walk toward to the common prosperity.
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    毛乌素沙地历史沙漠化过程与人地关系
    黄银洲;王乃昂;何彤慧;程弘毅;赵力强;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 206-211.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.206
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    毛乌素沙地历史沙漠化过程与人地关系
    黄银洲, 王乃昂, 何彤慧, 程弘毅, 赵力强
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 206-211.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.206
    摘要   PDF (975KB)
    通过对毛乌素沙地东南缘的一处沉积剖面的粒度分析,揭示该区历史时期的环境变化过程。结果表明:毛乌素沙地历史时期环境一直处于退化之中,主要经历唐中后期和明后期的两次沙漠活化过程。剖面记录的这两次沙漠化与历史文献及考古发现可以相互印证,因此剖面结果对阐释历史文献的记载具有很好的补充作用,同时历史文献也验证了剖面结果的可信性。这两次沙漠活化使毛乌素沙地环境严重退化,尤其是明代后期发生的沙漠化是形成现代地表景观的主要原因。由于此次沙漠化过程与气候过程不一致,因此明末至今的沙漠化与人类活动相关。
    Based on the grain size analysis of the Baoningbu (BNB) section situated in the south-east of the Mu Us Desert, the authors investigated the processes and the causes of historical desertification of the desert. The results indicate that two phases of desertification, namely at the mid-to-end Tang Dynasty and at the end of the Ming Dynasty, are documented by the section. The two phases of desertification greatly made the environment of the Mu Us Desert deteriorate, especially for the second one, which formed the present landscape of the Mu Us Desert. The two phases of desertification are corroborated by historical records and archaeological data. Therefore the results are highly reliable. With a comparison of climate change, we suggest that the desertification occurring at the end of the Ming Dynasty was highly related to the human activities.
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    中国严寒和寒冷地区城镇住宅采暖耗能影响因素分析——以吉林省为例
    陈莉;李帅;方修琦;陈坤;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 212-216.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.212
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    中国严寒和寒冷地区城镇住宅采暖耗能影响因素分析——以吉林省为例
    陈莉, 李帅, 方修琦, 陈坤
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 212-216.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.212
    摘要   PDF (1241KB)
    以吉林省为例,在假设历年采暖建筑物标准室温为18℃和不同建筑物热工特性相同的前提下,认为在一定建筑设计标准下,直接影响严寒和寒冷地区城镇住宅采暖耗能的因子主要有采暖强度、城镇人口数、人均住宅建筑面积。以1978年城镇人口数、城镇人均住宅建筑面积为经济资料的基准值,以1971~2000年采暖强度的30a平均值作为气候条件的基准值,得到采暖耗能基准值,进而计算1979年开始的逐年采暖耗能变化值,得出无论气候变暖或变冷,由于城镇人口、人均住宅建筑面积不断增加,使各地采暖耗能增加。气候是目前为止唯一可以起到降低能耗作用的因子。
    Based on average daily temperature data and socio-economic statistical data, such as urban population and per captia housing area in Jinlin Province, influence factor analysis of urban residential heating energy consumption in severe cold and cold regions in China, a case of Jilin Province, is conducted. Two hypotheses are made first. The first one is that indoor temperature is always 18℃ in urban residential buildings. The second is that architecture thermal performance is same. Based on hypotheses above, some conclusions are drawed: Under given architecture design standard, three factors, including heating intensity, urban population, per capita urban housing area, affect directly urban residential heating energy consumption in severe cold and cold regions. Heating intensity is calculated by using degree-day method. While calculating heating intensity, two parameters are very important. One is the temperature which is 5℃ to determine the start and end dates for heating and the other is the base tmeprature which is 18℃ to calculate the heating intensity. These two temperature parameters are determined by"Code for Design of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (GB50019-2003)" and "Energy Conservation Design Standard for New Heating Residential Buildings (JCJ26-95)", respectively. In order to analyze changes of energy consumption for heating, the base energy consumption for heating is defined first. Urban population and per capita urban housing area in 1978 are considered as base socio-economics values. The average value of heating intensity during 1971-2000 is considered as base climatic value. The base energy consumption for heating is determined by the base urban population, base per capita urban housing area and base heating intensity. Based on the base energy consumption for heating, annual variation of energy consumption and contribution rates of three factors affecting energy consumption for urban residential heating are analyzed. In general, amount of heating energy consumption tends to increase inevitably because population and per capita housing area increase continuously. Among three factors, climate is the only one, which can act to save energy. In severe cold and cold region (such as Jilin Province), contribution of per capita urban housing area is the biggest to the increase of urban residential heating energy consumption.
