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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1982年, 第2卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1982-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    论我国水稻的种植上限
    江爱良
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 291-301.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.291
    摘要   PDF (854KB)
    处在横断山区以丽江为代表的水稻区(简称丽江水稻区)是我国水稻种植高度最高的地方。例如丽江县城(北纬26°52′,东经100°26′)附近水稻的种植高度大约是2400米,丽江县的鲁甸及其附近宁蒗县的永宁坝、剑川县的马登坝,维西县的攀天阁以及四川省盐源县的水稻种植高度均可超过2500米。其中宁蒗县永宁坝永宁大队的水稻田到达2660米1)
    Rice cultivation may occur in elevations exceeding 2,500 m in Lijiang and adjacent counties in Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces.In the vicinities of the said county,the upper limit of rice lies in the neighbourhood of 2400m,while a cultivar of the crop,heigu,does complete its life cycle every year at a height of 2,660m in Yongning Ba of Ninglang county.Rice is grown above 2500m both in Madeng Ba of Jianchuan county and Pantianguo of Weixi county in Yunnan, and the same is true of Yienyun county of Sichuan Province. Lijiang and adjacent counties constitute a part of the“Region of Transversal Mountain Ranges”.This is probably the region in which rice production has extended to the highest altitudes in China.Eastward or westward from this region, the cultivation of this crop is restricted to considerably lower elevations. For example,to the west of the“Region of Transversal Mountain Ranges”, a farm in Yigong (2250m,30°19′N,94°51′E) of Bomi county in Xizang had conducted experimentation with rice cultivation for six years from 1970 to 1976 and failed.In no year had the crop produced a yield.In some cases,there might be ears each with one to two or a few mature grains. It has been fairly well established that low temperatures over a period of 15 days or longer (from 10 days before florescence to the end of pollination) are critical to yield formation.Air temperature and sunshine seem to function complementarily for reasons not yet definitely known.In general,if maximum air temperature falls below 23℃ in a sunny day,pollinatlon of many cultivars would not proceed normally.If it rises above 25℃ or 27℃,fertilization of most cultivars will not be adversely affected and is likely to pave the way for normal maturity. The impact of minimum air temperature may also be of some importance.With overcast sky,daily mean air temperature below 20℃ or 21℃ usually casts negetive influence to pollination and maturation.To identify a locality suitable for rice cultivation,it is essential to check whether there exists a period of 15 days or more in which mean maximum temperature exceeds 23℃ or 25℃ with fairly ample sunshine.If data of maximum temperature are not available,mean temperature higher than 21℃ or 20℃ may be taken as an approximate equivalent. although this will give less accurate result. With this general idea in view,analyses of the climatic factors governing the upper limits of rice cultivation in South China have been made. The limit for rice-culivation is not high in regions of the world close to the equator.For instance,rice cultivation in the Philippines almost nowhere exceeds 4300 feet (1312m),the crop is non-existing in places like Baguio (1510m). The possible and economic cultivation limits drop still much lower in innertropical reigons of Indonesia where geoecological conditions do not allow any rice-cultivation above 1500m.The upper limits of rice cultivation in Phillipines and Indonesia are much lower than that of Lijiang.Why? The answer probably lies in the absence of a period of sufficient length with a mean maximum temperature above 25℃ or 27℃ with suitable sunshine and rainfall localities above 1500m in the Philippines and Indonesia because of the long cloud cover and high precipitation. Explanation may also be sought from the low temperature tolerance of different strains.Heigu is the known cultivar most resistant to low temperature stress.The lowest temperature it can tolerate during heading and blossoming is about 4 or 5℃ lower than that of the crop in eastern China. The highest upper limits of rice cultivation in the Transversal Ranges is closely correlated with climatic conditions originated under specific geographic environment of the region.The huge barrier,formed of the great QinghaiXizang Plateau in the north and high mountain ranges 2000-3000m or even higher above sea level in the east,has effectively blocked the influence of cold air advection all the year round.Owing to the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the Transversal Mountain Ranges,most of the areas receive sufficient solar radiation the year round,except the southern and eastern fringes.
