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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1981年, 第1卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1981-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    试论地理学的性质
    林超
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 97-104.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.97
    摘要   PDF (2790KB)
    对于地理学,曾有不少地理学者下过定义,但是至今还没有一个定义为大家所公认。这是因为地理学所研究的是非常复杂的现象,其复杂程度远远超过其它学科,因此,不是简短的定义所能表达的。又因为每个地理学者在研究地理学的时候,只能研究某些方面,各有所偏重,见解也就有所不同。因此,与其从定义出发,不如就有关地理学性质的几个问题进行讨论,也许更有意义。
    The author attempts to answer the question raised by some students of geography,“what is geography”.Instead of giving a definition,the author begins with a discussion on the characteristics of geography.They are:1)Surface of ithe earth as the object of geographical stndy,2)the earth as the stage of human activities and the concept of noosphere,3)geography as an interdeciphinary science, 4)the concept of region and regional geography,5)synthesis in the study of geography,6)times and geography,7)purpose of the study of geography. The second part discusses the different schools and theories of geographical thought,following the themes suggested by P.Haggett(Loeational Analysis in Humon Geography,1965)They are:the traditional view of areal differentiation,the landscape school,the ecological school,the locafional school and set theory. The third part is a review on recent trends of geograpy,including:1)the rise of applied geography,2)synthesis versus analysis,3)from individual to collective efforts,4)application of new techniques. The paper ended with a review on the system of geography as proposed by H. Uhlig in“Organization and system of Geography”(Geoforum 1,1970).
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    卫星遥感的地学分析与论证
    陈述彭
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 105-114.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.105
    摘要   PDF (2887KB)
    我国曾多次成功地发射和回收了人造地球卫星,从而迈进了空间技术的先进行列。与此同时,我国还成功地研制了甚高分辨率的卫星云图接收机和静止气象卫星接收装置;积极参加全球性世界气象组织和“国际水文十年”等全球性的地学研究活动;研制了多种遥感仪器;开展航空遥感试验和进行卫星遥感的科学和技术准备。此外,还引进了部分美国陆地卫星所提供的遥感图象资料,研究它对我国地理环境的适应性和社会主义现代化建设中的经济技术效益。在自力更生为主,争取外援为辅的正确方针指引下,我国遥感技术的发展十分迅速,展示出广阔的前景。
    Since 1969,we have succeeded in Launching several scientific satellites,and developed the VHRR reciever for NoAA imagery.Images and data of Landsat and Meteologic satellite have preliminaryly been applied in some respects for geoscience research,for example:(1)Interpretation of Lineament,for the verifying of geotectonic partern and plate tectonics in china;(2)analyzing some dynamic phehomena of water body and air mass, and some significant track of natural changes in Chinese history;(3)monitoring the changes of biosystem and the pollution of Environment. Effects above are obvious while the development is rapid.Nevertheless,the research work of theory and methology for remote sensing analysis and interpretation in our country are lagging behind the needs of our national economy and the development of our remote sensor productiveness.The application for remote sensing in our country is at the preliminary stage as yet,it requires an advancing development step by step,according to our own natural resources,geographic conditions,and the characteristic of the socialist construction.(1)Utilizing panchromatic alr-photos,color-infrared air-photos and single band image of MSS from lansate,visoal interpretation,ground truth field checking, by optical instrument,for static analysis;(2)Using multi-spectral information,image matching and by electronicoptical instrument for thematic mapping;(3)Using multidate remote sensing image and data from satellite for monitoring and predicting dynamic phenomena and production management in accordance with time series;(4)Establishing an geo-information system data bank and using landsat remote sensing data for up-dating,from which the training area for computer aided analysis and data for classification are extracted.
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    若干自然地理因素与地球运动参数
    彭公炳
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 115-124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.115
    摘要   PDF (2753KB)
    国内外的研究表明,大气环流和气候的演变与地球运动参数有关,即与地移极动和地球自转速度变化有关。气候是基本自然地理因素之一,所以气候的演变必然伴随海洋、河流、冰川以及植物等其他自然地理因素的变化。
    In this paper,the basic concept of the influence of earth rotation parameters on the physical geography factors,such as climate,sea and hydrology, were expounded;and the possible mechanism of influence was discussed.Besides, the author revealed a series of facts which indicated that variations of certain physical geography factors were related to the variation cycle of above-mentioned parameters correspondingly;the secular variations of precipitation and atmospheric temperature in some regions of our country were related to these parameters; The secular variations of the sea-level elevation,the sea water temperature in certain regions of the world,and the hydrological characteristics of the Yangtze River Basin also were related to it.Therefore,the author considers the parameters of earth rotation is one of the control factors on physical geography process.
