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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1994年, 第14卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1994-01-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    珠江三角洲全新世环境变化与文化起源及传播的关系
    翁齐浩
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.1
    摘要   PDF (2790KB)
    珠江三角洲全新世环境变化直接导致不同文化类型的演替、园圃业与稻作业的兴起,特别是海陆变迁、水系河网演变促进了珠江三角洲晚期原始文化和稻作文化的传播,并最终促使文化区的形成.
    In the Zhujiang River Delta,the origins and propagation of different kinds of culture have close relations to its climatic change, especially to its sea-land change in Holocene. These relationships are shown in three respects.-(1)Different kinds of culture such as fishing-gathering culture,hunting-gathering culture,horticultural culture and rice-growing culture,show the environmental charac-teristics at that time. The environmental change resulted in the cultural evolution.(2)The rise of horticultural culture and rice-growing culture had different cultural ecological factors, and they were not a successive developing process.(3)The environmental change promoted the propagation of the late primitive cul-ture and the rice-growing culture,and the formation of the late primitive cultural district and the rice-growing cultural district. Although these two cultural districts had different characteristics since they were in different periods, they had one common ground, i. e. they were all hydrophilous culture of the tropics and the subtropics.
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    地理现象分形研究
    赵锐, 赵宏, 何隆华, 顾其钧, 杨海浪
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 9-15.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.9
    摘要   PDF (2614KB)
    通过闽江流域水系分形和太湖地区癌症分形研究,阐述了河流、水系和社会经济现象具有分形特征,说明分维定量描述地理现象的优点.并且在遥感图像处理上应用分形特征,达到信息压缩,重构图像精度高的目标.种种试验表明分形概念十分有助于地理研究.
    The study on the fractal of the Minjiang River system and the cancer fractal of Tai-hu Lake reveals that rivers,water systems and social economic phenomena have fractal features,showing the merits of fractal dimension and quantitatively describing geograph-ic phenomena. And the application of fractal features to remote sensing image processing can reach the goal of information compressing and reconstituting image accuracy. These experiments show that fractal theory is very useful to geographic research.
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    中国东部石灰岩土壤元素含量分异规律研究
    温琰茂, 曾水泉, 潘树荣, 罗毓珍
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 16-21.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.16
    摘要   PDF (2577KB)
    中国东部石灰岩土壤钙、镁含量自北向南降低,铁、铝、锌、铅、镉、汞含量则升高、元素含量与土壤有机质累积无明显相关,与土壤酸化、粘化程度显著相关.在石灰岩成土过程中,钙、镁迅速迁移,铁、铝、锌、铅、镉、汞则相对累积.
    Twenty-eight soil profiles studied were collected from the eastern China. They be-long to brown soil,drab soit,yellow brown soil,brown limestone soil and red limestone soil. The concentrations of Ca,Mg in soils decrease and the concentrations of Fe,Al,Zn, Pb,Cd and Hg increase from north to south. There is no significant correlation between the element concentrations and soil organic matter contents. Statistically there is a most significant positive correlation between the concentrations of Ca,Mg and pH,while there is a most significant negative correlation between the concentrations of Fe,Zn,Cd and pH,and a significant negative correlation between Pb concertration and pH. There is a most significant negative correlation between concentrations of Ca,Mg and clay content, and a most significant positive correlation between Fe,Al,Zn,Pb,Cd,Hg and clay con-tent. The concentrations of Ca,Mg decrease,and Fe Al,Zn,Pb,Cd and Hg increase in the processes of acidification and clayization accompanied with the increase in tempera-ture and rainfall.
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    我国基本建设投资区域分布的变化
    魏也华, 马润潮
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 22-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.22
    摘要   PDF (2724KB)
    本文首先对基建投资在我国东部、中部、西部的分布和投资省际总体差异变化趋势进行了分析,然后文章选择1953、1965、1978和1990年四个年分对投资在各省的分布进行对比,并探讨了我国区域发展政策的变化和影响投资区域分布的因素.
    Regional allocation of state investment has been essential to China’s regional devel-opment. This paper attempts to reveal and interpret regional changes of capital con-struction investment in state-owned enterprises in China from 1952 to 1990. The study reveals that balanced regional development and defense consideration as well as industri-alization of the country influenced the allocation of state investment in the pre-reform period. Since the mid-1970s,however, unbalanced development and maximum efficiency has greatly influenced spatial development policy. This study has found that the pat-terns of capital construction investment in different regions differed markedly in differ-ent periods. Currently, investment preference has been shifted to the coastal regions and the eastern provinces of Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning, and Shanghai and Beijing.
