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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1990年, 第10卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1990-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    辽东半岛的黄土及其沉积环境
    吕金福, 李志民
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 97-106,191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.97
    摘要   PDF (601KB)
    辽东半岛的黄土粒度组成中,细砂的含量较多,粉砂的含量相对减少。黄土的物源较为复杂,既有来自于内陆的粉尘,又有来自附近海域的粉尘,还有经暂时流水搬运的,来自于低山丘陵区的基岩风化物。黄土地层剖面变化,说明了当时的环境特征。
    The loess in Liaodong Peninsula is mainly distributed below 70 meters underground along the Bohai coastal areas,with the thickness of 10-15 metres. The loess in Liaodong Peninsula can be classified into pro-Lishi stage,Lishi stage and Malan stage.The period of pro-Lishi loess is from the Pliocene to the early Pleistocene.The loess of Lishi stage can be divided into the lower Lishi loess and the upper Lishi loess.And Malan loess stage is the later period of the Pleistocene. The silver sand content in the loess of Liaodong Peninsula is much more than the silt content.However,there is the tendency that silt content gradually increases from the lower part Io the upper part of both Lishi and Malan loess. The major minerals in the loess are light ones,such as quarts,feldspar,etc. The source of the loess substances in Liaodong Peninsula are different,some came from the inland of Shandong and Shaanxi provinces,some from the nearby sea areas,and some was brought by rivers from the low mountain and hill areas.
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    横断山地区的垂直农业系统
    杨勤业, 郑度
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 107-113,191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.107
    摘要   PDF (554KB)
    本文讨论了横断山地区的垂直自然带和农业的垂直分布。指出:横断山地区是一个复杂的生态系统,其垂直自然带是农业垂直分布的自然基础。认为本区农业应开展多种经营,建立以林为主的山区农业垂直系统。
    The Hengduan Mountain region(HMR)is a transitional zone from the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau to the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Sichuan Basin,with mountains and deep gorges running in parallel from north to south,The vertical zonation here is very conspicuous,and the agricultural development in various altitudinal zones is very different, Vertical zonation,agricultural distribution(including plantation,forestry and animal husbandty)are discussed in the paper,The complex regional differentiation is correlated with the geographical location,and absolute and relative altitudes, From southeastern and southwestern margins to the interior,with increasing altitude,in addition to the differences of the basal belt,there is a decrease in number of vertical zones and simplification of spectra,The regional differentiation of upper forests limits and the dry valleys are discussed, It is considered that HMR is a complex ecosystem,in which the vertical zonation is a natural base of vertical distribution of agriculture,The exploitation and utilization of natural resources should be paid attention to,After discussing present agricultural situation,it is pointed out thai diversified economy development should be emphasized and taken as a fundamental policy;the mountain agto-ecosystem with forests as main parts should be established;the existing farm land should be fully utilized so as to increase per unit yield;economic forests and fruit trees should be vigorously developed;contradiction between plantation and animal husbandry should be well coordinated;and plantation,forestry and animal husbandry should be well developed together,So far as this,special farming system in HMR could be established.
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    中国自然带分布的地带性规律
    蒋忠信
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 114-124,191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.114
    摘要   PDF (655KB)
    本文运用回归分析、趋势面分析等方法,以暗针叶林线、树线、高海拔多年冻土下线和最后冰期雪线为侧,定量地阐明中国自然带分布所具有的纬度地带性、经度地带性特征的数学模式和特性参数,以及青藏高原导致的非地带性变化。同时分析了影响地带性分布规律的三种因素:热量、水分和地势轮廓。
    With the methods of regression analysis and trend surface analysis,taking the low and high lines of dark conifer forest,premafrost low line and the snowline of the latest glaciation in China as examples,the paper expounds the zonality regularity of the distribution of physico-geographical zone in China. (1)Latitude zonality obeys the mathematical model of normal frequency distribution,being approximate to descending straight line within the latitude range of China.(2)Latitude zonality shows that the elevation of physico-geographical zone rises straight with the distance to east coast line, (3)The combination of the distribution of latitude and longitude zonalities appears a plane inclining from SSW to NNE.The decline rate of the elevation of physico-geographical zone with latitude,from south to north is 54-143 meters per degree,and the rise rate of the longitude from east to west is 0,22-0,48 meter per kilometer.The decline rate along plane dip from SSW to NNE is 0.65-1.35 meter per kilometer.(4)The second order trend surface of physicogeographical zone resembles a semiellipse-sphere inclining from the QinghaiXizang Plateau to northeast China,reflecting the effect of relief.(5)Physicogeographical zonation depends on the combination of hydrothermal conditions, Thus the factors influencing the zonality distribution regularity of physicogeographical zone of China are latitude zone,the distribution of oceans and land, and relief features.(6)The change rate of permofrost low line is the largest, showing the permafrost low line is most sensitive to hydrothermal conditions. The data of the snowline of the latest glaciation are dispersive,indicating that the data of cast China have more errors.
