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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1986年, 第6卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1986-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国贝壳堤发育及其对海岸线变迁的反映
    赵希涛
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 293-304.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.293
    摘要   PDF (1277KB)
    本文记述了中国沿海与邻近陆架地区贝壳堤的分布及其地貌与沉积特征,概括了现已发表的贝壳堤样品的14C年代数据,并在评述样品的代表性、可靠性及其影响因素的基础上,讨论了中国大多数贝壳堤的形成时代,分析了影响贝壳堤形成的条件,勾绘了24,000年来古海岸线的位置,并阐明了海岸发育的历史及主要影响因素。
    Chenier, a special beach ridge characteristic of silty or muddy coasts, is widely distributed on the coastal plains and the adjacent shelves of eastern and southern China (Fig. 1). Along the west coast of the Bohai Gulf, four cheniers have been found, respectively(Fig.2A). In the central part of North Jiangsu plain,there are four cheniers which are called Xigang, Zhonggang,Donggang and Xinggang, respectively(Fig.2B). In the southern part of the Changjiang Delta,a series of cheniers have been found, respectively(Fig. 2C). The 14C datings of 68 shell samples from cheniers in China are listde in Table 1. The reliability of these datings and their affecting factors have been reviewed. Based on the 14C dates, the development of the cheniers in China can be divided into three periods of 24,000-15,000BP, 7,000-5,000BP and since 5,000 BP.The chenier groups of various periods are distributed on different geomorphologic positions and each group consists of a few cheniers formed in various stages. The main conditions for the formation of cheniers in China are: (1) Relative stability of sea level; (2) changes of yield of river sediments especially frequent Changes of river mouths, and growth and decline of the littoral dynamic factors; and (3) certain grain size of sediments and slope of beach. Based on the geomorphologic positions and ages of formation of cheniers in China, the paleocoastline positions of various periods since 24,000 BP have been plotted on the distribution maps of cheniers along the coast and on the adjacent shelf of eastern China (Figs. 1 and 2). The history of the coastline shifts and the features of the sea level changes in China during the last 24,000 years are also discussed in this paper.
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    水面蒸发器折算系数研究
    施成熙, 牛克源, 陈天珠, 朱晓原
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 305-313.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.305
    摘要   PDF (481KB)
    根据器测法确定水面蒸发量,其精度决定于观测本身的精度与折算系数的正确性。折算系数与气象要素之间关系密切,有月间变化,但年际变化较小。通过蒸发池与各型蒸发器的对比观测确定我国不同气候区,各型水面蒸发器的折算系数。
    Evaporation data of nineteen evaporation experimental stations to be located in different climatic regions in China have been calculated and analysed, and pan coefficients of evaporation pans of water of four types (E601, ΓΓИ—3000, Φ80cm., Φ20cm.,)for different months and the average of years have been determined. The result shows that average annual pan coefficients for various pans and for various climatic regions are difference. The average annual pan coefficients of E601, ΓΓИ—3000, Φ80cm., Φ20cm. are 0.93, 0.88, 0.77 and 0.62 respectively. These coefficients for humid regions are slightly greater than above values and for arid regions are slightly smaller than above values. An experimental relation between average pan coefficients of the pan of E601 type and average relative humidities has been obtained, this may be for the unstudied region reference.
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    工业结构与布局对区域环境的影响
    于振汉
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 314-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.314
    摘要   PDF (592KB)
    本文着重探讨了工业结构和布局对区域环境的影响,以及由于这种影响所引起的环境生态问题,同时指出了以调整结构、改善布局为核心的防治对策。
    The author approached the influence of industrial structure and distribution on regional environment and the prevention policies. The industrial structure and its evolution have great influrnce on regional environment, especially such heavy industrial departments as metallurgical industry, chemical industry, power industry, heavy machinery, building materials and so on, influence and harm environment reriously, because of the production nature and scale. The regional distribution of industrial production and the distributive points have great effect on the formation and development of environmental pollution. The rational distribution of industrial production is not only the objective need of socialist production and planned economy, but also the important preequiste of eliminating pollution and protecting environment. The rational distribution of industry is favourable to the comprehencive utilization of natural resources and industial "three wastes", and also to controlling, reducing, and removing pollution. To solve the problems of environmental pollution and regional environment must be combined with the production development. Some policies and important measures such as adjusting the structure, improving the distribution, overall planning and strengthening regional comprehensive research, should be taken.