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    7000年来渤海西岸、南岸海岸线变迁
    薛春汀;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 217-222.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.217
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    7000年来渤海西岸、南岸海岸线变迁
    薛春汀
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 217-222.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.217
    摘要   PDF (643KB)
    渤海西岸、南岸从全新世海侵边界至现在海岸线之间的海岸低地是7000aB.P.以来多个三角洲进积的结果。由于黄河入海泥沙数量巨大,导致下游河道频繁摆动,活动三角洲(超级叶瓣)位置多次变迁。滦河三角洲活动叶瓣位置也多次变迁。海岸线变迁受三角洲演化控制:活动期推进、废弃初期后退和之后的长期稳定,表现分片突进模式。整体来说研究区各时期海岸线表现出局部突出、局部内凹特点。在这样的三角洲群地区不可能出现近乎匀速的平推式海岸变迁。
    The coastal lowland between the Holocene transgression extreme and present coastline is prograded by several river deltas: the Luanhe River Delta, old Yongding River-old Chaobai River Delta, old Ziya River-old Daqing River Delta, Haihe River Delta, Huanghe(Yellow) River Delta and Weihe River-Mihe River Delta. The change of the coastline is controlled by evolution of these deltas: progradation in the active stage of the delta lobe or delta superlobe, retreat in the early time of the abandoned stage and then stabilization. The tremendous sediment discharge of the Huanghe River results in shifting of the delta superlobe and projection of the local coastline.
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    兴安岭多年冻土退化特征
    金会军;王绍令;吕兰芝;于少鹏;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 223-228.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.223
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    兴安岭多年冻土退化特征
    金会军, 王绍令, 吕兰芝, 于少鹏
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 223-228.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.223
    摘要   PDF (1132KB)
    受气候变暖和人为活动的共同影响,过去数十年来兴安岭山区的多年冻土退化显著。冻土退化南部快于北部、城镇快于田野、农田快于林区、采伐过林区快于原始林区。在局部小范围内,冻土退化顺序为先高后低、先山上后谷地(或盆地中心)、先阳坡后阴坡。冻土退化程序从农田(或裸地)→草地→灌丛→林地→沼泽湿地,依次冻土退化由快到慢。纬度和高度地带性控制冻土退化特征,但局地因素亦对其产生重要影响,造成小范围内冻土特征的突变。人为活动已经、正在并将对兴安岭冻土退化和寒区生态环境产生重要影响。
    Due to the combined influences of climate warming and anthropogenic activities, permafrost degradation has accelerated during the last decades. Permafrost has been degrading more rapidly in the southern parts and urbanized areas, and in the cultivated and felled or cleared woodlands than in the northern parts, countryside, forested areas, and primeval forests. Permafrost degrades sooner at higher elevation, on the mountains, and on sunny slopes than at lower elevation, in the valleys and on the shadowy slopes. Permafrost degrades more readily and more rapidly in the following order of the cultivated or barren land, grasslands, shrubs, woodlands, and wetlands. The latitudinal and elevational zoning controls permafrost degradation, but local factors also have important influences, resulting in abrupt changes in permafrost conditions. In particular, anthropogenic activities have played, are playing, and will be playing very important roles in permafrost degradation and changes in cold regions eco-environments in the Hinggan Mountains, the northeastern China. Here human impacts on permafrost degradation might be the most prominent and could result in grave socio-economical and environmental impacts if they are not managed properly and timely.
