谭雪兰, 安悦, 蒋凌霄, 谭洁, 周国华.
Tan Xuelan, An Yue, Jiang Lingxiao, Tan Jie, Zhou Guohua.
Regional Differentiation Rule of Rural Settlements in the South of the Yangtze River: A Case Study of Hunan Province[J].
Scientia Geographica Sinica,
Regional Differentiation Rule of Rural Settlements in the South of the Yangtze River: A Case Study of Hunan Province
Tan Xuelan1,2,, An Yue1, Jiang Lingxiao1, Tan Jie1, Zhou Guohua2,
1. College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, Hunan, China2. Department of Resources and Environment Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan, China
National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571168, 41201175, 41471145), Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2016JJ3075), Philosophy and Social Science Fund Project of Hunan Province (14YBA209);
In recent years, with the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China, the rapid development of the rural economy and the increase in the incomes of peasants have brought tremendous changes in the production, living spaces, structures and functions of rural settlements, and serious problems regarding the ecological environment. The smooth implementation of urban and rural development strategies will be seriously affected and constrained by these changes. Rural settlement spatial structure reorganization, the integration of urban and rural areas, the evolution of rural settlement spatial patterns and other fields have been hot issues in recent academic research. The method of participatory rural appraisal was adopted in this study. Through field visits and survey questionnaires conducted in 18 sample villages in the south of the Yangtze River of Hunan Province, data on the living conditions and patterns, the facilities for settlements and production, the living patterns of rural residents, and the characteristics and laws of the regional differentiation of rural settlement spaces were collected and analyzed. The results show that the spatial patterns of rural settlements are the basis for the optimization and regulation of rural settlement spatial distributions in the hilly areas of the south of the Yangtze River. Due to the great disparity in resource endowments and geographical combinations, the basis of economic development and cultural tradition in the area, and wide geographical scope, the regional differentiation of rural settlement development in Hunan's hilly areas are more obvious. The regional differentiation rule of the rural settlements in the south of the Yangtze River of China is also evident. Gradient differences lie in the pattern characteristics (size, density, shape), living conditions (housing area, housing structure, architectural features), living facilities (roads, drinking water safety, opening rates of network television, and other basic and public service facilities), production and life forms in the area of basin-hilly-low mountainous , developed-underdeveloped- backward, suburban-outher suburban-remote landforms.
rural settlements;geographical differentiation;the hilly areas of south of the Yangtze River;Hunan Province;
<p>以1989年、1999年和2009年3期Landsat TM影像及2005年的土地利用现状图为数据源,结合野外实地调查,应用GIS 空间分析、重心迁移定量模型和景观生态学方法,对长沙市1989~2009 年农村居民点的用地面积、规模、空间分布、形状的动态变化过程及地域分异特征进行了研究.研究结果表明: ① 20 a 来农村居民点总面积及斑块平均规模不断扩大,农村居民点空间分布日趋集中和密集,斑块形状不断向完整与规则转变;② 农村居民点空间布局地域分异特征明显,在平均斑块面积、斑块密度等指标方面平原区、丘岗区与山区之间存在着显著差异;③ 20 a来,长沙市农村居民点的空间分布重心由西向东迁移,迁移距离为6.62 km.</p>
[TanXuelan, ZhouGuohua, Zhu Suhui et al. Landscape pattern changes and the characteristic of spatio-temporal differentiation of rural residential area in Changsha in recent 20 years. , 2015, 35(2): 204-210.]
[ZhengWensheng, JiangYupei, Luo Jing et al. The spatial distribution and pattern optimization of rural settlements in plain water area: a case of Gong′an, Hubei. , 2014, 34(11): 120-127.]
Carrion FC, Irwin EG.Determinants of residential land-use conversion and sprawl at the rural-urban fringe[J]. , 2004, 86(4): 889-904.
We estimate a probit model of residential land conversion using parcel-level data from a rural-urban county in Ohio. Spatial landscape pattern metrics are used to quantify land-use patterns and to link patterns of residential sprawl with factors estimated to influence parcel-level land conversion. Findings indicate that the location of new residential development is influenced by preferences for lower density areas that nonetheless are close to existing urban development. Combined, these forces have generated a moderated pattern of residential sprawl. Spatial error autocorrelation is controlled using a spatial sampling technique that enables consistent estimation of the probit model.
Based on fused images of both SPOT and TM in 2008 in central Jiangsu Province as the major data sources, the delineation, water, roads, and other spatial information of rural settlements in the research area are achieved via man-machine interactive interpretation. By the spatial analysis and cluster analysis techniques, grids as the cells, the distribution patterns of rural settlements in central Jiangsu are analyzed, and the categories of rural settlements are classified. The results indicate that: (1) The density of rural settlements in the research area is high in the east and west, lower in the center. However, land-use scale in settlements presents an opposite pattern. (2) The rural settlements that have a high complexity in shape and high degree of fragmentation are located in the south of Taizhou area and in Nantong coastal areas. However, the complexity and fragmentation in the south-central region of Yangzhou, north Taizhou, central, west and south Nantong rural settlements are very small. (3) The differentiation characteristic of the mean nearest neighbor distance is that the rural settlements have a longer distance in the middle of research area, which it indicates that the settlement distribution is sparser and more scattered, the distance of the settlements in the south and east is more nearer, and the distribution of settlements is very concentrated. The distance of the mean nearest neighbor water of the settlements in Nantong area is very small in the southeast settlements, large in the west. The distance of the mean nearest neighbor water of the settlements in Yangzhou area is very small in the west, large in the east. The average spatial distribution pattern of the mean nearest neighbor road of the settlements is unapparent. But the average distance of the most settlements from the roads is very small, from which it indicates that it is very convenient for the settlement in the areas to have internal and external contacts. (4) Finally, by means of establishing the measurement index system of the rural settlements, adopting the method of hierarchical cluster, and combining with the patterns of rural settlements, the rural settlements of central Jiangsu province are divided into three types: Lixiahe lake type, bottomlands along Yangtze River and Yellow Sea type, and central Jiangsu plain type. Lixiahe lake type is low-density cluster-like. Bottomlands along Yangtze River and Yellow Sea type can be divided into two sub-types, such as medium-density arc-belt type and high-density stripe type. Central Jiangsu plain can be divided into 3 sub-types, such as low-density mass type, medium-density broad-band type, and high-density point-scattered type.