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    中国东部主要河流中悬浮物及底泥的环境地球化学基本特征
    陈静生, 郑春江, 高广生, 程承旗
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 323-332.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.323
    摘要   PDF (716KB)
    本文给出了中国东部五条主要河流悬浮物、底泥的环境地球化学基本特征。结果表明:受河流流域不同的地质、地理条件制约,从北到南这些特征具有明显的区域分异规律。
    The basic environmental geochemical characteristics of suspended mattel and sediments in five main rivers—the Hailongjiang River, the Songhua River, the Huanghe River, the Changjiang River and the Zhujiang River—in east China studied by the authors include followings: the physical composition of suspended matter and sediments, the composition and properties of organic matter and clay manirals, the ion exchange capacity of suspended matter and sediments, the adsorptive power of Cd, and the contents of various elements in suspended matter. The results show that controlled by the geographic and geological conditions in basins of the rivers mentioned above, the environmental geochemical characteristics present specific differential rules. 1) The sequence of contents of clay particles (<0.005mm) in sediments is the Changjiang River>the Heilongjiang River>the Huanghe River>>the Zhujiang River>the Songhua River; in suspended matter is the Zhujiang River≥the Songhua River>the Changjiang River>>the Huanghe River. 2 ) The ratios of K/M (K:Kaotinite, M:Monlmorittonite), E4/E6 (E:Optical density of humic acid),H/F (H:Humic, F:Fulvic) increase gradaully from north rivers to south ones. 3) The cation exchange capacity and adsorptive power of Cd on the bulk sediments, clay particles and humic matter are higher in north rivers than that in south rivets. 4) Qm K(both are characteristic value of adsorption isotherm) and other parameters show that the adsorptive power of sediments and suspended matter for the heavy metals is ions the largest in north rivers. 5) The concentration of most trace metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg in the suspended matter are the highest in the Zhujiang River. One of the reasons is that many large metalliferous ores distribute on the Zhujiang River basin.
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    百万分之一地貌制图的研究—以齐齐哈尔幅为例
    范正一, 刘贺
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 333-339.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.333
    摘要   PDF (460KB)
    近二十年来地貌制图在国际上发展迅速。目前我国正在进行1:100万地貌制图的研究。在实践基础上,本文阐述了基本编图资料的运用、地貌制图分类系统的拟定、两种不同图型的分析对比、图例系统的制图表达和图例设计原则,以及制图区域地貌特征的剖析与制图体现。
    Geomorphological mapping is to represent geomorphological research results on maps by means of mapping. It is very important to develop geomorphology and geomorph-cartography, as well as its practical application. Nowadays, the study of 1:1000000 geomorphological mapping is being carried out in China, the Qiqihar sheet is one of the five sheets in advanced experiment. Based on the practice, the authors expound how to use the basic mappable data in compilation and how to work out the classification system of geomorphological mapping; and analyse the advantages and shortcomings of the simple synthetic map type and the analytical combination map type. Through comparison, it can be seen that the analytical combination map type is better than the simple synthetic map type because of wide information, rich contents, distinct lays, and clear primary and secondary. So the experts in geomorphological mapping of most countries have adopted it in recent years. The mapping representation and legend design principle of legend system are discussed. Finally the geomorphological characteristics of mapping area and mapping representation are dealt with, especially the representation of plain geomorphology in detail.
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    黄土高原沟谷侵蚀研究
    景可
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 340-347.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.340
    摘要   PDF (432KB)
    黄土高原的形态特征之一是沟谷纵横。沟谷的发育程度和分布特征受区域侵蚀基准高度、降雨量和降雨强度、地表组成物等因素控制。黄土高原沟谷密度的大小直接影响侵蚀量。沟谷与沟间地产沙比接近6:4。增加坡面复盖度,降低侵蚀基准高度是减少沟谷侵蚀的关键。
    The Loesss Plateau is characterized by crisscross gullies. The developing degree, erosion type and distribution characteristics of gullies are influenced strongly by the height of erosion base level, the amount and intensity of rainfall, and the composition of ground materials in the basin. The gully density (Y) on the Loess Plateau has direct effects on erosion quantity (X). Their relation can be expressed as Y=2.4223+1.083X (r=0.7437) on the Loess Plateau the sediment comes mainly from gullies. The ratio of sediment yield coming from gullies to that from interfluves is nearly 6:4. If the hillslope runoff is intercepted, the sediment yield from gully erosion may reduce by 70%. The key factors reducing gully erosion are to increase the vegetation coverage on hillslopes and to lower the erosion base level.