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    东北地区煤炭与油页岩资源的合理开发利用
    郝凌云
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 125-134.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.125
    摘要   PDF (2864KB)
    东北地区包括黑龙江省、吉林省、辽宁省及毗邻地区内蒙古自治区呼伦贝尔盟、哲里木盟和昭乌达盟。境内煤炭资源丰富,约占全国煤炭蕴藏量的9%,其中炼焦煤资源集中于黑龙江省东北部,占全区炼焦煤的71.%。区内煤炭工业已有近百年历史,但在解放前不仅资源未得到合理利用,反而遭到封建军阀和帝国主义者的严重破坏与掠夺。只有解放后在优越的社会主义制度下,这些宝贵资源才开始得到合理利用。本区煤炭产量在1952年已超过解放前最高年(1944)水平,1979年原煤产量达11,000多万吨,约占全国煤炭产量的18%。所产煤炭主要满足区内需要,并有部分出口,某些煤种不足部分需要华北支援。煤炭是区内燃料动力的主要源泉,也是冶金用焦炭和化学工业的重要原料。目前,煤炭约占全区能源消费构成的70%,这说明煤炭供应的保证程度,对本区经济建设和人民生活关系极大。
    The North-East Region of China consists of three provinces and three districts(Meng)of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.There are rich coal resources, making up 9% of the total coal resources of China,and kerogen resources are also rich there.The output of 1979 was more than 110 million tons,making up about 18% of the total coal output of China.Now coal consumption is about 70% of the total consumption of various energy constituents in this region.The minerogenetic epoches of the coal and kerogen are mainly in the Carboniferous and Permian period, the Jurassic and Cretaceous period,and Tertiary period.The coal generated in the two former periods is mainly bituminous coal,and in the latter is mainly brown coal. At present,there are two important problems on the production of coal industry here.fIrstly,the distribution of coal industry is not in equilibrium,most of them concentrates in the east part,but coal consumption concentrates in the middle industrial region.So,speedy development of several big brown coal field in the west part should be carried out,and coal or electric current should be sent to the middle part region.Secondary,the comprehensive and rational utilization of coal should be considered.Now about 80% of the coal consumed is used in direct burning in this region.The utilization coefficient is only about 25% of the heat energy of coal.So,it is very important to pay attention to coal screening,productive quality improving,and reducing of inefficient transport and discharge of pollutant.
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    我国东部地区夏季风的活动
    周玉孚, 徐淑英
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 135-143.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.135
    摘要   PDF (2822KB)
    关于我国夏季风的活动,早在三十年代竺可桢就开始研究;五十年代对东亚季风的进退活动又开展了比较系统的研究,指出我国季风有两次突进和一次速退;最近有人用六十年代后高空风资料分析了副热带西风的季节变化,发现副热带西风的突变性并不明显。本文利用最近十几年(1967—1979年)高低空气象资料,分析了夏季风活动的几种型式,由此得出一些简易的季风进退指标,在参考文献的基础上确定了三十年来夏季风盛行到达华中和华北以及开始撤退的日期。最后探讨了夏季风活动不同时段的天气气候特征。这些结果对进一步了解季风活动与早涝的关系,并对季风的长期预报有一定参考价值。
    It is shown that the summer monsoon activity is not only associated with the movement of polar front and the west Pacific subtropical high but also closely related to the 100mb Tibetan high.The east-west or the north-south oscillation of Tibetan high will also influence the drought or floods of China.So that the above three factors are selected as the indexes to determine the date of onset and retreat of summer monsoon during recent thirty years(1951—1979). It is also found that the process of onset and retreat of summer monsoon has three basic patterns.The stepwise advancing pattern,the north-south oscillation pattern and the slow or stagnant pattern.But these patterns are always interalternated and their interannual variation is quite different.
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    西藏南部全新世泥炭孢粉组合及自然环境演化的探讨
    汪佩芳, 夏玉梅, 王曼华
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 144-152.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.144
    摘要   PDF (3801KB)
    西藏地区近一万年来自然环境的变化前人曾从地貌、第四纪地质和古植物学等方面进行了一些研究。本文以高原泥炭为研究对象,对六个泥炭剖面进行了113块样品的孢粉分析,12块样品的 C14年令测定,进而对西藏南部一万年来古植被和古气候的变化规律、泥炭沼泽的形成时代及积累速度等问题进行初步探讨
    This paper takes the peat in plateau area as the object for this study.We have carried out pollen analysis of 113 samples taken from 6 peat sections at different sites and also the radiocarbon c14 dating of 12 samples.Based on these results,we have studied the pattern of variation of vegetation and climate,the genesis of peat swamp and its accumulation rate etc.of that region,in a period of the latest ten thousand years.
