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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1998年, 第18卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1998-07-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    中国科学院长春地理研究所成立40周年专文
    我国湿地研究进展——献给中国科学院长春地理研究所成立40周年
    吕宪国, 黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 293-300.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.293
    摘要   PDF (1049KB)
    回顾了我国湿地研究、尤其是近10年的研究进展,包括湿地资源的综合考察、湿地基本概念的研究、湿地功能研究、湿地资源的保护与合理利用,并对我国湿地研究提出了展望。
    Changchun Institute of Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences was established in 1958, up to now, it has been taking wetland research as its major discipline direction. It made an integrated survey of whole China’s wetlands, carried out the theoretical approach and practice in basic theories of wetlands, environmental function of wetlands, and rational utilization of wetland resources, which promoted the discipline construction, and made a contribution to national economic development. Systematical wetland research got off to a late start in China, at present a comprehensive complete theoretical system hasn’t been formed, therefore the following research work should be done: Chinese wetland classification system, natural process of wetlands, wetland ecosystem structure and function, the influence of human activities on wetlands, the influence of wetlands on global changes and the response, wetland evaluation index system, wetland biodiversity protection, regional wetland protection and management, rational utilization of wetlands, and improvement and restoration of degenerative wetland ecosystem.
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    环境地理研究的回顾与展望——献给中国科学院长春地理研究所成立40周年
    朱颜明, 何岩, 刘景双
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 301-311.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.301
    摘要   PDF (1796KB)
    为庆祝中国科学院长春地理研究所成立40周年,对环境地理学的发展历程进行了回顾。介绍水环境及其污染控制、区域环境质量与区域环境综合整治、环境与健康关系、环境化学物质迁移循环规律、全球变化等几个主要研究领域的研究,总结了28年来环境地理研究的成果,提出今后重点研究的目标和方向。
    The paper reviews the development course of environmental geography to congratulate the forty anniversaries of Changchun Institute of Geography of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Through introduction of a few main study fields such as the water environment study and pollution controlling, the regional environmental quality study and synthetical harnessing, the relationship of environment and health, the laws of environmental chemical element migration and circulation, the global changing etc. The paper summarizes the results of study on environmental geography in the past twenty eight years. Furthermore, the paper puts forward the focal study points and goals in the future.
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    论文
    北极Svalbard地区气候变化特征及其与青藏高原对比
    康世昌, 姚檀栋, 秦大河, 阎宇平
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 312-319.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.312
    摘要   PDF (879KB)
    通过分析Svalbard地区近80a来的气候变化表明,其总趋势为缓慢变暖,但70年代后期Svalbard地区的降温是全球升温的一个例外。同时对典型台站的分析得出:Svalbard地区与青藏高原气候变化存在着一定的相关性,但局地的气候变化原因导致了两地之间的某些差异。
    Characteristics of climatic change in Svalbard area in the last 80 year are analyzed, the general tendency is to get warm slowly. But the decreasing of temperature is an exception in the background of global temperature rising since mid 1970s in Svalbard area. By analyzing temperature and precipitation at typical stations in the last 40 years, it is concluded that there is a good correlation in climatic change between Svalbard area and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, though there are differences because of local climatic change.
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    建国以来中国新城市设置
    顾朝林, 邱友良, 叶舜赞
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 320-327.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.320
    摘要   PDF (943KB)
    近15年来中国经济对外开放促进了新城市的增长,然而,有关中国城市化研究显示较好的英文数据库短缺,且一些分析结果不够全面。文章对中国新城市的设置进行分析,同时也试图对影响中国新城市设置的因素和政策进行评述。
    The opening of the economy in China during the last 15 years have contributed to the rapid urban development. It is worth to notify three new evolution trends of Chinese urban system. The first trend identifies the emergence of mega-urban regions. The second trend is to rebuild a closer tie between the Chinese urban system and the global urban system through the development of the world (global) cities and international cities. The third trend shows the fast polarizxed development in hinterlands and peripheries around advanced economic regions. However, the research literatures on Chinese urbanization in English have shown the scarcity of good databanks and the analysis results are incomplete. Some researchers always doubted the quality of the data. This paper, using the most complete and most recent data, reviewed the designation of new cities in China since 1949. This paper also sought to examine the various policies and to explore the underlying factors that affected the designation of new cities.