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    浙江方岩丹霞地貌发育的年代、成因与特色研究
    朱诚;彭华;欧阳杰;张广胜;李兰;俞锦标;朱光耀;李中轩;钟宜顺;朱青;吕文;胡永起;周日良;郑朝贵;吕振荣;胡昶;武弘麟;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 229-237.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.229
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    浙江方岩丹霞地貌发育的年代、成因与特色研究
    朱诚, 彭华, 欧阳杰, 张广胜, 李兰, 俞锦标, 朱光耀, 李中轩, 钟宜顺, 朱青, 吕文, 胡永起, 周日良, 郑朝贵, 吕振荣, 胡昶, 武弘麟
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 229-237.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.229
    摘要   PDF (1143KB)
    方岩丹霞地貌在大地构造上隶属于华南褶皱系构造单元,该单元在燕山运动时期,由于太平洋板块俯冲入欧亚板块之下,促使大陆边缘地壳重新活动。晚侏罗世末至早白垩世,本区构造应力场由晚侏罗世的北西-南东向挤压,转为早白垩世的北东-南西向挤压和北西-南东向的拉张,发育了永康早白垩世断坳盆地,在盆地中沉积了下白垩统永康群馆头组(K1g)、朝川组(K1c)和方岩组(K1f)地层。中生代晚期永康盆地逐渐隆升,结束了红层沉积,遭受侵蚀,方岩地区丹霞地貌密集围谷、密集方山和廊穴等青年期的地貌特点表明该区大规模的抬升发生在较近的地质年代。
    Danxia Landform of Fangyan which located in Yongkang Basin belongs to South China fold system in geotectonic framework, which made fringes of continent become activities again while the Pacific Plate dived under the Eurasian Plate in the period of Yanshan Tectonic-Movement. The ruptured Yongkang Basin was formed as tectonic stress field changing extrusion of NW-SE to extension of NW-SE from later Jurassic to earlier Cretaceous, so strata of Guantou Formation(K1g), Chaochuan Formation (K1c), and Fangyan Formation (K1f) of Yongkang Group in lower Cretaceous were accumulated in the Basin. In late of Mesozoic, the Yongkang Basin uplift gradually, the red-layer sediments ended accumulating and suffer from erosion.The characteristics of the earlier developed stage in Fangyan such as dense encircled valleys, mesas and aisle-liked caves prove that the large-scale uplift tectonic movement in this area should occur in recent geological epoch.
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    退化生态系统土壤微生物种群数量和分布对植被恢复的响应
    毕江涛;贺达汉;黄泽勇;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 238-243.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.238
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    退化生态系统土壤微生物种群数量和分布对植被恢复的响应
    毕江涛, 贺达汉, 黄泽勇
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 238-243.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.238
    摘要   PDF (771KB)
    通过生态退化区不同植被恢复类型对土壤微生物种群数量和分布的影响研究,揭示植被恢复过程中土壤微生物种群的变化。结果表明,沙米荒地、白沙蒿、柠条、沙冬青、人工乔木林+樟子松土壤微生物种群数量和分布明显不同,土壤细菌、真菌、放线菌种群数量差异显著(P<0.05),细菌种群数量最高,其次为放线菌,真菌种群数量最小。通过主成分分析,影响该保护区土壤三大类微生物种群总数量的主要因子是植被、土壤有机质、pH、土壤速效钾、土壤水分含量、土壤全磷和速效磷、土壤放线菌、土层深度、土壤真菌种群数量和土壤全氮含量。
    The impacts of the restored vegetation on soil microbial population number and distribution were studied from 2005 to 2007, for understanding and identifying the changes of soil microbial population and for revealing the microbial mechanism of ecological restoration. The results showed that the five kinds of vegetation restoration had a significant impact on soil microbial population number and distribution. Among the five kinds of restored vegetation, Agriphyllum squarrosum,Artemisia sphaerocephala krasch, Caragana korshinskii,Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, artificial arbor( Robinia pseudoacacia and Pinaceae sylvestris var. mongolicus), the differences of soil bacterial, actinomycetic and fungal population number are statistically significant ( P<0.05).Soil bacterial population number was the highest, and soil actinomycetic population number went next, and fungal one was the least. At 0-15 cm layer in soil profiles, both soil bacterial population number and total soil microbial population number in terms of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi was the highest under the restored Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, and fungal and actinomycetic population number was the highest respectively under restored Artemisia sphaerocephala; at 15-30 cm soil bacterial population number was the highest under Caragana korshinskii, while fungal actinomycetic and the total microbial population number was the highest under Artemisia sphaerocephala krasch; at 30-45 cm soil bacterial, fungal and actinomycetic population number and the total microbial population number were the highest under the restored Ammopiptanthus mongolicus. From principal component analysis, the main impacting factors on the total soil microbial population number in the degraded system are vegetation restoration type, soil organic matter content,pH,soil available K, soil water content, both soil total P and available P, soil actinomycetic population number, soil layer depth, soil fungal population number and soil total N content, which covered 74.036% of the information of the potential influencing elements on it.