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    我国棉花生产合理布局问题
    祝卓
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 302-310.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.302
    摘要   PDF (710KB)
    棉花是我国最主要的经济作物。在各种经济作物中,棉花种植面积约占30%。皮棉又是我国最主要的纺织工业原料。五十年代我国纺织纤维原料中95%以上是棉花,而目前仍占80%。建国以来,党和政府十分重视棉花生产,历来把棉花摆在经济作物第一位,采取一系列鼓励棉花生产的经济技术措施,使棉花生产有了较大发展。从1949年到1980年,植棉面积扩大77.6%,亩产量提高237.96%。1980年棉花产量达到270多万吨,比1949年增加5倍多。但在棉花生产中还有许多问题未能得到很好解决,其中最突出的问题是供需不平衡。
    Cotton is the leading industrial crop and one of the main fibres used as raw materials in the textile industry in China. Cotton producton has made considerable progress in China since the founding of our People’s Republic,but there are great gaps compared with the developing speed and scale of the cotton textile industry and sharp contradictions between its supply and demand,owing to the developing speed of the cotton production is not fast,the field is not stable and its production level is not high. Among the main reasons for creating the situation mentioned above are the reduction of the cotton acreage,the lacking due to the concentration of area of cotton production,the interregional imbalance in the cotton production due to sharp contradiction between production of food crops and that of cotton,the irrational purchasing price for cotton,and overemphasizing of self-support on local supply for civil purposes.Thus,it results in that some old cotton producing zones find themselves difficult to improve their production techniques,and hence their production management remains backward,the unit output drops remarkably,the total yield stagnates and the cotton production as a whole fails to satisfy the needs of the cotton textile industry and cannot meet the requirements for civil purposes. In China,it has favorable conditions for growing cotton.The middle and lower basins of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers and southern Xingiang in particular have perfectly suitable natural cnvironments and great potentiality for getting better achievements. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the principles of making full use of what is advantageous,While avoiding what is disadvantageous,and applying measures to suit local condition and concentrating production properly,in order to win greater development of cotton production in China.Expressed in a bit more detail,we must actively develop new cotton producing zones in addition to improve and expand the existing cotton producing zones,and firmly contract the acreage with poor cotton cultivating condltions,in order to solve the problem of interre gional imbalance in cotton production.
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    我国食管癌典型病区的地理环境分析
    管述奎, 法乃亮
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 311-318.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.311
    摘要   PDF (649KB)
    食管癌是一种发病于人体食管部位(包括贲门)的恶性肿瘤,世界各地发病率(与死亡率相近似)有较大差异,且有地区性集中多发的特点,甚至在世界上存在着断续的带状分布现象。对这种地理分布情况或规律的分析,有助于从地理环境方面探索食管癌病因、发病规律以及预防方法等,对研究食管癌具有重要的实践和理论意义。
    In this paper,we have analysed the factors of the geographical environments, such asgeology,geomorphy,climate,soil,drinking water,and vegetation.The primary results have been obtained as below: In North China,the areas of high incidence rate are located on top of the layer of Permo-carboniferous period.In the coal bed,there is nitrogen which can form nitrosamines,but in the areas of high incedence rate of Sichuan Province, there is no such layer.This is something still should be studied. In the regions of low mountains and hills,and inclined plains,the mortality rates of esophageal cancer are the highest.As one moves away from these regions, the mortality rate will decrease.This variation in mortality rates seems to have some relation with the geomorphic features. These areas of high incidence rate are mostly located at regions of the subarid and subhumid climate which have relatively arid and warm environments (refer to moisture and heat).Taking the northern areas of esophageal cancer in Sichuan Province for instance,it has been found that the farther away from the central region with a high incidence rate of esophageal cancer,the more rainfall and the less arid it is,and the mortality rate of esophageal cancer decreases. In the drinking water and soil in these regions with a high