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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1998年, 第18卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1998-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    吕宪国, 黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 293-300.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.293
    摘要   PDF (1049KB)
    Changchun Institute of Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences was established in 1958, up to now, it has been taking wetland research as its major discipline direction. It made an integrated survey of whole China’s wetlands, carried out the theoretical approach and practice in basic theories of wetlands, environmental function of wetlands, and rational utilization of wetland resources, which promoted the discipline construction, and made a contribution to national economic development. Systematical wetland research got off to a late start in China, at present a comprehensive complete theoretical system hasn’t been formed, therefore the following research work should be done: Chinese wetland classification system, natural process of wetlands, wetland ecosystem structure and function, the influence of human activities on wetlands, the influence of wetlands on global changes and the response, wetland evaluation index system, wetland biodiversity protection, regional wetland protection and management, rational utilization of wetlands, and improvement and restoration of degenerative wetland ecosystem.
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    朱颜明, 何岩, 刘景双
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 301-311.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.301
    摘要   PDF (1796KB)
    The paper reviews the development course of environmental geography to congratulate the forty anniversaries of Changchun Institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Through introduction of a few main study fields such as the water environment study and pollution controlling, the regional environmental quality study and synthetical harnessing, the relationship of environment and health, the laws of environmental chemical element migration and circulation, the global changing etc. The paper summarizes the results of study on environmental geography in the past twenty eight years. Furthermore, the paper puts forward the focal study points and goals in the future.
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    康世昌, 姚檀栋, 秦大河, 阎宇平
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 312-319.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.312
    摘要   PDF (879KB)
    Characteristics of climatic change in Svalbard area in the last 80 year are analyzed, the general tendency is to get warm slowly. But the decreasing of temperature is an exception in the background of global temperature rising since mid 1970s in Svalbard area. By analyzing temperature and precipitation at typical stations in the last 40 years, it is concluded that there is a good correlation in climatic change between Svalbard area and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, though there are differences because of local climatic change.
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    顾朝林, 邱友良, 叶舜赞
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 320-327.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.320
    摘要   PDF (943KB)
    The opening of the economy in China during the last 15 years have contributed to the rapid urban development. It is worth to notify three new evolution trends of Chinese urban system. The first trend identifies the emergence of mega-urban regions. The second trend is to rebuild a closer tie between the Chinese urban system and the global urban system through the development of the world (global) cities and international cities. The third trend shows the fast polarizxed development in hinterlands and peripheries around advanced economic regions. However, the research literatures on Chinese urbanization in English have shown the scarcity of good databanks and the analysis results are incomplete. Some researchers always doubted the quality of the data. This paper, using the most complete and most recent data, reviewed the designation of new cities in China since 1949. This paper also sought to examine the various policies and to explore the underlying factors that affected the designation of new cities.
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    刘继生, 陈彦光, 余斌
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 328-334.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.328
    摘要   PDF (833KB)
    Studies were made on fractal models, principles, and methods in the paper aimed at contributing to general urban location theory by means of fractal geometry. So far, we have had two important fractal models on urban location theory. One is called Five stars Network Model (FSN) on market location in urban districts, which possesses gold section and fractional dimension, and can be used to plan the spatial structure of a city or town. The other is named Koch Snow flake Model (KSM) on systems of urban and rural settlements, which have two kinds of patterns, and can be used to design or improve urban systems in a region. The former has a fractal dimension of 1.672, the latter, however, the theoretical values are calculated as 1.631 and 1.771, and the mean is 1.701. In addition, another model, Sierpinski Triangular Network (STN) on cities distribution and transport network was given and discussed simply. Three basic fractal principles were presented and suggested to be used when planning a city or a region. The first is self-similarity principle, which demands that self-similar structure should be introduced to human geographical system. The second is matching principle, which demands that the values of fractal dimension of some geo-systems should be equal or close to one another when they become united. The third is containing principle, which demands that the fractal dimension of a subsystem must be smaller than that of its mother system, or the fractal dimension of a geosystem must be smaller than that of its environment. Several examples were given to illustrate how to use these models and principles for the purpose of planning and improving human systems.