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    祁连山林区青海云杉群落种子植物区系分析
    刘建泉;戴君虎;刘兴明;杨全生;郝虎;张元山;丁国民;王学福;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 244-249.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.244
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    祁连山林区青海云杉群落种子植物区系分析
    刘建泉, 戴君虎, 刘兴明, 杨全生, 郝虎, 张元山, 丁国民, 王学福
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 244-249.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.244
    摘要   PDF (329KB)
    根据祁连山林区青海云杉群落16块样地256个样方的调查结果,对青海云杉群落的植物种类和区系成分的多样性进行了研究,结果表明:青海云杉群落共有维管束植物96种,隶属25科52属;科的分布区类型以世界分布科为主,大部分主产温带;属的分布类型以温带性质居多,共31属59种,占总属数的62.26%,表明了青海云杉群落植物区系的温带性质;随海拔高度的变化,群落中不同林型的种数、属数和科数多样性表现出不同的变化规律,科和属的多样性最大值出现在山杨-青海云杉混交林中,种的多样性最大值出现在圆柏-青海云杉混交林中。
    According to field investigation of 16 sampling plots and 256 sampling squares of Picea crassifolia community in the Qilian Mountains, Gansun Province, this paper analyzed the biodiversity of families and genera flora of Picea crassifolia community. The results show that 96 species of advanced plants belong to 25 families and 52 genera. Among them, 31 genera, 62.6% of the total, belong to temperate zone, which show that Picea crassifolia community has the temperate zone characteristic. However, the number of species, families genera of different forest types changes with altitude. The maximum families and genera richness appear in mixed forest of Populus davidiana and Picea crassifolia; while maximum species richness appears in mixed forest of Sabina przewalskii and Picea crassifolia.
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    基于信息扩散理论的气象灾害风险评估方法
    张丽娟;李文亮;张冬有;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 250-254.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.250
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    基于信息扩散理论的气象灾害风险评估方法
    张丽娟, 李文亮, 张冬有
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 250-254.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.250
    摘要   PDF (1016KB)
    基于信息扩散理论提出直接估计低温冷害、干旱和洪涝的风险评估方法,以低温冷害为例,将计算结果与风险指数法和主观频率法做比较。直接估计灾害风险具有:(1)计算过程简单,所需资料少;(2)可对灾害不同级别进行风险评估,利于进行灾害风险评价和区划;(3)此方法可触类旁通,应用到其它自然灾害风险评估;(4)此方法需要的资料年限短等优点,对开展乡(镇)级小区域自然灾害风险评估有借鉴作用。
    This research raised the method in risk assessment of low temperature and cold damage, drought and flood disaster based on information diffusion theory. Taking low temperature and cold damage for example, through a comparison between the calculated results of risk index method and subjective frequency method, direct risk assessment, has obvious advantages: (1) it needs simple calculation process and less information; (2) it helps for risk assessment and zoning through different levels of risk assessment; (3) it can also used into other natural disaster risk assessment; (4) it can do the research of risk assessment in small county and town through information diffusion theory for less information.
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    近46年来中国东部季风区夏季气温变化特征分析
    高蓉;郭忠祥;陈少勇;韩通;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 255-261.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.255
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    近46年来中国东部季风区夏季气温变化特征分析
    高蓉, 郭忠祥, 陈少勇, 韩通
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 255-261.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.255
    摘要   PDF (455KB)
    利用中国东部季风区375个测站夏季平均气温资料,分析季风区夏季气温的变化特征。结果表明:(1)近46a东部季风区夏季气温年平均呈缓慢上升趋势,但淮河流域出现下降趋势;(2)夏季气温稳定性随纬度增加而减小;(3)季风区夏季气温年均增温率0.104℃/10a,全区平均状况看,1970年代中期后开始表现明显上升趋势;(4)季风区夏季气温变化首先表现为全区一致的变化型,然后为南北反相变化型;(5)根据REOF分析将季风区夏季气温异常分6个气候空间类型,东北、华北、江南及华南均呈现上升增温趋势,西南地区增温缓慢,淮河流域则呈现与全球变暖不一致的降温趋势。
    Using the mean summer (June to August)air temperature data of 375 stations in the east monsoon area in China, we analyzed the change characteristic of the summer air temperature of the monsoon area. The result shows that (1) The annual mean summer air temperature of the east monsoon area has presented a slowly upward trend over the 46 years, but it presented a downward trend in the Huaihe River Basin. (2)The stability of summer air temperature decreases with the increased latitude. (3) The mean annual incalescence rate of summer air temperature is 0.104℃/10yr. According to the average condition in the whole region, the summer air temperature has presented an remarkably upward trend since the mid 1970s. (4) The variation of the summer air temperature in the monsoon area presented an all area unanimous model at first, then a north to south opposite phase model. (5) Using the REOF method we detailedly divide the abnormity of the summer air temperature in the east monsoon area into 6 climatic spatial model. According to the linear regression, the summer air temperature presented an upward trend in northeast China, northern China, the south of the Changjiang River and south China and a slowly upward trend in Southwest China. In the Huaihe River Basin it presented a downward trend different from the global warming.