incidence rate, there are nitrites and nitrates which are the precursor compounds of nitrosamines of carcinogenic substance.This phenomenon coincides with the meteorologic conditions of the subarid and subhumid regions and the contents of the trace elements such as molybdenum,copper,manganese,zinc are correspondingly lower than that for areas of low incidence rate.Among these elements,the low content of molybdenum is most obvious. Under the geomorphic features of low mountain and hill regions and the environments of the subarid and subhumid climate,the local masses of these areas of high incidence rate like pickled vegetables ,a local favorite food,This food has been identified that these pickled vegetables cooperated with the action of fungi produce strong carcinogen,
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    以沉积学方法论“北京猿人”生活时期的古气候
    谢又予
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 319-326.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.319
    摘要   PDF (907KB)
    在确定古气候状况方面,生物化石无疑具有重要的作用,而沉积学方法作为一种补充手段,更具有可获得古气候演化序列的连续资料和不受化石丰缺局限的优点。本文采用沉积学方法对“北京猿人”洞穴堆积物进行了综合分析研究,为“猿人”生活时期的古气候研究提供了新的佐证。同时,也使第四纪的研究从晚更新世延伸到中更新世,并赋予了确切的时间标尺。不妥之处,请指正。
    It is often feasible to study paleoclimate by sedimentology means.Its advan tage is that a continual sequence of climate changes can be established without limited by the lack of fossils,etc.However,it must be noted that the method of synthetic analysis should be used and also that some special and efficient methods should be chosen according to specified geologic and geomorphic conditions; not all methods are good for use.For instance,in a limestone area the change of content of calcium carbonate in dispersive state is relating to the bedrock rather than dipending on the climate during deposition.Conversely,when cllcium carbonate is present in cemented state,the degree of weathering and recrystallizing of the calcium Carbonate itself as well as the volume and size of the fragmentary limestone in the deposits,and whether they themselves to be solute or cemented, all these can reflect definite climate environment. From results of various analysis for sediments accumulated in the cave of “Peking Man”,(i.e.the existing state of the calcium carbonate,the clay mineral composition,the index of geochemic,the degree of surface corrosion of quartz sand and the mineral characteristics of the debris in the sediments) six different climate stages can be divided for the period of 800,000 Y.B.P.-230,000 Y.B.P,. and they can fully reflect the changes between cold and warm as well as between arid and humid conditions.Besides,this shows that the monsoon climate had been formed in East China in Mid-Pleistocene.And the climate during pleistocene period in North China roughly corresponds to the present climate in the Huaiho River basin,and sometimes corresponds to the warm temperate zone climate in the Yangtze River basin. The general tendency of the climate change during Mid-Pleistocene was changing from semi-humid warm temperate climate to semi-arid temperate climate. There is not arty trace of glaciation to be found from the analytical results of all sediment samples collecting from the whole stratigraphy section in the cave of “Peking Man”.
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    试论地貌分类问题
    裘善文, 李风华
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 327-335.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.327
    摘要   PDF (2714KB)
    地貌分类是地貌制图的基础,也是地貌学和地貌制图学中重要的理论问题之一。到目前为止,国内、外学者已提出八十多个地貌分类方案,但仍然没有一个比较统一的方案。这说明对地球表面形态和成因各异、种类繁多的地貌进行科学和系统的分类,是一项繁杂而艰巨的工作。
    This article aims at making a comparative study of various schemes of geomorphological classification formulated both at home and abroad.By absorbing their strong points.Such classification is done by means of combining morphology with morphogenesis,taking into account the comprehensive indexes of geomorphological ages.The hierarchy of mountainous relief is classified in accordance with the indexes of the altitude ranging from 5,000m,3,500m to 800m as against the relative height of 200m to 100m.The continental geomorphology of our country is divided into 12 major types or groups and 5 major classes,as shown in the proposed table of geomorphological classification here attached(see Table2),which can be used for geomorphological mapping on different scales.
