王耕, 李素娟, 马奇飞.
Wang Geng, Li Sujuan, Ma Qifei.
Spatial-temporal Evolution of Chinese Eco-efficiency from the Perspective of Human Well-being[J].
Scientia Geographica Sinica,
Spatial-temporal Evolution of Chinese Eco-efficiency from the Perspective of Human Well-being
Wang Geng, Li Sujuan, Ma Qifei
College of Urban and Environmental Science, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning,China
National Natural Science Foundation of China (41771132), Ministry of Education of China to Build a Humanities and Social Science Key Research Base Project (15JJD790039);
In today’s development of the concept of "people-oriented", it is not only the pursuit of resources, economy and environment sustainable development, but also human sustainable development. Therefore, the ecological efficiency can not only reflect the resources, economy, environment coordination, and it’s better to pursue the sustainable development of people, resources, economy and environment. The sustainable development of human beings is aimed at improving the human well-being and enhancing the happiness of people. Improving people’s livelihood and well-being is the basic starting point and goal of regional economic and social development in China. Therefore, based on the the concept of "people-oriented", we construct human well-being index, which reflects the livelihood and happiness of people, and integrate it into the evaluation system of Eco-efficiency. In order to reflect the ecological efficiency of our country from four aspects of resources, economy, environment and human well-being. Therefore, from the perspective of human well-being, the evaluation index of human well-being will be integrated into the measurement and evaluation of ecological efficiency in China, which can fully understand the changes of ecological efficiency and the statue of comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of resources, economy, environment and human in China. We measure the ecological efficiency from year 2000 to 2015 based on non radial and non angle SBM model in China, analyzing temporal and spatial variation characteristics of ecological efficiency in China, and studying its driving factors. The main results are summarized as follows: In 2000-2015, the ecological efficiency of China has been rising slowly and fluctuating, but the overall level is still at a moderate leve. There is a lot of space for improving ecological efficiency. The high value areas of ecological efficiency are mainly concentrated in the East and the West. The ecological efficiency is relatively low in the middle of the region, so the ecological efficiency of the central region needs to be further promoted. In addition to Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Shandong, and Hainan, the rest of the region needs to adjust the mix ratio to improve ecological efficiency. Human well-being has become the first factor in restricting ecological efficiency in some areas. Therefore, human well-being can not be ignored for the promotion of ecological efficiency. The total factor productivity, the change index of technological progress and the pure technical efficiency index of ecological efficiency all show characteristics of fluctuations in the slowly rising, and the scale efficiency change index show a downward trend. The total factor productivity of Sichuan increases entirely due to scale efficiency, and technological progress has a positive impact on other areas excepting Sichuan.
human well-being;ecological efficiency;SBM model;total factor productivity and its decomposition index;
[LiHuijuan,LongRuyin,LanXinping.Ecological efficiency evaluation of resource based cities.,2010,32(7):1296-1300.]
ZhangYan, YangZhifeng.Eco-efficiency of urban materialmetabolism:A case study of Shenzhen[J].,2007, 27(8):3124-3131.
The keys of studying urban sustainable development are material metabolism flux and efficiency. Metabolism flux of urban materials can only reflect the metabolism velocity, while its eco-efficiency can determine the metabolism capacity to support socio-economic development. The general model and the measure model of the eco-efficiency were set up, based on the source recycle (decreasing the consumption of crude resources) and the terminal recycle (decreasing the discharge of pollutants) of production and life. These models were employed to study material metabolism flux and efficiency in Shenzhen, China. Results showed that water, energy and waste metabolism fluxes have increased since 1998 with constant socio-economic development, and their eco-efficiencies have also increased rapidly. When GDP rose by 2.7 times, the metabolism fluxes of urban water and electricity rose by 1.5 and 3.0 times, respectively. When the added value of industry rose by 3.7 times, the metabolism fluxes of industrial water, electricity, energy and waste rose by 1.9, 3.5, 2.7 and 2.0 times, respectively. When population rose by 1.5 times, the metabolism fluxes of residential water and electricity rose by 1.8 and 1.7 times, respectively. During the period, the resource efficiency, environmental efficiency and eco-efficiency rose by 1.8, 3.7 and 2.3 times, respectively. Whereas the efficiency of material metabolism has been improved in Shenzhen, the scarcity of material resources has become more and more serious. Therefore, it is necessary to further improve the efficiency of material metabolism. The keys of improving the eco-efficiency of urban material metabolism are the increasing of resource and environmental efficiencies, and the establishing of the recycling chain of re-utilization of waste resources.
[ChengXiaojuan,HanQinglan,QuanChunguang.Study on Chinese ecological efficiency of coal industry based on combined model PCA-DEA. ,2013,35(6):1292-1299.]
DominiqueMaxime,Michele Marcotte.YvesArcand.Developmentof eco-efficiency indicators for the Canadian food andbeverage industry[J].,2006,14(6-7):636-648.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada is developing eco-efficiency indicators (EEIs) in an effort to build a framework for a sustainable production system for the Canadian food and beverage industry (FBI). This paper presents the rationale and the framework of the project currently under development addressing the following environmental issues: energy use, emission of greenhouse gases, water use and wastewater generation, organic residues, and packaging residues. Proposed EEIs are intensity indicators and recycling ratios, and include environmental pressure modulators. They will be developed based on collected data and estimated impact levels, and reported by FBI sub-sector, geographical location, and establishment size. Objectives and methodologies are outlined. Problems on getting quality and reliable data on selected environmental issues are emphasized. The methodology will be published in 2005 and first results are due by 2008. Benchmarking and linkage to specific processing operations and management practices will help regulators and industries in promoting and implementing cleaner production initiatives and will lead to operational cost savings, product innovation, and enhanced competitiveness.
Wu XQ,Xu YC,Lu GF.The evaluation of agricultural ecoefficiency:A case of rice pot-experiment.,2009,29(5):2481-2488.
Agricultural non-point source pollution has been a main pollution source in China.So an indicator system for agriculture is needed,which can be used in assessing and supervising the agricultural non-point source pollution.Based on the theory of eco-efficiency and the characteristic of agricultural production,this research designed an evaluation indicator system for Agricultural Eco-efficiency which integrates different factors on economic profit,resource and material consumption and environmental impacts.A rice pot-experiment was carried out.In the experiment,two rice genotypes(Xidao11 and Wuyujin4) of different nitrogen use efficiency were supplied with three N levels(0.05、0.15、0.25 g N kg-1).Ammonia volatilization,fertilizer dose and rice economic yield were analyzed to evaluate and rank the Agricultural Eco-efficiency of the six evaluation indicators by using TOPSIS method which is based on AHP.The result showed that the six evaluation objects varied in economic benefit,resource and material consumption and environmental impacts,and N levels and plant genotypes had a major impact on the Agricultural Eco-efficiency.The evaluation indicator system will help China′s agricultural production mode to change from pursuing unilateral output to a comprehensive,balanced and sustainable one.