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    基于MODIS数据的长株潭地区NDBI和NDVI与地表温度的关系研究
    历华;柳钦火;邹杰;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 262-267.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.262
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    基于MODIS数据的长株潭地区NDBI和NDVI与地表温度的关系研究
    历华, 柳钦火, 邹杰
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 262-267.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.262
    摘要   PDF (935KB)
    基于4个季节的MODIS影像,计算长株潭地区的地表温度、NDBI和NDVI,比较NDBI和NDVI与地表温度之间关系,对地表城市热岛效应研究的指标NDBI和NDVI进行对比分析。结果表明,NDBI与4个季节的地表温度间都存在明显的线性关系,而NDVI与地表温度间关系并不明显且随季节发生变化,说明NDBI是地表城市热岛效应研究的有效指标,在地表城市热岛效应的季节变化研究中NDBI可作为NDVI的一个附加指标。
    This paper compares the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as indicators of surface urban heat island (SUHI) effects in MODIS imagery by investigating the relationships between the land surface temperature (LST), NDBI and the NDVI. MODIS data were used to estimate the LST, NDBI and NDVI from four different dates for Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metropolitan area. Our analysis indicates that there is a strong linear relationship between LST and NDBI, whereas the relationship between LST and NDVI is much less strong and varies by season. This result suggests NDBI is an accurate indicator of SUHI effects and can be used as a complementary metric to the traditionally applied NDVI for analyzing LST quantitatively over the seasons for SUHI studies.
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    三峡库区消落区自然条件及其开发利用评价——以重庆库区为例
    苏维词;赵纯勇;杨华;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 268-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.268
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    三峡库区消落区自然条件及其开发利用评价——以重庆库区为例
    苏维词, 赵纯勇, 杨华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 268-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.268
    摘要   PDF (312KB)
    三峡水库是中国特大型水利枢纽工程,到2009年水库全部建成运行后将出现一个落差达30m、面积达348.93km2的消落区。阐述了消落区的自然条件、特征:消落区地貌和土壤类型多样,可以发展多种经营;消落区成陆面积大,成陆期较长(超过120d),与同期丰富的光热水资源构成优势组合,使消落区土地具有较高的生产潜力;但同时消落区生态环境脆弱,土地的开发可能产生一定的生态风险。据此,从消落区规划、土地权属管理、土地开发的优化途径、生态风险预警与控制等方面提出了系列建议,为合理制定消落区的保护利用规划提供参考。
    Three Gorges Reservoir is the biggest one of water conservancy and control projects in the world. After the accomplishment of Three Gorges Reservoir, a 30-m high water-level-fluctuating zone(WLFZ) with an area of 348.93 km2 will appear along the both banks. On the one hand, the zone will be of special value for developing diversified economy because there are varied types of landforms and soils; even more there will be not only a land of about 348.93 km2 for a considerable period (more than 120 day) of time in a year, but also a better matching relation between precipitation and heat in Summer. On the other hand, the eco-environment of the zone is very fragile, where utilization may induce some environmental problems which affect eco-environment safety of the Three Gorges Reservoir. So the authors, from the development and protection plan of WLFZ, land rights and interests management, the optimum ways of land utilization, forecast and controlling measurements of ecological-risk, etc., suggested some matters and proposals for exploring and protecting of WLFZ. It will provide scientific basis for the planning and development of WLFZ of Three Gorges Reservoir.