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    Pb(Ⅱ)在饱气带土层系统中迁移的数学模型
    张先起, 李广贺
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 125-133,191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.125
    摘要   PDF (493KB)
    本文利用吸附等温方程,吸附动力学模型,对流-弥散-吸附,解吸有限元模型来刻划饱气带内渗水条件下,Pb(Ⅱ)在土层中不同时间,不同深度上的迁移及分布特征。并通过实验前后土化学分析资料以及野外实际土化学监测资料的对比,论证了模型运算的可靠性,确定 Pb(Ⅱ)在饱气带土层系统中的迁移和分布规律。
    With the isothermal adsorption equation,dynamical model of adsorption,one dimension convection-dispersion-adsorption-disadsorption finite element model,the paper studies the contribution and migration of Pb(Ⅱ)in soil of vadose zone under the condition of infiltration of solution at the different time arid depth of soil.Reliability of calculating models is demonstrated through contrasting soil-chemical data analyzed before experiment with that after experiment,and contrasting calculation results with the field soft-chemical data,which determine the mode of migration and distribution of Pb(Ⅱ)in soil of vadose zone.
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    地理信息系统中矢量数据的快速求交及其应用
    陈春, 王野乔, 薄立群, 万恩璞
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 134-141,191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.134
    摘要   PDF (995KB)
    本文论述了一种矢量快速求交算法,根据该算法编制的程序已纳入三江平原地理信息系统,对矢量数据处理起了重要作用。矢量数据经过快速求交程序处理,为弧段编辑、多边形拓扑信息自动生成提供了必要条件,减少了对线画数据输入的限制性要求。经过一年多的应用,结果表明,该算法高效可靠,具有较大的实用价值。
    The rate of computer processing digital map,in certain extent,depends on the efficiency of intersection calculation of map vectors.Usually,the efficiency of intersection calculation is seriously decreased while the amount of map data increased.The paper presents an algorithm of intersection calculation for vector structure map data.The algorithm extract the child arcs which contain intersections by scanning the data of whole map,and make pair for each intersecting child arcs,then calculate the coordinates of intersections. The intersection calculation programs by using this algorithm has been adopted into the Regional Information System of the Sanjiang Plain developed by the Department of Image Processing and GIS,Changchun Institute of Geography. It makes an important role for the vector data processing.The intersection processing of vector data supplys a necessary condition to arc edition and automatic formating of polygon topological information.It reduces the limited requirement for the input of vector data and makes easy to input data.The program has been improved through running and maintaining of more than one year.The application results have shown that the algorithm has a high efficiency and great application value on GIS.