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    学术活动
    东北三省地理学会第三次学术年会在大连召开
    朱颜明
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 336-336.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.336
    摘要   PDF (243KB)
    东北三省地理学会第三次学术年会于一九八二年八月十一日至十五日在大连市召开。出席会议的代表112名。会议共收到论文115篇,其中包括自然地理36篇、经济地理22篇、地理教育57篇。大多数论文都较好地结合生产实践和地理教学工作。会议除大会发言外,还按专业分组安排学术活动。与会代表就(1)地理科学如何为农业生产服务问题,(2)如何提高地理教学质量问题两个议题进行了热烈地讨论。代表们认为,地理科学为农业服务必须自然地理与经济地理相结合;地理教学应加强电化教学,要加强对学生的爱国主义思想教育。
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    论文
    广西大化水库库区喀斯特地形和渗漏分析
    朱景郊, 林钧枢, 张耀光
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 337-348.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.337
    摘要   PDF (3031KB)
    我国喀斯特分布广泛,类型多样。由于喀斯特地区地下洞穴和廊道纵横交错,地下水分布状况复杂多变,给工农业建设带来一系列问题。1973~1975年期间,作者与广西水电局地质勘测队一起,对拟建的大化水库进行了多次实地调查和现场试验研究,取得了有关该库区喀斯特渗漏的一些认识。大化水库位于都安、马山两县交界处红水河上,枢纽工程全部建成后,将是目前广西最大的水力发电站,对于促进国民经济的发展,无疑会起到较大的作用。
    Dahua Reservoir is cated on the Hongshui River which forms the boundary between Dauan and Mashan Counties.When it has been completed,the reservoir will be the largest hydroelectric station in Guangxi. High temperature,abundant precipitation,massive and pure carbonate rocks, much folding and faulting are the major factors in the karst development of this area.Since the Quaternary Period,the land surface has been uplifted continuously and is now typical of the geomorphological landscape of karst“Fengcong”(peak cluster)and depression. Dolines are widely distributed within the karst depression.Underground water is usually below the level of the cave mouths,although it often emerges from the Caves during the flood season.This phenomenon suggests the possibility that there is an underground river.On the basis of the evidence provided by the distribution of water sinks and the dynamic behaviour of the water level,the water sinks were used to inject fluorescent dyes and coloured lycopodium spores at different times and at possible leakage points.Tracing experiments were conducted six times basically to establish the distribution of flow and the character of the underground river in this area.The results of the observations could be related to the dynamic state of the water level. We concluded that there is no leakage from the reservoir along underground passages as a result of the series of surveys and observations concerning the geological and geomorphological conditions,cave prospecting,long-term observations of underground water slnks,pumping tests,drilling exploration,as well as tracing experiments.This research provided a scientific basis for the construction of the reservoir.
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    综述
    第二代地球资源卫星遥感的特点及其应用问题
    何昌垂
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 349-357.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.349
    摘要   PDF (2862KB)
    在70年代中,以陆地卫星系列为代表的地球资源卫星系统给地学家和制图学家们带来了应用空间影象有效地编制中、小比例尺地形图与各种专题图以希望。这是一代载有工作在各种不同电磁波谱窗口的传感器的试验型卫星。十年的试验说明,这一代卫星数据给地学与生物学等有关领域带来了重大的冲击,并在很大程度上影响了他们进行资源调查和研究的传统作法。然而,对于制图学家来说,这一代卫星遥感数据并没有给他们带来巨大的突破。其原因在于卫星遥感数据发行的不连续性,影象度量特性较差,尤其重要的是缺乏最基本的制图特性——立体特性。此外,影象的空间分辨率较差(79×56平方米),也从根本上限制了这一代卫星遥感数据在编制中、大比例尺地形图和专题图中的使用。
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    问题讨论
    中国景观区划初步研究
    李万
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 358-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.358
    摘要   PDF (2631KB)
    中国的自然区划有着悠久的历史。自春秋战国时代(公元前722~221年)的山海经、禹贡,到一九八○年六月出版的《中国综合自然区划概要》,中间经过了几千年的时间,我国人民对土地进行了多次区划。总起来可分成三个时段:春秋战国时期、半封建半殖民地时期和社会主义时期。
    The significance of landscape regionalization is essentially to epitomize currently known theory of geographical knowledge in addition to classify scientifically according to geographical law.It can,thus,not only reflect the depth of geographical study and the theoretical level of geography of a certain region,but also expose the problems presented in physical data and theory.It would provide basis for developing agriculture in line with local conditions and accelerate the development of regional physical geography. The principle of landscape regionalization of China is that of zonation,and the zonal principle is based on zonal law.The upper limit of landscape (the natural complex of the earth surface) is the top of the biosphere and its lower limit is the bottom of weathering crust.The latitudinal zones,land-sea zones and vertical zones of its distribution on the earth surface are its concrete appearances.Based on this principle,China may be divided into 2“domains”,12“zones”and 44“regions”,in which the units of each level all have relatively identical potential agricultural productive conditions and productivity.