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    中国地方性氟病的地理特点
    陈国阶
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 153-162.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.153
    摘要   PDF (2881KB)
    氟是地理环境中的广布元素,它在地壳中的平均含量为270ppm。在生态环境中,氟是经常与人体接触,并不断参加体内新陈代谢和物质循环的微量元素。它既为人体所必需,稍过量又对人体产生危害。在地理环境中,其含量的区域分异十分明显:既有堆积富集区,又有淋溶缺氟区。地方性氟病就是由区域环境中所累积的高含量氟,通过饮水、食物或空气进入人体,破坏人体内氟钙磷的代谢平衡而引起的疾病。轻者出现氟斑牙、腰腿酸痛等症状;重者则骨骼畸形、骨折乃至瘫痪。本文仅据笔者近年调查和搜集的资料,就我国氟病区分布的若干地理规律和特点,作一初步探讨。
    Endemic fluorosis is caused by excess fluorine of natural environment entering human body through food chain.This is one of the most extensive epidemic regional diseases in China. The distribution of this disease has obvious district characteristics.The area of this disease in China may be divided into three regional zones.(1)The ariplain in the north of China,it’s outstanding character is the dry climate which causes fluorine accumulation in Ouaternary deposits;thus,the drinking water with high content of fluorine forms the cause of this disease;(2)the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau with a very high content of fluorinein rocks and soils,thus,the crop food with high content of fluorine forms the cause of this disease;(3)the Southeast Hills,the hot springs with high content of fluorine lead to this disease. In general,the disease has certain particular physical geographical characteristies.The landforms in the disease district are of low-lying areas benefitting fluorine accumulation there.Saline-alkli soil is extensively found in the disease district,there are a lot of Soda,it benefits to increase chemical activity of fluorine. Plant types are halophiles and calciphile. The fluorine entering human body from environment is firstly through drinking water;secondly the fluorine in soil enters human body through crop food.The fluorine in air enters human body mainly through crop leaves.The prevention and cure of fluorosis depenp mainly on reforming the environmental natural accumulating fluorine,and breaking up the high fluorine food chain(mainly drinking water)entering human body.
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    问题讨论
    松辽平原冰缘期的划分
    孙建中
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 163-170.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.163
    摘要   PDF (2921KB)
    冰缘学的研究近年来比较活跃。冰缘现象种类很多,其中对于分期比较有效的是冰缘构造现象。这种构造在松辽平原颇为常见。
    Periglacial structures are widely distributed at Songliao plain in the Northeastern Region of China.Their common forms are:ice wedges,involutions and solifluctions.According to stratigraphical and chronological data,The periglacial stages have been divided as following: 1.Baitushan periglacial stage,characterized by the involutions developed in Baitushan formation.Paleomagnetic dating 3.4—3.0—1.7m.y.B.P. 2.Huangshan periglacial stage,characterized by the involutions and ice wedges developed in Huangshan formation.Paleomagnetic dating 1.2~1.0— 0.75m.y.B.P. 3.Donggang periglacial stage,characterized by the involutions developed in Donggang formation.Thermo-luminescent dating:0.2—0.15m.y.B.P. 4.Guxiangtun periglacial stage,characterized by the ice wedges and involutions developed in Guxiangtun formation and by the cold-loving fauna and flora:Mammuthus-Coelodonta fauna and dark coniferous forest flora and permafrost fauna in the same formation.C14 dating:70,000—10,000 years B.P. 5.Tailitu periglacial stage,characterized by the solifluction found near Tailitu village.It might occur in early Holocene. 6.Modern periglacial stage,characterized by the ice wedges and involutions filled by black soil.This stage might be corresponding to the little ice age.