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    金凤君, 王缉宪
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 335-341.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.335
    摘要   PDF (948KB)
    As an important part of regional development, the improvement of regional infrastructure is dependent on investment ability based on regional economic level. On the other hand, the superior regional development is based on an advantageous infrastructure system. In this paper, the regional development patterns of transportation and communication infrastructure in China are discussed. Since 1990, the investment of infrastructure of transportation and communication has increased very quickly, which has stimulated the change of the infrastructure system. However, different regional patterns took shape because of different investment scales and varied bases among provincial regions. “Priority to the superiors” is adopted as the basic regional development pattern for infrastructure construction in the 1990s. That is, relative developed regions with high investment capacities, such as most coastal provinces, have experienced a rapid development of infrastructure system in the 1990s. On the contrary, in the developing regions with limited investment capacities, such as many interior provinces, infrastructure systems have been developed slowly in the 1990s. This enlarged the development disparity between coastal areas and inland areas. In the 1990s, there are four types in transportation and communication infrastructure development among the provincial regions. First, there are 8 provinces with most advanced infrastructural base and a most rapid development in the country, namely Beijing, Liaoning, Shanghai, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Guangdong. Second, there are 5 provinces including Hebei, Anhui, Fujian, Henan, Hubei, which have a more advanced infrastructural base and a more rapid development. Third another 11 provinces and autonomous regions remain at the average national level, they are Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hainan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shanxi. Finally the rest 6 provinces and autonomous regions have a feature of less advanced base and lower development speed in the country, namely Xizang, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Guizhou. In addition, some key factors are discussed.
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    栾维新, 王海英
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 342-348.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.342
    摘要   PDF (722KB)
    Based on the understanding of maritime industry, this paper focuses on the discussion on the special characteristics of the maritime natural bases and the difference between maritime industrial structure and terrestrial industrial structure, and analyses the reason why there appears so great difference between these two types of industry from the perspective of the technical condition and the possibilities of the transition from terrestrial industry to maritime industry. It tries to argue that the complex ecosystem around the coastal region (the terrestrial and maritime ecosystems) is the natural foundation of industrial links. But as the maritime industry depends heavily on the development of the terrestrial industry in technologies and spaces, it is necessary for the unification of these two industries. The authors discuss how to realize the unification of maritime and terrestrial industries in the coastal area of China in these main view-points how to develop the near coastal area industry, how to draft a unified strategy and how to balance these two eco systems.
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    王建力, 李吉均, 方小敏
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 349-354.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.349
    摘要   PDF (696KB)
    A total of 3267 carbonate samples were taken with 2.5 cm interval from 84 m thick lacustrine deposits in Linxia Basin. The carbonate content is employed as a proxy of climate records. The spectrum analysis results show that in the period of 2.35-1.65 Ma B.P., the paleoclimate had a clear 41000 a dominant periodicity, suggesting that the earth’s obliquity change was the main cause of climate change over this period. The results also show there were two obvious humid periods happening at 2.28 Ma and 1.75-1.80 Ma B.P. respectively, suggesting that the monsoon climate was not stable in the Early Pleistocene.
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    王根绪, 程国栋
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 355-361.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.355
    摘要   PDF (766KB)
    The spatial differential features of climate conditions, vegetation ecology, soil environment and water envionmnet are analysed in this paper. The ecological functions in different regions are discussed. The results show that, in arid inland river basins the climate conditions and geomorphologic features are the main factors that govern the formation and variance of soil and water environments and vegetation ecology. The main environmental factors which are related with and depended on each other, have formed the spatial distribution laws of eco-environment and the spatial variance of ecological functions in inland rvier basins. Recognizing these laws and functions of elo-environment in different regions was the foundation of rational utilization of the water and land resources.