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    区位选择与人文地理系统的分形优化——关于城市区位分形理论一般原理与方法的初步探讨
    刘继生, 陈彦光, 余斌
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 328-334.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.328
    摘要   PDF (833KB)
    以城市区位论为主线,提出区位选择的分形思想和方法,旨在探讨人文地理系统空间优化的基本理论。指出区位选择和空间优化应该遵循三个基本原则:自相似原则、匹配原则和包容原则。
    Studies were made on fractal models, principles, and methods in the paper aimed at contributing to general urban location theory by means of fractal geometry. So far, we have had two important fractal models on urban location theory. One is called Five stars Network Model (FSN) on market location in urban districts, which possesses gold section and fractional dimension, and can be used to plan the spatial structure of a city or town. The other is named Koch Snow flake Model (KSM) on systems of urban and rural settlements, which have two kinds of patterns, and can be used to design or improve urban systems in a region. The former has a fractal dimension of 1.672, the latter, however, the theoretical values are calculated as 1.631 and 1.771, and the mean is 1.701. In addition, another model, Sierpinski Triangular Network (STN) on cities distribution and transport network was given and discussed simply. Three basic fractal principles were presented and suggested to be used when planning a city or a region. The first is self-similarity principle, which demands that self-similar structure should be introduced to human geographical system. The second is matching principle, which demands that the values of fractal dimension of some geo-systems should be equal or close to one another when they become united. The third is containing principle, which demands that the fractal dimension of a subsystem must be smaller than that of its mother system, or the fractal dimension of a geosystem must be smaller than that of its environment. Several examples were given to illustrate how to use these models and principles for the purpose of planning and improving human systems.
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    中国交通通信基础设施的区域发展类型研究
    金凤君, 王缉宪
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 335-341.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.335
    摘要   PDF (948KB)
    以基础设施与区域发展关系为主线,分析评价了我国区域交通基础设施的总体发展态势、区域交通通信基础设施的状态类型及其所形成的投资环境,以及区域交通通信基础设施发展的因素。
    As an important part of regional development, the improvement of regional infrastructure is dependent on investment ability based on regional economic level. On the other hand, the superior regional development is based on an advantageous infrastructure system. In this paper, the regional development patterns of transportation and communication infrastructure in China are discussed. Since 1990, the investment of infrastructure of transportation and communication has increased very quickly, which has stimulated the change of the infrastructure system. However, different regional patterns took shape because of different investment scales and varied bases among provincial regions. “Priority to the superiors” is adopted as the basic regional development pattern for infrastructure construction in the 1990s. That is, relative developed regions with high investment capacities, such as most coastal provinces, have experienced a rapid development of infrastructure system in the 1990s. On the contrary, in the developing regions with limited investment capacities, such as many interior provinces, infrastructure systems have been developed slowly in the 1990s. This enlarged the development disparity between coastal areas and inland areas. In the 1990s, there are four types in transportation and communication infrastructure development among the provincial regions. First, there are 8 provinces with most advanced infrastructural base and a most rapid development in the country, namely Beijing, Liaoning, Shanghai, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Guangdong. Second, there are 5 provinces including Hebei, Anhui, Fujian, Henan, Hubei, which have a more advanced infrastructural base and a more rapid development. Third another 11 provinces and autonomous regions remain at the average national level, they are Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hainan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shanxi. Finally the rest 6 provinces and autonomous regions have a feature of less advanced base and lower development speed in the country, namely Xizang, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Guizhou. In addition, some key factors are discussed.
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    论我国沿海地区的海陆经济一体化
    栾维新, 王海英
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 342-348.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.342
    摘要   PDF (722KB)
    在给定了海洋产业概念的基础上,重点论述了海域自然基础的特殊性、海洋产业结构与陆域产业结构的差异,并从技术条件和陆域产业向海洋延伸的可能性等方面分析了海洋产业和陆域产业间形成差异的原因;在海岸带地区由海洋生态系统和陆域生态系统所形成的复合生态系统是海陆产业联系的自然基础,而海洋产业对陆域的技术和空间上的依赖则决定了海陆经济一体化的必然性;最后,作者从发展临海产业、海陆统一规划和协调海陆生态系统等三方面论述了如何实现我国沿海地区的海陆经济一体化。
    Based on the understanding of maritime industry, this paper focuses on the discussion on the special characteristics of the maritime natural bases and the difference between maritime industrial structure and terrestrial industrial structure, and analyses the reason why there appears so great difference between these two types of industry from the perspective of the technical condition and the possibilities of the transition from terrestrial industry to maritime industry. It tries to argue that the complex ecosystem around the coastal region (the terrestrial and maritime ecosystems) is the natural foundation of industrial links. But as the maritime industry depends heavily on the development of the terrestrial industry in technologies and spaces, it is necessary for the unification of these two industries. The authors discuss how to realize the unification of maritime and terrestrial industries in the coastal area of China in these main view-points how to develop the near coastal area industry, how to draft a unified strategy and how to balance these two eco systems.