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    基于~(137)Cs示踪法的丹江口小流域农用地土壤侵蚀研究
    张利华;李辉;张艳艳;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 273-277.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.273
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    基于137Cs示踪法的丹江口小流域农用地土壤侵蚀研究
    张利华, 李辉, 张艳艳
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 273-277.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.273
    摘要   PDF (882KB)
    运用137Cs示踪技术,采用相关土壤侵蚀定量估算模型,探讨丹江口市小流域不同土地利用方式和土壤类型的土壤侵蚀状况。结果表明:研究区137Cs本底值为2153.46Bq/m2;耕作土剖面中137Cs呈均一分布,非耕作土剖面中137Cs呈指数递减分布;不同土地利用方式下农用地土壤侵蚀速率从大到小依次为沟谷旱地>坡耕地>菜田>水田>草地;不同土壤类型结合不同地貌形态呈现不同的侵蚀速率,依次为低山丘陵区的石灰土>粘质的黄棕壤土>紫色土和砂质潮土;坡耕地的土壤侵蚀呈现垂直分异特征。
    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the catchment area for the South-to-North Water Transfer (middle line) Project in China. Danjiangkou City is the main part of Danjiangkou Reservoir area, water surface area in this city accounts for 45% of the total Danjiangkou Reservoir water area. Cesium-137(137Cs) with a half-life of 30.17 years is a man-made product resulting from thermonuclear weapon testing from the 1950s to 1970s.After reaching the soil surface, 137Cs fallout can be adsorbed strongly and rapidly by soil organic matter and clay materials, and it is extremely difficult to substitute for this adsorption and most likely move with soil materials which has made 137Cs a valuable erosion tracer. Based on 137Cs tracer method and some soil erosion estimating models, the distribution of 137Cs and the soil erosion rate on the agricultural lands of Danjiangkou City, Hubei Province were studied. Reference site with stable vegetation coverage and receiving little or no runoff since the onset of 137Cs fallout was chosen according to the topographic map of the 1950s in this study, and the 137Cs reference value was estimated to be 2153.46Bq/m2. Most of 137Cs in the uncultivated sites is distributed within the top 20 cm from surface, with retention of 80% of the 137Cs in the upper 10 cm and sharp drop in 137Cs activity below the depth, and exhibits exponential vertical distribution pattern. The vertical distribution of 137Cs for the cultivated sites show a uniform distribution pattern due to cultivation practices, and the plough layer is the distribution depth of 137Cs. Predicted soil erosion rates for different land uses and soil types varied from 599.07 t/(km2 ·a) to 6055.5 t/(km2 ·a), the highest erosion rate was observed in dry land on hilly areas, followed in sequence by cultivated slope soils, kale yard soils, paddy soils and grassland soils. The erosion rate for agricutural land is higher than that of uncultivated land. Erosion intensity belonged to moderate water erosion (quite obvious soil loss) and strong water erosion (relatively high soil loss) in cultivated soil, and slight water erosion (no soil loss or inconspicuous loss feature) and light water erosion (relatively obvious soil loss) in uncultivated soil. Different soil erosion rates occurred in different soil types and different parts of cultivated slope, the soil erosion rate for the foot hill location was higher than the crest location, which indicated a combination of effects due to a steep slope and long slope length compared with those of the top location. The result of 137Cs tracer analysis correlate well with the result from the remote sensing method and these results have an important significance on soil erosion control and eco-environment improvement in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area.
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    兰州盆地黄河800ka B.P.阶地的发现及其古地磁年代
    胡春生;潘保田;苏怀;李吉均;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 278-282.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.278
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    兰州盆地黄河800kaB.P.阶地的发现及其古地磁年代
    胡春生, 潘保田, 苏怀, 李吉均
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 278-282.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.278
    摘要   PDF (864KB)
    兰州东盆地的枣树沟黄河第四级阶地(T4),砾石层顶高出黄河河面84m,其上堆积厚约64m的风成黄土,黄土地层中包括八层古土壤,最底部发育了古土壤S8。光释光(OSL)测年结果显示古土壤S1上部的年龄为70.4±7.6ka。黄土古土壤对比以及磁性地层学研究表明,枣树沟T4上覆风成黄土的年龄为865ka,T4至少形成于865kaB.P.。
    The research on Yellow River terrace is the fourth terrace of Zaoshugou section in Eastern Lanzhou Basin,and the altitude of gravel stratum is 84m higher than the river level. The top of the gravel stratum is covered by at least 64m eolian loess,and the paleosol S8 is at the bottom of the eolian loess. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating result indicates that the age of the upper part of paleosol S1 is 70.4?7.6ka. Paleosol-loess matching and research on magnetostratigraphy show that the bottom age of eolian loess on the fourth terrace is 865ka, therefore this article holds that the fourth terrace of Zaoshugou section develops no later than 865kaB.P.