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    中国寒温性暗针叶林分布界限温度的统计分析
    王建
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 142-149,191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.142
    摘要   PDF (544KB)
    通过对我国二十几个地点的寒温性暗针叶林分布上、下限温度的统计分析,得出控制其分布和发育的最为重要的热量因子,不是最热月温度,而是稳定通过0℃和5℃的有效积温。当稳定通过0℃的月温度积温小于40℃.月或稳定通过5℃的月温度积温大于50℃.月时,寒温性暗针叶林的生长发育受到抑制。还讨论了5月、9月和5-9月均温的生态意义。
    Temperature of every month on both the upper and lower bounds of subalpine dark conifer forests at various sites in China are estimated in terms of their distributions and temperature records,Based on these estimated data,the heat factor to influence and control the distribution and growth of sub-alpine dark conifer forests in China are discussed.It is found that the most important heat index to influence and control the distribution and growth of sub-alpine dark conifer forests is neither the mean temperaure in the warmest month,nor the maximum or minimum temperatures,but accumulated temperature of >0℃ monthly temperature or effective accumulated temperature of >5℃ monthly temperature. When accumulated temperature of >0℃ monthly temperature is more than 40℃, or effective accumulated temperature of >5℃ monthly temperature is over 50℃, sub-alpine dark conifer forests cannot grow well.When accumulated temperature of >0℃ monthly temperature is less than 30℃,or effective accumulated temperature of >5℃ monthly temperature is more than 60℃,sub-alpine dark conifer forests cannot grow at all.When effective accumulated temperature of >5℃ monthly temperature is between 15℃-45℃,sub-alpine dark conifer forests in China can grow well.The ecological significance of temperature in May and September,and in summer half year are discussed.
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    新疆巴里坤湖ZK0024孔微量元素变化的古气候意义
    韩淑媞, 钟巍
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 150-158,192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.150
    摘要   PDF (522KB)
    本文讨论巴里坤湖ZK0024孔全新世以来微量元素演化规律的古气候意义,并结合孢粉微体及14C 测定的分析,论述了钻孔剖面中微量元素高值均出现在暖干期、低值则几乎都出现在冷湿期.微量元素及比值在剖面中自下而上有规律的波动,反映了古气候的冷湿与暖干的交替变化,并与山区的冰期,间冰期呈良好的对应关系。
    On the basis of the trace element analysis of ZK0024 drill in Barkol Lake in the Holocene,in combination with the data on the sporo-pollen,micropaleontology and 14C dating,the palaeoclimate significance from the evolution law of trace elements in ZK0024 drill of Barkol Lake since the Holocene is discussed. The higher and lower values of trace element ratios are corresponds to the warm -dry and cold-humid periods respectively.The regular change of trace clements and their ratios from bottom to top reflects the change of cold-humid and warm -dry alternation of palaeoclimate.The new idea is proposed that the cold-humid period corresponds to the glacial age and the warm-dry period to the interglacial epoch.It is considered that the palaeoclimate evolution pattern belong to the monsoon climate region since the Late Pleistocene.
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    综述
    行为地理学研究的基本理论问题
    张文奎
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 159-167,192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.159
    摘要   PDF (592KB)
    本文对行为地理学的一些基本理论问题进行了分析评述,如行为空间与活动空间、空间行为;地理物象的距离衰变与动态特性;智能图及其构成要素与空间模式;行为区位论等.最后,作者指出其实践意义局限性,在我国要用历史唯物主义的观点建立马列主义的行为地理学。
    Behavioral geography has become one of the most important branches in human geography since the behavioral revolution during the 1970s.It mainly concerns some problems like behavioral space,geographical image,mental map, behavioral location and so on. Behavioral space refers to the activity space sensed in human mind,including natural regions and perceived space.To have the knowledge of human behavioral space and the composing elements can help people master themselves behaviour and expand their spatial activity more efficiently. Geographical image is a kind of mental impression of people ori natural environment.It involves distance,direction and stereo scene of nature as well. This image is the base that people recognize the natural environment and make behavioral decision.So it is very important for human behavioral decision to clarify its characteristics and function. Mental map is a kind of diagram formed through the reappcarance of personal geographical image on natural environment.Studying the forming elements and the pattern of the map is beneficial to the spatial decision of the optimum activities of human being. Behavioral location is the location theory formed based on the behavioral therories.It involves some professional terms such as non-economic man and sat isfication,etc.With behavioral matrix,it mainly deals with the relationship between the location choice of human activities and the information utilization,to help people select the superior location of their activities.