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    临夏盆地早更新世东山古湖沉积的高分辨率气候记录
    王建力, 李吉均, 方小敏
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 349-354.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.349
    摘要   PDF (696KB)
    临夏盆地东山古湖(2.35~1.65MaB.P.)沉积厚达84m,是六盘山以西早更新世湖相沉积的典型代表。以2.5m的间隔对其进行系统采样,以CaCO3含量变化为指标建立高分辨率的气候变化曲线,对曲线进行周期分析表明,东山古湖所反映的气候波动具有明显的41000a主导周期;其中2.28MaB.P.和1.75~1.80MaB.P.时段为两个明显的冷湿时期,表明东亚季风在建立初期具有不稳定性。
    A total of 3267 carbonate samples were taken with 2.5 cm interval from 84 m thick lacustrine deposits in Linxia Basin. The carbonate content is employed as a proxy of climate records. The spectrum analysis results show that in the period of 2.35-1.65 Ma B.P., the paleoclimate had a clear 41000 a dominant periodicity, suggesting that the earth’s obliquity change was the main cause of climate change over this period. The results also show there were two obvious humid periods happening at 2.28 Ma and 1.75-1.80 Ma B.P. respectively, suggesting that the monsoon climate was not stable in the Early Pleistocene.
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    内陆河流域生态环境的空间分异特征
    王根绪, 程国栋
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 355-361.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.355
    摘要   PDF (766KB)
    分析研究了内陆河流域气候条件,植被生态,土壤环境及水环境质量等生态环境要素的空间变异特征,探讨了流域不同地带的生态环境功能。结果表明:干旱内陆河流域气候条件,尤其是水热条件和地貌特征是植被生态,土壤环境及水环境形成与分异最主要的控制性因素,几大环境要素之间相互联系,相互制约形成内陆流域生态环境空间分带规律和生态系统功能在空间不同地带上的显着差异性,认识这种分带规律与不同区域的生态功能,是合理开发内陆河水土资源的基础。
    The spatial differential features of climate conditions, vegetation ecology, soil environment and water envionmnet are analysed in this paper. The ecological functions in different regions are discussed. The results show that, in arid inland river basins the climate conditions and geomorphologic features are the main factors that govern the formation and variance of soil and water environments and vegetation ecology. The main environmental factors which are related with and depended on each other, have formed the spatial distribution laws of eco-environment and the spatial variance of ecological functions in inland rvier basins. Recognizing these laws and functions of elo-environment in different regions was the foundation of rational utilization of the water and land resources.
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    淮河流域洪涝变化吸引子维数研究
    周寅康, 包浩生, 张捷
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 362-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.362
    摘要   PDF (869KB)
    淮河流域洪涝序列的功率谱表现出了较好的混沌谱特征,这是序列呈分形结构的内在原因。洪涝序列及其不同平滑序列的关联维数表明,序列平滑程度越大,关联维数越小。关联维数反映了序列所在系统的层次,是系统结构复杂性的重要量度,是系统建模所需独立变量的控制参数。要恰当地描述淮河流域洪涝发生系统,需构造至少5个状态变量的动力学系统。
    Mang researches have been made about the flood series based on the abundant historical data in the Huaihe River basin, like other basins in China. The work mainly focused on the history data’s arrangement, reconstruction and statistical analysis, like periodic analysis. The inherent nonlinear trait of the series studied less. In recent years, the nonlinear applied researches in earth sciences are being paid attention with the development of the nonlinear sciences, such as fractals, chaotic theory. The flood series in the Huaihe River basin is a kind of an irregular Contor Set that is a typical fractal structure. The power spectral feature which is similar to the characteristic of a chaotic series spectrum means that the flood series in the Huaihe River basin is a chaotic series. In chaotic theory, attracttor dimension is an important parameter. It cab be represented by correlative dimension. The correlative dimensions of the flood series and some time moving series in the Huiahe River basin are studied according to the theorem of embedding phace. The results show that the correlative dimension reflects the systematic hierarchy. The smaller the fractal dimension, the more obvious the tendency of the system, and vice versa. The correlative dimension is an important judgment to the complexity of a system. Reconstructing a dynamic system should have at least 5 independent parameters according to the attractor dimension (4.66) of the flood series. This is practical to the simulation or reconstruction of the flood series.
