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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1986年, 第6卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1986-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 293-304.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.293
    摘要   PDF (1277KB)
    Chenier, a special beach ridge characteristic of silty or muddy coasts, is widely distributed on the coastal plains and the adjacent shelves of eastern and southern China (Fig. 1). Along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf, four cheniers have been found, respectively(Fig.2A). In the central part of North Jiangsu plain,there are four cheniers which are called Xigang, Zhonggang,Donggang and Xinggang, respectively(Fig.2B). In the southern part of the Changjiang Delta,a series of cheniers have been found, respectively(Fig. 2C). The 14C datings of 68 shell samples from cheniers in China are listde in Table 1. The reliability of these datings and their affecting factors have been reviewed. Based on the 14C dates, the development of the cheniers in China can be divided into three periods of 24,000-15,000BP, 7,000-5,000BP and since 5,000 BP.The chenier groups of various periods are distributed on different geomorphologic positions and each group consists of a few cheniers formed in various stages. The main conditions for the formation of cheniers in China are: (1) Relative stability of sea level; (2) changes of yield of river sediments especially frequent Changes of river mouths, and growth and decline of the littoral dynamic factors; and (3) certain grain size of sediments and slope of beach. Based on the geomorphologic positions and ages of formation of cheniers in China, the paleocoastline positions of various periods since 24,000 BP have been plotted on the distribution maps of cheniers along the coast and on the adjacent shelf of eastern China (Figs. 1 and 2). The history of the coastline shifts and the features of the sea level changes in China during the last 24,000 years are also discussed in this paper.
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    施成熙, 牛克源, 陈天珠, 朱晓原
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 305-313.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.305
    摘要   PDF (481KB)
    Evaporation data of nineteen evaporation experimental stations to be located in different climatic regions in China have been calculated and analysed, and pan coefficients of evaporation pans of water of four types (E601, ΓΓИ—3000, Φ80cm., Φ20cm.,)for different months and the average of years have been determined. The result shows that average annual pan coefficients for various pans and for various climatic regions are difference. The average annual pan coefficients of E601, ΓΓИ—3000, Φ80cm., Φ20cm. are 0.93, 0.88, 0.77 and 0.62 respectively. These coefficients for humid regions are slightly greater than above values and for arid regions are slightly smaller than above values. An experimental relation between average pan coefficients of the pan of E601 type and average relative humidities has been obtained, this may be for the unstudied region reference.
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 314-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.314
    摘要   PDF (592KB)
    The author approached the influence of industrial structure and distribution on regional environment and the prevention policies. The industrial structure and its evolution have great influrnce on regional environment, especially such heavy industrial departments as metallurgical industry, chemical industry, power industry, heavy machinery, building materials and so on, influence and harm environment reriously, because of the production nature and scale. The regional distribution of industrial production and the distributive points have great effect on the formation and development of environmental pollution. The rational distribution of industrial production is not only the objective need of socialist production and planned economy, but also the important preequiste of eliminating pollution and protecting environment. The rational distribution of industry is favourable to the comprehencive utilization of natural resources and industial "three wastes", and also to controlling, reducing, and removing pollution. To solve the problems of environmental pollution and regional environment must be combined with the production development. Some policies and important measures such as adjusting the structure, improving the distribution, overall planning and strengthening regional comprehensive research, should be taken.
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    陈静生, 郑春江, 高广生, 程承旗
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 323-332.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.323
    摘要   PDF (716KB)
    The basic environmental geochemical characteristics of suspended mattel and sediments in five main rivers—the Hailongjiang River, the Songhua River, the Huanghe River, the Changjiang River and the Zhujiang River—in east China studied by the authors include followings: the physical composition of suspended matter and sediments, the composition and properties of organic matter and clay manirals, the ion exchange capacity of suspended matter and sediments, the adsorptive power of Cd, and the contents of various elements in suspended matter. The results show that controlled by the geographic and geological conditions in basins of the rivers mentioned above, the environmental geochemical characteristics present specific differential rules. 1) The sequence of contents of clay particles (<0.005mm) in sediments is the Changjiang River>the Heilongjiang River>the Huanghe River>>the Zhujiang River>the Songhua River; in suspended matter is the Zhujiang River≥the Songhua River>the Changjiang River>>the Huanghe River. 2 ) The ratios of K/M (K:Kaotinite, M:Monlmorittonite), E4/E6 (E:Optical density of humic acid),H/F (H:Humic, F:Fulvic) increase gradaully from north rivers to south ones. 3) The cation exchange capacity and adsorptive power of Cd on the bulk sediments, clay particles and humic matter are higher in north rivers than that in south rivets. 4) Qm K(both are characteristic value of adsorption isotherm) and other parameters show that the adsorptive power of sediments and suspended matter for the heavy metals is ions the largest in north rivers. 5) The concentration of most trace metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg in the suspended matter are the highest in the Zhujiang River. One of the reasons is that many large metalliferous ores distribute on the Zhujiang River basin.