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    研究报导
    三江平原沼泽土壤的发生、性质与分类
    张养贞
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 171-180.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.171
    摘要   PDF (2861KB)
    三江平原位于我国东北端,是由黑龙江、松花江、乌苏里江和兴凯湖冲积而成的低平原,总面积约51300平方公里。由于平原内部地势平坦,地面坡降小,土质粘重、渗透困难,沼泽土壤广泛发育,是我国沼泽土壤集中分布的地区之一。沼泽土壤主要分布在浓江、别拉洪河、挠力河、七星河、阿布沁河、七虎林河、穆棱河、松阿查河的河漫滩及阶地上的低洼地,水城子古河道,以及大小兴凯湖湖滨。面积13700余平方公里。
    Sanjing Plain is situated in the northeast part of China.It is one of the areas where marshy soil is widely spread.The area qf marshy soil is over 13,700 km2,about one fourth of the total plain area.Most of the marshy area of Sangjiang Plain belong to the marshy soil without peat accumulation.There is a rom humus horizon(10-20cm thick)between the grass-root and the gley horizon. The marshy soil of Sanjiang Plain may be divided into two great groups, six sub-groups and ten kinds. The textures of most of the marshy soil belong to loam clay—clay.The volume weight of surface stratum is 0.1—0.8 g/cm3.The content of organic matter varies with different sub-groups of marshy soil.The exchangeable cation is about 30—70 m.e/100g,the exchangeable base is 20-40 m.e/100g.The nitrogen content of the marshy soil is sufficient,but contents of phosphorus and potassium are not sufficient;the pH value is 5—7. The marshy soil is a kind of valuable soil resources by which after reclamation,we can develop agriculture,animal husbandry,reed breeding and fertilizermaking,etc.
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    学术活动
    德意志联邦共和国生态环境现状及其保护
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 181-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.181
    摘要   PDF (846KB)
    七十年代以来,西德针对环境保护问题制订和颁布了一系列的法令和法律,并取得了一些进展。如基本上控制了大气和水体的污染,城市中的空气和湖、河等水体,同前几年相比清洁多了;水处理有了显著的进展;DDT 及其他对人体有害化学物质被严禁使用等等。但是像西德这样一个土地面积不大(二十四万九千方公里),人口稠密(六千三百十七万人口,其中一半居住在城市),工业、交通(公路总长达十七万公里,占全国5%的土地面积)发达的国家,对生态环境和动植物资源的保护,还存在严重问题。近三十年来,整个脊椎动物减少了39%,低等羊齿植物—30%,很多野生动植物濒临绝种。自然保护协会为此发表了“红皮书”。绝种现象不仅意味着生物种的灭绝,更重要的是表明生态系统失去了原始自然面貌。
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    捷克斯洛伐克的景观生态研究——中国科学院区域环境研究考察组访捷见闻
    刘安国
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 183-184.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.183
    摘要   PDF (754KB)
    捷克斯洛伐克对“生活环境”有专门的解释和特定的涵义。所谓生活环境,社会科学与自然科学的解释是完全一致的,即指人的生活环境,人所生活并借以满足人的物质和文化需要的所有自然和人工塑造的物质部分的总和。生活环境由工作环境、居住环境和娱乐环境三个部分组成。生活环境从积极或消极两个方面对人类社会施加影响。1971年,捷科学院组建了景观生态研究所。该所是捷科学院的生活环境研究中心,全所分四个研究室:指示生物室、景观综合体自然条件室、人类生态室和工业景观室。五十年代,捷克斯洛伐克就已完成了全国景观要素的分析和景观区划工作。景观生态学是在原有学科领域形成的新生长点或边缘分支学科。过去对景观的理解局限于自然环境要素的组合,主要研究作为自然综合体的景观结构、形态、组成要素之间的相互关系及其地域分异规律。
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    日本的泥炭地概况及芬兰的泥炭考察方法
    文丰
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 185-186.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.185
    摘要   PDF (1199KB)
    应中国科学院邀请,日本东京大学地理系阪口丰教授和芬兰国家地质研究所泥炭学家拉帕拉伊宁(Eino Lappalainen)、杜依迪拉(Helmer Tuittila),分别于1981年8月1日至15日和1981年8月29日至9月23日来我国考察访问。在华期间,与长春地理研究所科研人员共同探讨了有关学术问题,参观了我国有关科研单位和大学,以日本的泥炭地、泥炭地学基础诸问题、芬兰泥炭的野外研究方法等为题进行了学术报告,并在东北和华东等地进行了泥炭沼泽考察。
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    东北片地貌制图与农业地貌区划工作、学术会议简介
    裘善文
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (2): 187-188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.02.187
    摘要   PDF (622KB)
    根据国家农委关于《自然资源调查与农业区划》科研规划及中国科学院关于编制中国1:100万地貌图的分工要求,委托中国科学院长春地理研究所为东北片地貌图与农业地貌区划的牵头单位。并根据1980年杭州地貌制图学术会议纪要关于开展分片学术活动的精神,于1981年9月25日至29日,在长春市召开了东北片地貌制图与农业地貌区划第二次工作、学术讨论会。会议由中国科学院长春地理研究所主持。出席会议的有来自北京、成都、黑龙江、辽宁和吉林等省市的代表共35人。
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  2019-03-04
· 新年贺词
  2018-12-25
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