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    研究报道
    贵州清镇地区甲基汞污染现状研究
    王书海, 王稔华, 刘洋, 刘景双, 宋德仁, 黄国庆, 杜振华
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 168-176,192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.168
    摘要   PDF (542KB)
    由于醋酸工艺排放的含甲基汞废水的影响,使贵州清镇地区约4000亩水田受到污染,并在附近井水和上游湖水中检出甲基汞。工厂产生的含汞废水虽经除汞后排出,但仍有微量甲基汞排入环境,对环境产生明显污染。通过渗入作用可能对地下水造成污染。
    Paddy field of 4000mu was polluted by waste water containing mylthmercury in Qingzhen District of Guizhou Province.The mylthmereury pollution index of paddy field was up to 60,thai of rice 7.The mylthmercury pollution index of well water in the district was up to 200,that of Hongfen Lake 50. Although the waste water containing mercury was treated,trace mylthmercury was still drained into environment,which was obviously polluted. The hair and blood in about 30% of people in the district accumulated mylthmercury,which came from rice and meat of domestic animals,but the content was lower than that of the people who eated polluted fish and shellfish. Otherwise,the district is located in NNE lava mountainous region,the stratum is dominated by carbonate rock of shallow-sea facies.Therefore it is possible that groundwater is polluted through permeation effect.
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    钱塘江流域的水文规律
    冯利华
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 177-184,192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.177
    摘要   PDF (510KB)
    钱塘江流域的降水和径流有明显的一致性,且径流系数稳定;天然径流存在有11年和14年的准周期变化;暴雨洪水主要由台风、极锋和短历时暴雨引起的;河流中含泥沙量小;有丰富的水能资源。
    The Qiantang River basin is located in the monsoon climate zone along cast and south coasts,with abundant water vapour and plentiful rainfall.Within the basin,precipitation obviously corresponds to runoff,and runoff coefficient is stable.There are 11-year and 14-year quasi-cycle changes of natural runoff. There are three types of rainstorm and flood:typhoon,plum rain,thunder rainstorm.The river contains less silt,belonging to the clear water river with much more water and less sand.The Qiantang River is rich in water energy resources.Its mouth is a strong tide one.Tide energy is striking.The drop of the upper reaches is greal,so water energy resources are abundant.With the increase of industrial,agricultural and domestic water,to research deeply the hydrological law of the Qiantang River is very benefitial to utilizing rationally water resources and water energy resources,and promoting the economic development of the basin.
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    学位论文摘登
    辉南县农业生产结构的系统分析
    余思德
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 185-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.185
    摘要   PDF (193KB)
    辉南县属于长白山山地和松辽平原过渡地带的低山丘隆区。海拔高度大部在300-1000m,地势由东南部向西北部逐渐倾斜,构成东南部山高林多,中部丘隆起伏,西北部河谷平原的三种地貌类型。该县属于大陆性季风气候,全年平均气温为3.5℃,年平均10℃,积温2584℃,年平均降水量686.1mm,年平均日照2598小时,光、水、热等条件能够满足水稻、玉米、高梁等喜温作物的生长需要,但低温冷害较为严重。
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    学术活动
    第三届伯米季国际泥炭会议概况
    赵大岭, 任淑芬
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 188-188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.188
    摘要   PDF (77KB)
    1989年5月16日至20日在美国明尼苏达州伯米季大学召开了第三届伯米季国际泥炭会议,本次会议的议题是:“泥炭、泥炭地的特征和应用”。参加会议的国家有中国、苏联、美国,英国、芬兰、加拿大、爱尔兰、马来西亚、联邦德国、匈牙利、泰国、波兰、印度尼西亚等14个国家,近100余各代表。我国出席会议的有中国科学院长春地理研究所、北京矿冶学院的3位同志。
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    地理环境演变与区域经济发展学术讨论会综述
    史培军
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (2): 189-190.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.02.189
    摘要   PDF (158KB)
    由中国地理学会古地理组、北京师范大学地理系发起,并同《干旱区资源与环境》编辑部共同组织的“地理环境演变与区域经济发展学术讨论会”于1989年8月15日-17日在北京师范大学举行。会议秘书处共收到论文全文及摘要52篇。参加会议的正式代表35人,列席和特邀代表10人,共计45人。大会就下列主题进行了广泛的讨论。
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