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    研究报道
    沪杭苏地区若干文化遗址的孢粉—气候对应分析
    刘会平, 王开发
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 368-373.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.368
    摘要   PDF (851KB)
    运用对应分析方法研究沪、杭、苏地区三个文化遗址孢粉与气候的关系。结果表明,马家浜文化期和崧泽文化期(属全世新大西洋期)比较温暖,年平均温度比今高1~3℃;而良渚文化期(属全新世亚北方期)相对凉爽,年平均温度比今低1.5℃左右。年降水量各地有所不同,但以马家浜期末和崧泽期初最为潮湿,年平均降水量比今高150~300mm。
    Some sporo-pollen assemblages from three culture ruins was interpreted by correspondance analysis and the climate feature of Late Stone Age in the Changjiang Delta was revealed. In Majiabang and Songze culture stages, the climate was warmer and the mean annual temperature was 1-3℃ higher than that at present. In Liangzhu culture stages, the climate was cooler and the mean annual temperature was about 1.5℃ lewer than that at present. Precipitation was very different in different stages and areas. In the late Majiabang stage and early Songze stage it was humid and the mean annual precipitation was 150-300 mm higher than that at present.
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    南京太平门地段雪松树年轮及其根土中化学元素含量的相关性研究
    钱君龙, 柯晓康, 尹卓思, 柯善哲, 何海军, 唐劲松
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 374-378.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.374
    摘要   PDF (631KB)
    1994年在南京市太平门街道采集了五株雪松的年轮样及其根部土壤(黄棕壤pH=6.68),分别测定了Li、Al、P、K、Mn、Co、Cu、Zn、Cd、Ba和Pb等11种化学元素含量,实测结果验证了雪松年轮与其根部当年土壤中化学元素含量满足对数线性相关模式;lgC’(Z,t)=a(Z)+b(Z)lgC(Z,t).根据年轮元素含量C(Z,t)可以重建过去根土中元素含量C’(Z,t),即反映环境(土壤)中元素含量的逐年演变的年份序列。利用C(Z,t)中最低含量可估算该地段黄棕壤的土壤元素背景值。
    Five Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don. trees growing in Taipingmen Street, Nanjing City (yellow brown soil pH=6.68), were selected to determine the contents of 11 chemical elements (Li, Al, P, K, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba and Pb) both in the 1994’s growth rings, C(Z,t), and in the soils near the roots, C’(Z,t) of trees. The results showed that the relationship between C(Z,t) and C’(Z,t) followed the logarithmic linear correlation model, lgC’(Z,t)=a(Z)+b(Z)lgC(Z,t). Based on this model the chrono sequences of chemical element contents in the soils were reproduced from those in the tree rings; i.e., the dynamic variations in the chemical element contents of the soils at the sites were traced. The background values of chemical elements in the soil were calculated by taking the lowest values of the chrono sequences of the element contents in tree rings.
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    贵州麻山地区居民的资源环境意识模糊综合评价
    陈慧琳
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 379-386.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.379
    摘要   PDF (1259KB)
    用模糊综合评价方法,根据实地抽样调查的统计资料,对麻山地区居民的资源环境意识用定性定量的分析。得出该区环境恶化的主要原因是资源环境意识差,居民自觉或不自觉地破坏生态环境以资源为代价,来满足不断增长的人口的需求。
    By means of the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, based on the statistic data of the sample investigation made in the local regions, a quantitative analysis of the resource environment consciousness of the people in Mashan Region, Guizhou Province, has been made in this article.
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    渝东平行岭谷区土壤的蠕移灾害及防治措施
    徐茂其, 张安明, 管志宇, 徐维
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (4): 387-392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.04.387
    摘要   PDF (694KB)
    渝东平行岭谷区土壤的蠕移,主要发生在侏罗系下中统自流井组(J1-2z)地层中,在水体和重力作用下,风化岩层和上覆土层沿斜坡缓慢向下蠕移,对农地、民房及水利设施等产生严重破坏。分析测定表明研究区的粘性岩土被为低膨胀性粘性土,粘粒矿物以高岭石为主,蒙脱石为次,化学成分以SiO2胶粒含量最高。最后提出建筑物的地基处理和湿度指标控制、农田基本建设及采用区域环境绿化增强土壤排水能力等方面的防治措施。
    Soil creep takes place mostly at ZiliuJing group (J1+2z) of previous and middle Jurassic strata in paralleled ridge valley region of east Chongqing City. Weathering rock stratum and upper soil horizon move slowly downward along the declivity under the water and gravity action. The soil creep damages seriously farmland, road, houses and water conservancy projects. This paper employs electronic microscope, X rays and common titrimetric methods to test and analyse clay mineral type, chemical composition, swelling shrinking ratio and so on. And the clay of researched region is determinded to have lower swelling ratio, and the clay particle mineral is mostly composed by kaolinite, then montmorillonite. Silica oxide colloid content is most in chemical composition. Finally, the paper provides the protection measures of building baseland treatment, humidity index control, farmland capital construction, regional circumstance afforestation and soil draining water capacity etc.
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