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    基于RAGA-BP神经网络模型的三江平原地下水资源预测研究
    苏安玉;李衡;濮励杰;彭补拙;付强;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 283-287.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.283
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    基于RAGA-BP神经网络模型的三江平原地下水资源预测研究
    苏安玉, 李衡, 濮励杰, 彭补拙, 付强
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 283-287.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.283
    摘要   PDF (231KB)
    采用基于实数编码的加速遗传算法(RAGA)代替传统的最小二乘法以优化GM(1,1)模型参数,并与BP人工神经网络相组合,形成了基于RAGA的等维灰色递补BP神经网络预测模型。运用此模型对三江平原创业农场地下水埋深进行动态预测,BP神经网络结构确定为3:12:3,预测结果的相对误差只有2.33%,与传统的GM(1,1)模型和BP神经网络模型预测结果相比,预测精度显著提高。通过此模型预测,从2007年到2012年,该地区地下水平均年下降0.3m。
    Replacing Least Square Method by Real coding based Accelerating Genetic Algorithm, the parameters of time response function in the GM(1,1) Model are optimized. Combined with BP Artificial Neural Networks Model, the Equal-dimension Gray Filling BP Neural Networks Model Based on RAGA is established. By this model, predicted the groundwater depth of Chuangye Farm in the Sanjiang Plain. The structural of BP Neural Networks is 3:12:3. The relative error is only 2.33%. Comparing with the traditional GM(1,1) Model or BP Neural Networks Model, the precision is highly increased. The result shows that the groundwater deep will descend 0.3m in average annually in the area.
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    西藏纳木错东部湖水及入湖河流水化学特征初步研究
    王君波, 朱立平, 鞠建廷, 汪勇
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 288-293.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.288
    摘要   PDF (749KB)
    对西藏纳木错东部湖区中不同点位的湖水和周边不同位置的入湖河流进行取样,水化学分析结果表明:在主要阴阳离子组成中,Na+和Ca2+分别是湖水和河水的主要阳离子,分别占其阳离子总量的72.4%和71.9%,而湖水和河水的主要阴离子都是HCO-3,分别占其阴离子总量的71.9%和91.2%。从水化学的控制影响因素来看,纳木错湖水主要受蒸发-结晶作用控制,而河水则主要受岩石风化作用影响,其中碳酸盐和硅酸盐的风化影响最为重要,其次是部分蒸发岩的溶解,而区域内湖水蒸发与大气海盐传输也有一定的贡献。
    Water samples were taken in different sites of eastern Nam Lake, Tibet, as well as in the inflowing rivers located in different positions around the lake. The results of water chemistry analysis indicating that among the major cation and anion composition, Na+ and Ca2+ were the main cations of lake water and river water, occupying 72.4% and 71.9% of the total cations respectively. While for both lake water and river water, HCO3- was the main anion with the proportion of 71.9% and 91.2% of the total anions respectively. Mechanisms controlling water chemistry of lake and river water from Nam Lake are illustrated, it is indicated that lake water is mainly controlled by evaporation-crystallization effect, while river water is mainly influenced by rock weathering function. Among them, carbonate and silicate weathering is the most important followed by dissolution of partial evaporation rock, regional lake water evaporation and sea salt transportation by atmospheric circulation also have some contribution.