Rural settlements are the places of habitation, production and the living for people.In this paper,through landscape pattern analysis and GIS spatial analysis methods,the spatial pattern characteristics and influencing factors of rural settlements in Zhenjiang of Jiangsu Province were analyzed.Some conclusions are drawn as follows.Spatial pattern of rural settlements in Zhenjiang showed an eastest differentiation.In the east region of Zhenjiang,rural settlements pattern presented the characteristic of small scale,dense distribution and regular morphology.Meanwhile, in the west region of Zhenjiang,rural settlements pattern presented the characteristic of large scale,sparse distribution and broken morphology.Influencing factors of rural settlements spatial pattern included terrain,economic,traffic,water system,and the distance of cultivated land.Through the analysis,settlement distribution had low altitude location orientation.Rural settlements plaques area of economic developed region was small,plaques density was large, but in the undeveloped region,rural settlements plaques area was great, plaques density was small.Rural settlements spatial distribution was most densely populated in the area away road at a distance of 500 meters and away water system at a distance of 1 000 meters.Rural settlements and cultivated lands spatial distribution had significant convergence. Currently,rural geography was a weak branch of human geography,especially with regard to theoretical development and the empirical research.This paper took Zhenjiang for example,analyzed spatial pattern and influencing factors of rural settlements,which not only could enrich rural settlement geography theory research, but also could provide the reference of rural settlements planning in Zhenjiang hilly area.
[TanXuelan, YuSiyuan, Ouyang Qiaoling et al. Assessment and influencing factors of rural hollowing in the rapid urbanization region: A case study of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration. , 2017, 36(4):684-694.]
湖南省统计局. [M]. 北京: 中国统计出版社, 2016.
[Statistical Bureau of Hunan Province. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2016.]
In the rapid process of industrialization and urbanization, non-agriculturalization has become one important tendency of Chinese rural evolution, which at the same time indicates obvious spatial heterogeneity. The participatory rural appraisal is employed, which involves 16 typical villages of Yishui County in Shandong Province, to explore the rural non-agricultural differences and its driving factors. In terms of regional differentiation, the livelihood activities of rural households were divided into four types: non-agricultural employment outside the county, non-agricultural employment inside the county, part-time non-agricultural employment inside the county and agricultural production. Then, we quantified the non-agricultural level by estimating the proportion of rural non-agricultural labor, non-agricultural income and non-agricultural time in 2013. On the basis of this estimation, we discussed the spatial differences and driving forces of rural non-agriculturalization in the study area. The results showed that, (1) Non-agricultural level of the villages was between 37.54% and 90.65%, which indicated that non-agriculturalization was a common phenomenon in traditional agricultural regions. Suburban independent non-agricultural villages developed their own industries, while rural households of other villages were employed in non-agricultural industries outside their villages. It is indicated that the study area was underdeveloped in non-agricultural economy. (2) Suburban villages hold the highest non-agricultural level. Food crops dominated villages showed higher level of non-agriculturalization in the regions near town, while economic crops dominated villages showed lower level of non-agriculturalization. In the same geomorphologic region, food crops dominated villages showed higher level of non-agriculturization than economic crops dominated villages. Spatial differentiation of rural non-agriculturalization was remarkable in traditional agricultural regions at the county scale. (3) As the distances to town became shorter, there was a decline in the proportion of non-agricultural employment outside the county (labor, income, and time), and that inside the county was on the rise, and the proportion of part-time non-agricultural employment inside the county showed an inverted "U"-shaped pattern. (4) The driving mechanism showed that economic diffusing efficiency and the regional accessibility were both deeply influencing employment structure of rural labors, which kept the suburban villages at the highest non-agricultural level. Agricultural income and the demand for labor made non-agricultural level of food crops dominated villages higher than that of economic crops dominated villages. As the distances to town became shorter, owing to economic diffusing efficiency and agricultural income increase, food crops dominated villages showed higher level of non-agriculturalization while economic crops dominated villages showed lower level. Non-agricultural differentiation is an important development trend of traditional agricultural regions in East China. Therefore, the authors suggest that the governments should take concrete measures on rural development management that keep consistent with non-agricultural characteristics and its driving mechanism of different villages.
[ZhangBailin, ZhangFengrong, Qu Baode et al. Rural non-agricultural differences and their driving forces at the county level: A case study of 16 villages in Yishui, Shandong, East China. , 2015,70(6):1008-1021.]