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    中国亚热带西部山区夜雨特征的农业气候学研究
    张养才, 叶一舫
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 30-37.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.30
    摘要   PDF (2678KB)
    根据1989~1990年在亚热带西部山区不同坡向,高度统一布设的气象观测资料和统计分析,指出亚热带西部山区夜雨>日雨主要发生在山区中、下层,夜雨量偏多主要是雨时、雨强所致,日晴夜雨的现象仅在部分山区和个别海拔高度出现.夜雨资源将是亚热带西部山区抗御干旱对策的重要依据.
    This paper studies weather-climate features and laws of spatial and temporal distri-bution of night rains and advances the decrease or disappearance of topographic effect gradually with the rise of elevation and the night rainfall more than daytime rainfall in the middle-lower layers in mountainous regions. The more night rainfall is caused prin-cipally by both rainfall hours and rainfall density. The phenomenon of "clear in daytime and rain at night"appears in some mountains and altitudes. The night rain appears prin-cipally in growing seasons, especially in April to May of spring sowing and in July to August of autumn crop in the milk-filling and milk stage. According to the meteorologi-cal data(1989-1990) from stations in different sloping positions and altitudes above sea level. Monthly rainfall of both daytime and night and the rain days in mountainous re-gions in the western part of subtropical zone were counted. The night rain resources will become an important basis for preventing drought countermeasures in mountainous re-gions in the western part of subtropical zone.
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    祁连山东段山地土壤性质及垂直分布规律
    胡双熙
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 38-48.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.38
    摘要   PDF (2939KB)
    祁连山东段的兴隆山和马衔山,地处黄土高原西北部半干旱地区温带荒漠草原地带.山地高差大,土壤垂直带谱较繁.南坡规律为灰钙土、黑垆土、黑钙土、高山草甸土;北坡规律是灰钙土、黑垆土、灰褐土、亚高山草甸土、高山草甸土.
    Both the Xinglong Mountain and the Maxie Mountain are situated in the temperate desert steppe zone of semiarid region in the northwest part of the Loess Plateau. There is a distinct height difference in mountain areas, and the soil association of the vertical zonality is very complicated. South slope: the base zone, is sierozem, the upward are Heilu soil zone, chernozem zone, alpine meadow soil zone (i.e. frost-sod soil,the same below)succesively. North slope; the soil pedigree are sierozem zone, Heilu soil zone, grey cinnamon soil zone, subalpine meadow soil zone(i. e. cryosol,the same below) and alpine meadow soil zone from the lower to the upper.The abovementioned soil types can be generalized into three groups: Calcic aridisols-sierozems; ustic isohumic soil-Heilu soil,cherozem,grey cinnamon soil; Al-tocryic isohumic soil-subalpine meadow soil and alpine meadow soil.
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    西藏土壤环境背景值的研究
    张晓平
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 49-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.49
    摘要   PDF (2716KB)
    通过对西藏表层土壤中205个样品的分析,得到西藏土壤中13种元素的环境背景值.西藏土壤中多数元素环境背景值高于全国平均水平.13个元素中只有V服从于正态分布,其它12个元素服从或接近服从于对数正态分布.
    The environmental background values of 13 elements of Hg,As,Se,Cr ,Mn,V,Pb, Cd,Zn,Cu,Ni,F and Co in Xizang soils are obtained through analyzing and determining 205 samples of surface soils in Xizang and the final data processing. The background val-ues of these elements are compared with those of the corresponding elements in the whole China,U. S. A and Alaska. It is found that the background values of major ele-ments in Xizang soils are higher than the average level of the whole China. The compari-son of background values between Alska and U. S. A shows a similar result. This is be-cause both Xizang and Alaska have a cold climate. Meanwhile, the factor correlation analysis of 13 elements in Xizang soils,organic matter,soil granularity and pH values of Xizang soils are carried out,and R-type cluster analysis is made for these 13 elements.
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    中安第斯山地冰缘地貌特征
    朱诚, A. E. 柯特
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 56-63.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.56
    摘要   PDF (2784KB)
    本区西侧相对湿热、冰缘带狭小、冰缘类型较少,而东侧正相反.22°-25°S的普纳高原地区以冰丘、冻丘为主,33°-35°S的多年冻土区有泥流舌、石冰川、分选环网等多种类型.本区石冰川主要为冷生型和冰川起因型,后者有一底部含水层.本区东西两侧冰缘地貌分布的差异主要是由不同气候造成的.
    The west side of the Central Andes Mountains is relatively warm and humid, its pariglacial zone is narrow and periglacial type is few;the east side vice versa. Pingos,pal-sas are main features of the Puna Plateau between 22?-25癝;gelifluction lobes,rock glacier, sorted circle and nets as well as numerous periglacial types exist in the per-mafrost region between 33?-35癝. Rock glaciers here can be divided into two types: cryogenic and glacigenic types, the latter has a glacier ice core and a subpermafrost aquifer. The periglacial distribution difference which exists between the east and west sides is caused by different climates.The distribution of rock glacier terminal and permafrost lower boundary are regu-larly of "latitudinal gradient "in the world, that is, from 25癝 southward on the southern hemisphere,the rock glacial terminal and the permafrost lower boundary descend 1000m or so with latitude increasing 10?,but the elevation only decrease 200~400m from 25癝 northward. In the northern hemisphere, from 45癗 northward to the elevation descends only 500m or so ,but from-45癗 southward it decreses 1500m and more.