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    范正一, 刘贺
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 333-339.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.333
    摘要   PDF (460KB)
    Geomorphological mapping is to represent geomorphological research results on maps by means of mapping. It is very important to develop geomorphology and geomorph-cartography, as well as its practical application. Nowadays, the study of 1:1000000 geomorphological mapping is being carried out in China, the Qiqihar sheet is one of the five sheets in advanced experiment. Based on the practice, the authors expound how to use the basic mappable data in compilation and how to work out the classification system of geomorphological mapping; and analyse the advantages and shortcomings of the simple synthetic map type and the analytical combination map type. Through comparison, it can be seen that the analytical combination map type is better than the simple synthetic map type because of wide information, rich contents, distinct lays, and clear primary and secondary. So the experts in geomorphological mapping of most countries have adopted it in recent years. The mapping representation and legend design principle of legend system are discussed. Finally the geomorphological characteristics of mapping area and mapping representation are dealt with, especially the representation of plain geomorphology in detail.
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 340-347.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.340
    摘要   PDF (432KB)
    The Loesss Plateau is characterized by crisscross gullies. The developing degree, erosion type and distribution characteristics of gullies are influenced strongly by the height of erosion base level, the amount and intensity of rainfall, and the composition of ground materials in the basin. The gully density (Y) on the Loess Plateau has direct effects on erosion quantity (X). Their relation can be expressed as Y=2.4223+1.083X (r=0.7437) on the Loess Plateau the sediment comes mainly from gullies. The ratio of sediment yield coming from gullies to that from interfluves is nearly 6:4. If the hillslope runoff is intercepted, the sediment yield from gully erosion may reduce by 70%. The key factors reducing gully erosion are to increase the vegetation coverage on hillslopes and to lower the erosion base level.
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 348-356.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.348
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    The Shiyanghe River is an inland river, situated in the eastern part of Hexi Corridor in Gansu province, and originates from the Lenglong Ridge of the Qilian Mountain, Its tail water disappears in the desert, which is typical in arid zones. The freshest water body in the basin is precipitation——snow, the TDS ranges between 31.12—38.49mg/l. The highest mineralized water body is the Baitinghai Lake water, the TDS is 375g/l. The chemical properties of various water bodies are subject to the whole bioclimatic zone. The TDS increases with the decreases of both altitude and precipitation, The evolution of water quality is influenced both natural and artificial factors. For example, the intensive exploitation of ground water is an important factor causing the increase of salt content in ground water.
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 357-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.357
    摘要   PDF (601KB)
    The article proves the limits of "the Garrison Map" with the scale of 1:45000—1:50000 through "the Topographic Map" unearthed simultaneously with "the Garrison Map" and the topographic map drawn today. The major area corresponds to the headwaters of the Tuo Shui River located in Mashi basin at Jianghua county, Hunan province, to correct the mistaken conclusion formed before. Analysing the regional difference of mapping accuracy of "the Garrison Map", the map can be divided into three parts: accurate region, sketchy region and decorative region. After studying the drawing characteristics of "the Garrison Map", the author determined the design center, delimited the important regions, gave consideration to key locations and related elements, at last adjusted the major area partially.
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 368-375.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.368
    摘要   PDF (465KB)
    The analysis and calculation of agricultural drought is a quite important problem for agricultural and water conservancy planning, engineering designs and further development in agriculture. But as we know, it is a very difficult problem and has not been well studied yet. It has been gradually known form data that drought, as well as flood, has tremendous destructive effects. From the beginning of the twentieth century to 1960s, the United States, the Soviet Union, Australia, India and Britain etc. carried out some drought studies with rainfall, temperature, evaporation, soil moisture and parameters of crop as main factors. From 1970s, mathematical models have been developed for drought analysis and calculation, and some agrometeorological studies on drought have been conducted too. China has a long history in studying agricultutral drought. Early in 1960s, agencies of water conservancy and meteorological servie developed some such works. This paper attempts to introduce briefly the development of drought study from the view point of agricultural drought.
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    郑秀雅, 曲桂芝
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 376-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.376
    摘要   PDF (573KB)
    The authors analysed statistically the rainstorm data which 41 observatories and stations began to record, for weather climate, and obtained the rule of rainstorm time-space distribution and division, and analysed the rainstorm nature. Then the authors approached the effect of the historical change and seasonal variation of various weather systems and topography, on rainstorm at last expained the features of rainstorm time-space distribution.
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 384-386.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.384
    摘要   PDF (202KB)
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    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 387-388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.387
    摘要   PDF (162KB)
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