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    周寅康, 包浩生, 张捷
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 362-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.362
    摘要   PDF (869KB)
    Mang researches have been made about the flood series based on the abundant historical data in the Huaihe River basin, like other basins in China. The work mainly focused on the history data’s arrangement, reconstruction and statistical analysis, like periodic analysis. The inherent nonlinear trait of the series studied less. In recent years, the nonlinear applied researches in earth sciences are being paid attention with the development of the nonlinear sciences, such as fractals, chaotic theory. The flood series in the Huaihe River basin is a kind of an irregular Contor Set that is a typical fractal structure. The power spectral feature which is similar to the characteristic of a chaotic series spectrum means that the flood series in the Huaihe River basin is a chaotic series. In chaotic theory, attracttor dimension is an important parameter. It cab be represented by correlative dimension. The correlative dimensions of the flood series and some time moving series in the Huiahe River basin are studied according to the theorem of embedding phace. The results show that the correlative dimension reflects the systematic hierarchy. The smaller the fractal dimension, the more obvious the tendency of the system, and vice versa. The correlative dimension is an important judgment to the complexity of a system. Reconstructing a dynamic system should have at least 5 independent parameters according to the attractor dimension (4.66) of the flood series. This is practical to the simulation or reconstruction of the flood series.
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    刘会平, 王开发
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 368-373.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.368
    摘要   PDF (851KB)
    Some sporo-pollen assemblages from three culture ruins was interpreted by correspondance analysis and the climate feature of Late Stone Age in the Changjiang Delta was revealed. In Majiabang and Songze culture stages, the climate was warmer and the mean annual temperature was 1-3℃ higher than that at present. In Liangzhu culture stages, the climate was cooler and the mean annual temperature was about 1.5℃ lewer than that at present. Precipitation was very different in different stages and areas. In the late Majiabang stage and early Songze stage it was humid and the mean annual precipitation was 150-300 mm higher than that at present.
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    钱君龙, 柯晓康, 尹卓思, 柯善哲, 何海军, 唐劲松
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 374-378.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.374
    摘要   PDF (631KB)
    Five Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don. trees growing in Taipingmen Street, Nanjing City (yellow brown soil pH=6.68), were selected to determine the contents of 11 chemical elements (Li, Al, P, K, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba and Pb) both in the 1994’s growth rings, C(Z,t), and in the soils near the roots, C’(Z,t) of trees. The results showed that the relationship between C(Z,t) and C’(Z,t) followed the logarithmic linear correlation model, lgC’(Z,t)=a(Z)+b(Z)lgC(Z,t). Based on this model the chrono sequences of chemical element contents in the soils were reproduced from those in the tree rings; i.e., the dynamic variations in the chemical element contents of the soils at the sites were traced. The background values of chemical elements in the soil were calculated by taking the lowest values of the chrono sequences of the element contents in tree rings.
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    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 379-386.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.379
    摘要   PDF (1259KB)
    By means of the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, based on the statistic data of the sample investigation made in the local regions, a quantitative analysis of the resource environment consciousness of the people in Mashan Region, Guizhou Province, has been made in this article.
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    徐茂其, 张安明, 管志宇, 徐维
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 387-392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.387
    摘要   PDF (694KB)
    Soil creep takes place mostly at ZiliuJing group (J1+2z) of previous and middle Jurassic strata in paralleled ridge valley region of east Chongqing City. Weathering rock stratum and upper soil horizon move slowly downward along the declivity under the water and gravity action. The soil creep damages seriously farmland, road, houses and water conservancy projects. This paper employs electronic microscope, X rays and common titrimetric methods to test and analyse clay mineral type, chemical composition, swelling shrinking ratio and so on. And the clay of researched region is determinded to have lower swelling ratio, and the clay particle mineral is mostly composed by kaolinite, then montmorillonite. Silica oxide colloid content is most in chemical composition. Finally, the paper provides the protection measures of building baseland treatment, humidity index control, farmland capital construction, regional circumstance afforestation and soil draining water capacity etc.
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