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    湖南省清水塘工业区重金属污染对土壤动物群落生态影响的研究
    王振中, 胡觉莲, 张友梅, 郑云有, 吴志峰, 陈彩芳, 邓继福, 郭永灿, 颜亨梅, 赖勤
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 64-72.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.64
    摘要   PDF (2775KB)
    重金属污染对土壤动物的影响主要是常见类群和稀有类群的减少或消失,优势类群中的种类亦明显减少.土壤动物密度与重金属元素浓度呈显著负相关,与土壤有机质含量和PH值相关不密切.大型土壤动物蚯蚓对重金属元素有较强的富集能力.
    Qingshuitang is a new industrial area of Hunan Province. And there are lots of met-allurgical and chemical factories. The soil is polluted by heavy metal pesticide and chemi-cal fertilizers in different: degrees,in which heavy metals are major pollutants. Because of the accumulation of heavy metal elements such as As,Hg,Cd,Zn,Pb,Cu in soils,the kinds and amounts of soil animals are sharply decreased. The composition and ecological distribution of soil animal; community are obviously negatively correlated with the con-centrations of heavy metals. Especially,the earthworm is capable of enriching heavy met-als, but as the increase of the concentrations of heavy metals,its .kind is distinctly de-creased.
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    下垫面因素对产沙时变影响分析
    包为民
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 73-80.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.73
    摘要   PDF (2671KB)
    采用非参数假设检验方法,对年产沙模数估计方程中下垫面因素的时变影响作定性分析,结果表明,对于一般流域,如果没有人类活动或自然灾害破坏导致下垫面条件的突变,下垫面因素对产沙的影响可看作是时不变的.
    In modelling of sediment yields,the effects of time-variation of geomorphotgic and geologic factors on soil erosion were generally neglected. Errors of this neglection affect-ed the sediment yield models obviously. In this paper,a revised universal soil erosion e-quation was selected, the effects of errors of this neglection on it were tested by non-parametric hypothetical test method of Kolmogorov-Smirnov for a 22-year period within 21 catchments of the middle Huanghe River region,and the results show that the effects of errrors of this neglection on soil erosion were not significant,at 5% probability level.
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    综述
    论东亚季风的形成时代
    王乃昂
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 81-89.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.81
    摘要   PDF (2759KB)
    东亚季风的形成过程可分为无季风、准季风、海洋性季风及大陆性季风4个阶段.现代季风应是高原隆升达到3000m以上,热力作用和动力作用相结合的产物,大致定型于1.0±0.2Ma B.P.我国第四纪气候环境存在更新世早期的暖湿及中后期的冷干两个特征期.
    According to the evolution of natural environment and the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in the Cenozic, the forming process of East Asia monsoon can be dividedinto four stages. 1. No-monsoon stage. In the Eogene period before the uplift of the plateau, there was no monsoon circulation in East Asia, therefore the climate in the area at that time should be the planetary winds. 2. Quasimonsoon stage. In the Neogene pe-riod when the plateau reached about 1000m, the positions and areas of Eurasia were as the same as those at present, and the quasimonsoon in East Asia began to form at that time. 3. Maritime monsoon stage. In the early period of the Quaternary the altitude of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau was about 2000m, which made the summer monsoon of East Asia strong, and the climate in the area at that time was warmer and moister than that at present. 4. Continental monsoon stage. In 1, OMaB. P. the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau reached about 3000m, which made the winter monsoon stronger than the summer mon-soon in East Asia and the environmental evolution in the area tend to drier and colder, and the modern circulation pattern of continental monsoon in the area has formed since the middle period of the Quaternary.
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    研究报道
    论市县域规划模式的变革
    林炳耀
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (1): 90-97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.01.90
    摘要   PDF (2731KB)
    文章总结了我国市县域规划的演变过程,论述了80年代以来规划的背景和特点、存在问题,提出了规划新模式的设想,从规划程序、内容、分区以及方法等方面进行变革和深化,在此基础上塑造新的规划模式.
    The paper expounds the evolution of planning patterns of a city and a county in Chi-na, the new characteristics of planning background since the 1980s, and the defect of existing planning patterns of a city and a county, at last proposes some conceptions on new planning patterns, such as the change of planning contents and procedures, the deepening of planning directions of different districts, the application of modern plan-ning techniques, and the strengthening of planning individuality.
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