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    研究报导
    1860年长江稀遇洪水及其暴雨前期的气候异常
    汪耀奉
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 368-374.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.368
    摘要   PDF (599KB)
    对连续暴雨或特大暴雨的地域分和和形成规律,以及与前期天气发展过程和各种气候异常关系的研究,70年代后期进展较快。由于观测期这类暴雨出现概率较小,而我国历史洪水资料又十分丰富,因此广泛搜集与分析这些资料具有重要的意义。本文主要探讨长江1860年稀遇洪水及其暴雨前期流域低温多雨雪天气的气候异常。
    This paper introduces the flood of the Yangtze River in the midsummer of 1860 and the abnormal climatic phenomena of extensive areas,long period,low temperature and cold weather before rainstorm. On the 18th of July,1860,at Yichang hydrological station of the upper reaches occured the 92,500 cubic metres per second peak discharge,which was the fifth high since 1153.According to historical documents and carving records on walls,the flood was divided into three periods:rising period,peak period and dropping period;the progress of flood formation and three peak figures during peak flood period recorded in the publication“Dong Hu Xian Zhi”were introduced and described. In early May,1860,there were some striking abnormal climatic phenomena such as snowing extensively and low temperature lasted for a long time in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,raining in some local regions in automn after rainstorm in midsummer,early snowing in winter,and exceptionally serious flood.The author describes the relation between low temperature and cold weather before the early May,and rainstorm and flood in midsummer,from the aspects of climate-earth and earth-climate,and also considers that the former in the occurence process of the latter,and it is the forewarning phenomena reflected by the earth surface. As mentioned above,at the Yangtze River region in 1860,there were continuous low temperature and cold weather,much more precipitation,and continuous and frequent catastrophic rainstorm;all these were scarcely recorded on historical flood documents.
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    三江平原植被类型的研究
    易富科, 李崇皜, 赵魁义, 郑萱凤, 丁守琴
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 375-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.375
    摘要   PDF (3311KB)
    三江平原位于黑龙江省东北部,是由黑龙江、松花江和乌苏里江冲积形成的低平原,总面积约5万平方公里。目前平原大部分土地覆盖着郁郁葱葱的天然植被,其中沼泽化草甸和沼泽植被约占4/5,是我国沼泽化草甸和沼泽植被分布集中的地区之一。丰富的植被资源为三江平原的农、林、牧、副、渔等综合开发提供了有利条件。笔者多年来对三江平原植被类型、分布规律、演替规律和改造利用等进行了调查与研究,本文是研究的部分成果。
    The Sanjiang Plain is situated in the Northeast China,it’s a low alluvial plain formed by three rivers:Songhuajiang,Helongjiang,Wusulijiang.The plain is one of concentrated distribution areas of marshland and swamp meadows in our country. The vegetation type in the Sangjiang Plain is comprised of forest,meadow and swamp vegetation,in which vegetation of swampy meadow and marshland is dominant,about 74% of natural vegetation.This paper introduced the classification system of vegetation and describes the costituent,construction and distribution of all vegetation types there (figures and photographs of main types),and the formation and succession regularity of swamp vegetation as well,finally comprehensive utilization and necservation of reginal vegetation resources.
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    京津市区大气四乙基铅污染状况与分布规律的研究
    孟可, 吴敦虎, 刘景双
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (4): 385-389.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.04.385
    摘要   PDF (2349KB)
    金属铅及其化合物均为有毒物质,广泛应用于冶金、化工、颜料、农药等工业部门,易造成局部污染。因汽车尾气而产生的全球性铅污染,开始于本世纪二十年代初,即美国人 T·Midgley 和 A·Boyd 成功地将四乙基铅用作汽油抗爆剂以后。半个世纪以来,经汽油燃烧排入大气的铅已有数百万吨,成为当今世界令人注目的主要公害之一。
    The gaseous tetraethyl lead in ambient air is collected by enrichment in an active carbon adsorption tube.The macerated lead in concentrated nitric acid is determined by anodic stripping voltammetry.The ambient air of urban area of Beijing and Tianjing cities is observed by this approach.The measured concentrations of tetraethyl lead in local ambient air of the refinery industry district is higher.In Beijing and Tianjin cities,the tetraethyl lead concentrations are:0.1~0.3μg/m3 at gasoline station and parking lot,0.01~0.20μg/m3 in city-street, and 0.005~0.030μg/3 in rural area.The distribution of tetraethyl lead in ambient air of urban area shows some regularity.If in an atmosphere at a distance of 320 meters above the earth surface,and at a night without any motor vehicle to be active,the quantity of tetraethyl lead measured is appropriate it indicates that this alkyl lead compound is possible to reside in the atmosp here for longer time.
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