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    石羊河流域水文化学特征分布规律及演变
    刘亚传
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 348-356.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.348
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    本文研究了石羊河流域各种水体——大气降水、地表水、地下水的水化学特征、分布规律及其演变,水化学分布具有生物气候带规律,从源头冰雪带到终端湖白亭海,随海拔降低、降水量减少、流程加长,矿化度递增。水质的演变则是自然和人为两种因素综合作用的结果。
    The Shiyanghe River is an inland river, situated in the eastern part of Hexi Corridor in Gansu province, and originates from the Lenglong Ridge of the Qilian Mountain, Its tail water disappears in the desert, which is typical in arid zones. The freshest water body in the basin is precipitation——snow, the TDS ranges between 31.12—38.49mg/l. The highest mineralized water body is the Baitinghai Lake water, the TDS is 375g/l. The chemical properties of various water bodies are subject to the whole bioclimatic zone. The TDS increases with the decreases of both altitude and precipitation, The evolution of water quality is influenced both natural and artificial factors. For example, the intensive exploitation of ground water is an important factor causing the increase of salt content in ground water.
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    马王堆《驻军图》测绘精度及绘制特点研究
    张修桂
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 357-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.357
    摘要   PDF (601KB)
    本文论证了《驻军图》所示的地域范围,分析该图测绘精度的地域差异以及绘制特点。如首先确定图幅设计核心,然后突出绘制重点区,最后对主区进行局部调整。
    The article proves the limits of "the Garrison Map" with the scale of 1:45000—1:50000 through "the Topographic Map" unearthed simultaneously with "the Garrison Map" and the topographic map drawn today. The major area corresponds to the headwaters of the Tuo Shui River located in Mashi basin at Jianghua county, Hunan province, to correct the mistaken conclusion formed before. Analysing the regional difference of mapping accuracy of "the Garrison Map", the map can be divided into three parts: accurate region, sketchy region and decorative region. After studying the drawing characteristics of "the Garrison Map", the author determined the design center, delimited the important regions, gave consideration to key locations and related elements, at last adjusted the major area partially.
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    综述
    农业干旱分析与计算的若干方法
    阚贵生
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 368-375.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.368
    摘要   PDF (465KB)
    本文从农业干旱角度,着重介绍七十年代后,一些有代表性的干旱分析与计算方法。
    The analysis and calculation of agricultural drought is a quite important problem for agricultural and water conservancy planning, engineering designs and further development in agriculture. But as we know, it is a very difficult problem and has not been well studied yet. It has been gradually known form data that drought, as well as flood, has tremendous destructive effects. From the beginning of the twentieth century to 1960s, the United States, the Soviet Union, Australia, India and Britain etc. carried out some drought studies with rainfall, temperature, evaporation, soil moisture and parameters of crop as main factors. From 1970s, mathematical models have been developed for drought analysis and calculation, and some agrometeorological studies on drought have been conducted too. China has a long history in studying agricultutral drought. Early in 1960s, agencies of water conservancy and meteorological servie developed some such works. This paper attempts to introduce briefly the development of drought study from the view point of agricultural drought.
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    研究报道
    吉林省暴雨的气候分析
    郑秀雅, 曲桂芝
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 376-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.376
    摘要   PDF (573KB)
    通过对吉林省有气象记录以来41个台站的暴雨气候统计,分析暴雨的时间和空间分布,划分三个暴雨区,讨论了暴雨天气系统的变化及地形对暴雨分布的影响。
    The authors analysed statistically the rainstorm data which 41 observatories and stations began to record, for weather climate, and obtained the rule of rainstorm time-space distribution and division, and analysed the rainstorm nature. Then the authors approached the effect of the historical change and seasonal variation of various weather systems and topography, on rainstorm at last expained the features of rainstorm time-space distribution.
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    学位论文摘登
    景德镇城镇体系的研究
    王维锋
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 384-386.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.384
    摘要   PDF (202KB)
    城镇体系是在一定的地域范围内,若干不同等级、不同职能和不同规模的城镇合理分工、有机联系、协同发展的整体。建立城镇体系是区域社会经济发展的客观要求。本文拟就景德镇城镇体系的地域范围、人口规模、发展战略和建设途径等问题作些初步探讨。
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    学术活动
    松花江水系环境保护研究成果通过院级鉴定
    赤邑
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (4): 387-388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.04.387
    摘要   PDF (162KB)
    松花江水系环境保护研究是1983年中国科学院下达的重点课题,是由中国科学院长春地理所、长春应化所、高能物理所等单位承担并得到吉林、黑龙江两省有关部门大力协作进行的。这项研究是在过去十年松花江水系环境问题单项研究基础上,经过三年的系统考察研究而完成的,于1986年7月2—5日在吉林市通过中国科学院院级鉴定。
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