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    西藏纳木错东部湖水及入湖河流水化学特征初步研究
    王君波;朱立平;鞠建廷;汪勇;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 288-293.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.288
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    旅游用地时空演变及其环境效应研究综述
    赵莹雪;董玉祥;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 294-299.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.294
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    旅游用地时空演变及其环境效应研究综述
    赵莹雪, 董玉祥
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 294-299.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.294
    摘要   PDF (867KB)
    旅游用地时空演变及其环境效应研究从20世纪30年代开始逐渐引起国内外学者的关注,并在海滨度假区、游憩商务区、环城游憩带的空间形态变化过程和变化机制以及旅游用地开发对旅游地的生态环境影响等方面取得了一些成果。研究方法以实证研究为主,具体有野外调查、模拟实验和长期监测,野外调查法被采用的最多。先进的3S技术在已被应用于旅游用地及其环境影响研究方面,但仍处于探索阶段。尤其在国内对旅游用地环境的影响研究多以社会经济统计资料、环境监测资料为依据,以野外调查为手段,缺乏对新技术的广泛应用。研究存在动态演变模型构建不足、时空尺度单一、生态环境效应的过程与机理研究薄弱、环境效应数据的动态监测缺乏等的问题。指出未来研究的趋势是:旅游用地时空演变机制的动态模拟;旅游用地时空演变环境效应时空尺度的扩展;旅游用地时空演变的生态环境效应定量评价;旅游用地时空演变环境效应的监测与预测等。
    Land use/land cover changes(LUCC) and its environmental effects are being paid more and more attention. Any LUCC is related to a certain environmental consequence. The tourism land use change and its eco-environmental impacts appeared in more and more studies since the 1930s.In this paper, the domestic and international research progress and problem in theories, perspectives, method and practices of tourism land use change and its eco-environmental impacts were summarized based on a lot of readings on litteratures. Foreign scholars fristly studied on the seaside resort patterns and made some major theoretical achievements,which includes morphology model of British coastal resort in 18th century, coastal urbarnization model, and integrated coastal resort model.In processes and mechanism of tourism land use, Clawson and others raised the three layer model surrounding the metropolitan in trveling and entertaining land use. Landscape scholar of the former Soviet Union riased "polarization biosphere"model, while Greer T and Wall G proposed the general pattern of entertaining land use with the departure of the distance change. Some success has been achieved in processes and mechanism of the spaical form change in RBD and ReBAM at home. As the complexity of the change process and mechanisms and its impact on the environment of the tourism land use, the results of research are not many at present.As a place for tourist activiting, the tourism land impact on the environment, on the one hand, on the the tourist land through the tourist activities. The activities of the length of time, scope, intensity of space-time change will cause different environmental effect; On the other hand, due to the factor change of regional tourist land formation and evolution, the regional tourist land area, shape, type, features will be changed in time and space, which have an impact on the regional environment.The current study focused on the former, namely: after the natural land becomed the tourist land, the natural environment was impacted by tourist activities(which are mainly trampling and trail-building camp), a comprehensive and systematic study on the tourism land use change and its eco-environmental impacts are not involved. More researches are a case study, which based evidence. The specific methods include: field investigation, simulation and long-term monitoring.Field investigation has been used commonly, particularly in the form changes of the tourist land use, the environmental impact of the building of the camp, travel and track. The simulation method is used in dynamic evolution of tourist land, and the environmental impact from stampeding on tourist land.As a result of long-terms difficulty to obtain long-term monitoring data, monitoring is rarely applied.Abroad, 3S technology has been widely used in the tourism environmental impact.In China, study is usually made on the basis of socio-economic statistics, environmental monitoring data, and the field investigation, which lack the widespread application in new technology. There are also inadequate in dynamic change model construction, not comprehensive in time and space scales, weakeness in Process and mechanism and lacking of dynamic monitoring of envirionmental date. The future the main directions are pointed as follows: the dynamic simulation of the space-time mechanism on the tourist land use change; the quantitative evaluation of the eco-environment of the tourist land use change; monitoring and forecast of the eco-environmental impacts of the tourism land use change.
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    控制湿地甲烷产生的主要电子受体研究进展
    王维奇;曾从盛;仝川;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (2): 300-306.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.300
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    控制湿地甲烷产生的主要电子受体研究进展
    王维奇, 曾从盛, 仝川
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (2): 300-306.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.300
    摘要   PDF (864KB)
    综述了影响湿地甲烷产生的电子受体最新研究进展,结果表明:①电子受体对甲烷产生的控制作用主要表现在电子受体还原菌与甲烷产生菌间底物的竞争以及提高甲烷产生环境的氧化还原电位;②3种电子受体间竞争电子供体的能力为硝酸盐>三价铁>硫酸盐,而相应作用下氢的阈值则与之相反,电子受体间除竞争机制还有彼此间的相互联系;③温度、电子供体、氧化还原电位和pH值是湿地土壤中电子受体还原过程的主要环境影响因子。
    This paper reviews on the electron acceptors of controlling the methane production in wetlands, including controlling effect, reducing capacities, electron balance, etc. The influence of electron acceptors on methane production was represented in substrates competition between reducing bacteria and methanogens or improving redox potentials. The capacities of nitrate, ferric and sulfate of competition on electron donors were nitrate>ferric>sulfate, however, under the effect of electron acceptors, the hydrogen threshold values were opposite, for electron acceptors, not only competition but also relation. Temperature, electron donors, redox potentials and pH values were the most important factors controlling electron acceptors reducing process.
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